Geography of the Middle East

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Geography of the Middle East

  1. 1. <ul><li>Please copy these questions in your notebook, leaving HALF A PAGE for each response. Save a little extra room for question #3! </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Questions : Geography of the Middle East   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Why is the Middle East such a strategic location ? </li></ul><ul><li>2.  How do water resources in the Middle East promote both conflict and cooperation in the region?  </li></ul><ul><li>3.  How do the major geographic features of the Middle East dictate settlement patterns and population density ? </li></ul><ul><li>4.  How have humans changed their environment in order to suit their needs? </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Geography of the Middle East
  3. 3. Middle East? OR Near East? OR Southwest Asia? OR….?
  4. 4. Crossroads of Continents: connects Europe, Africa and Asia Africa Europe Asia
  5. 5. The Natural Resources of the Middle East
  6. 6. World Oil Reserves Persian Gulf Oil Exports (2003)
  7. 7. 1.  Why is the Middle East such a strategic location ? <ul><li>Crossroads of 3 continents </li></ul><ul><li>Natural trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>65% of the world’s known oil reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Religious importance </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. How do water resources in the Middle East promote both conflict and cooperation in the region? <ul><li>Water is scarce ; a precious resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict – some countries control other countries’ water supplies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ie. Turkey, Iraq; Israel, Palestinian territories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperation – countries work together to build dams, irrigation projects </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fresh Groundwater Sources
  10. 10. 3.  How do the major geographic features of the Middle East dictate settlement patterns and population density ? Major Geographic Regions of the Middle East <ul><li>Northern Tier (Turkey, Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>Arabian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Nile Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><li>Maghreb (Northern Africa) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Middle East: Population Density
  12. 12. The Arabian Peninsula is mostly desert
  13. 13. Rub al-Khali: “ The Empty Quarter - large desert in Saudi Arabia, virtually uninhabited
  14. 14. Desert Oases: Water at a Premium! Oasis is a place where water comes to the surface in desert area.
  15. 15. The Mighty Nile River: “Longest River in the World”
  16. 16. *The Nile and its tributaries flow though nine countries.
  17. 17. The Nile River flows South to North, where accumulation of sediment forms a delta.
  18. 18. Egypt: The “Gift of the Nile” Annual Nile Flooding Nile Delta 95% of the Egyptian people live on 5% of the land!
  19. 19. Nile Delta <ul><li>Most densely populated area in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Regular flooding left behind silt – thick black soil, ideal for farming </li></ul><ul><li>TODAY – silt is caught behind dam, leaving little for farming in the delta </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Fertile Crescent
  21. 21. The Fertile Crescent <ul><li>Mesopotamia - “land between the rivers.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Many different civilizations developed in this small region because it is HIGHLY strategic and coveted </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding of rivers produced fertile soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today - Iraq </li></ul></ul>Mesopotamia: “Land Between the Two Rivers” Marsh Arabs, So. Iraq
  22. 22. Dust Storms Along the Tigris-Euphrates Flood Plains
  23. 23. The Jordan River System: Israel & Jordan--A Fight Over Water Rights?
  24. 24. Dead Sea: Lowest Point on Earth Highest Salt Content (35%) 1,360’ below sea level
  25. 25. Dead Sea Floater <ul><li>Lowest point on Earth- 1,360 feet below sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Saltiest water in the world </li></ul><ul><li>You float in its waters! </li></ul><ul><li>Average of 330 days of full sunshine a year </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Middle East vs. the U. S. Latitude Lines
  27. 27. Middle East: Climate Regions
  28. 28. Middle East: Population Density
  29. 29. Cairo, Egypt: Most Populated City in the Middle East 17,000,000+ People!
  30. 30. 4. How have humans changed their environment in order to suit their needs? <ul><li>ASWAN HIGH DAM - on the Nile River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents flooding, Controls irrigation, Can plant 3 crops instead of only 1 a year, Hydroelectric power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New layer of fertile soil no longer deposited by annual flood, must use fertilizers, Very expensive, New soil not added to Delta, which causes erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to transport goods </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Aswan High Dam, Egypt Hydroelectric Power Plant The Dam wall is 365 feet high Created artificial lake- Lake Nasser, which covers 300 miles
  32. 32. Sinai Peninsula located between Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula
  33. 33. Suez Canal Completed by the British in 1869
  34. 34. Suez Canal <ul><li>*The 101-mile waterway connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>* The Suez Canal is used to transport goods to and from all three continents. </li></ul>
  35. 35. To what extent does the United States rely on the Middle East for its oil consumption?  How do you think this dependence affects our relationship with oil producing countries? The U. S. imports 30% of its oil needs from the Middle East.
  36. 36. Kuwait: An Island Floating on a Sea of Oil Kuwait City
  37. 37. Saudi Oil Fields & Refineries
  38. 38. The Middle East: Natural Vegetation
  39. 39. Completed Map  Tigris River Nile River  Euphrates River  Jordan River  Persian Gulf Arabian Sea Mediterranean Sea Indian Ocean Red Sea Black Sea  Gulf of Aden Strait of  Hormuz Suez Canal  Dardanelles Strait  Atlantic Ocean  Gulf of Oman Caspian Sea Arabian Desert Negev Desert Sinai Desert Rub al-Khali  Atlas Mts.  Elburz Mts. Taurus Mts.  Zagros Mts. Iranian Plateau Anatolian Plateau Caucasus Mts. Hejaz Mts. Sahara Desert Libyan Desert
  40. 40. <ul><li>Answer the 5 essential questions using 5 SPECIFIC details/examples from the PowerPoint and/or the web to support your answer. </li></ul>

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