Madison Avenue” was first used to describe the advertising industry and in which many products are sold because they hold out the promise of a more modern and freer life, filled with exciting opportunities to consumer new products .
Some ads stressed that ordinary Americans could have the same products as the rich and the socially prominent . Others described natural products are superior to artificial products. Many ads for cars and refrigerators treated these products as objects worthy of worship by surrounding them with halos. Invented characters like General Mills' Betty Crocker and Philip Morris's little bellhop, Johnny helped consumers establish a personal connection with a particular product.
Target women as consumers; “shop therapy” invented
Psychologists (behaviorists) used to design campaigns
Patman Bill would have authorized Congress to pay a bonus to WWI vets immediately
The bonus was scheduled to be paid in 1945 --- The Army vets wanted it NOW
43000 marchers, 17000 vets and their families
BONUS ARMY TURNED DOWN Thousands of Bonus Army soldiers protest – Spring 1932 The Bonus Army, their wives and children were driven out with fixed bayonets and adamsite gas, an arsenical vomiting agent, and their shelters and belongings burned.
Southern trees bear a strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, Black body swinging in the Southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. Pastoral scene of the gallant South, The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolia sweet and fresh, And the sudden smell of burning flesh! Here is a fruit for the crows to pluck, For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the sun to rot, for a tree to drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop. Abel Meeropol , performed by Billie Holiday “Strange Fruit” (video footage)
The 1930s created the term “hoboes” to describe poor drifters
300,000 transients – or hoboes – hitched rides around the country on trains and slept under bridges (thousands were teenagers)
Injuries and death was common on railroad property; over 50,000 people were hurt or killed
Dorothea Lange Tramps and hobos are commonly lumped together, but in their own sight they are sharply differentiated. A hobo or bo is simply a migratory laborer; he may take some longish holidays, but soon or late he returns to work. A tramp never works if it can be avoided; he simply travels. Lower than either is the bum , who neither works nor travels, save when impelled to motion by the police.