Closing the American Frontier The frontier," Turner claimed, "is the line of most rapid Americanization." The presence and predominance of numerous cultural traits -- "that coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness; that practical inventive turn of mind, quick to find expedients; that masterful grasp of material things... that restless, nervous energy; that dominant individualism "
How was America’s expansion overseas similar to previous continental expansion westward, and how was it different?
West Similar Overseas
Empire and Expansion
Explain why the United States suddenly abandoned its isolationism and turned outward at the end of the nineteenth century.
Describe the forces pushing for American overseas expansion, and the causes of the Spanish-American War.
Describe and explain the unintended results of the Spanish-American War, especially the conquest of Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
Explain McKinley’s decision to keep the Philippines, and list the opposing arguments in the debate about imperialism.
Analyze the consequences of the Spanish-American War, including the Filipino rebellion against U.S. rule and the war to suppress it.
Explain the growing U.S. involvement in East Asia, and summarize America’s “Open Door” policy toward China.
Discuss the significance of the “pro-imperialist” Republican victory in 1900 and the rise of Theodore Roosevelt as a strong advocate of American power in international affairs.
Describe Roosevelt’s assertive polities in Panama and elsewhere in Latin America, and explain why his “corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine aroused such controversy.
Discuss Roosevelt’s foreign policies and diplomatic achievements, especially regarding Japan.
Who were the major world powers in the late 19th century?
Imperialism - control by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region Motives 1. Commercial/business interests - new markets and raw materials 2. Military/strategic interests - Security/dominance in the Western Hemisphere 3. Belief in cultural superiority/missionary zeal - Social Darwinist thinking; religious/missionary interests; “civilizing mission” America becomes an Empire
1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
Blaine’s “Big Sister” policy
Open Latin American markets to U.S. traders
Pan-American Conference (’89)
2. Military/Strategic Interests Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History: 1660-1783
Read Mahan and argued strenuously in Congress for empire building
Imperialist bloc in Congress
Wants Greenland, Cuba, Hawaii, etc.
Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge “ As one of the great nations . . . The U.S. must not fall out of line” (1895)
U. S. Interventions in Latin America: 1898-1920s
3. Belief in Cultural Superiority The White Man’s Burden The Hierarchy of Race
Take up the White Man's burden- -
Send forth the best ye breed--
Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild--
Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child .
~ Rudyard Kipling
“ Our Country...” – Whose country?
Rev. Josiah Strong (1885)
“ Anglo-Saxons are the fittest to survive”
Duty to save souls
American Missionaries in China, 1905
Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific" Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
How did the U.S. view Hawaiians? Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii was reduced to 17% of its original native population because of disease. American sugar planters imported Chinese and Japanese laborers in such large numbers that Hawaiians became outnumbered! Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
1893 – American businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani.
Sanford Ballard Dole - proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1894.
What events expedited the annexation of Hawaii in 1898? What is the justification used for annexation?
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898 Statehood - 1959
Why was the US interested in Cuban affairs?
The Spanish American War (What about the Cubans??)
Motivations for US involvement:
Spain’s violation of the Monroe Doctrine
Sympathy for Cubans
Millions in sugar and fruit investments
Gomez strategy – bring Cuban economy to a standstill to hurt Spain
Scorched Earth tactic : burn the sugar plantations, halt production,
Americans identify with Cuban struggle for independence from Spain ( Cuba libre !)
“ Romantic” notion
SYMPATHY for the Cuban cause Jose Marti
“ Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Frederick Remington: “ You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!” William Randolph Hearst The “yellow kid”
Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy
Reconcentrado order = martial law
De Lôme Letter
Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.
Published by Hearst
Criticized President McKinley as weak
“ a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.”
“ Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!” Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
“ The warship Maine was split in two by an enemy’s secret infernal machine.” ~ The Journal Hearst’s paper offered a $50,000 reward! ($1,167,963 today)
McKinley v. Congress
McKinley – wanted ceasefire, but no ind. Cuba
Congress – supported Cuba Libre, no annexation
Teller Amendment to the war resolution (1898)
“ beet sugar states” – needed ind. Cuba so tariff could be applied
US would secure “stable” self-government in Cuba; wouldn’t interfere with sovereignty ; occupied Cuba until 1902
No explicit recognition of Cuban ind.
The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War”
Assistant Sec. the Navy
Criticized McKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair!
Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
Dewey Captures Manila! “ The very devil seemed to possess him!” Emilio Aguinaldo
The “Rough Riders”
Deadliest Warrior: TR v. Lawrence of Arabia
Historiography of 1898
The purpose of telling the story of 1898, for Americans, was to affirm their place on the world stage; their “coming out”
1800s – N and S had interests in Cuba; “NO TRANSFER” policy
War was deliberate with goal of securing US interests, NOT Cuban independence ( Cuba Libre! )
Maine explosion NOT precipitant of conflict
“ war fever exaggerated,” can’t be proved, if anything McKinley admin was ignorant of public opinion
Cubans left out of American accounts – ie. Santiago de Cuba – WHY??
The Treaty of Paris: 1898
Cuba - freed from Spanish rule.
US gains Puerto Rico & Guam
U. S. paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines.
The U. S. becomes an imperial power!
A picture of a “water detail,” reportedly taken in May, 1901, in Sual, the Philippines. “It is a terrible torture,” one soldier wrote.
William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines
Is He To Be a Despot?
The American Anti-Imperialist League
Founded in 1899.
Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan.
Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines (almost won) and other acts of imperialism.
Opposing Viewpoints: White Man’s Burden Rebuttal Poems
What was "the white man's burden"?
Overall, how does Kipling’s use of imagery and metaphors convey his message?
What are the principle values conveyed in the poem?
What does he mean when he predicts that Americans will reap, “the blame of those ye better?”
What values expressed in the poem may have tipped the balance in favor of the Treaty of Paris of 1898?
“Take Up the Black Man’s Burden”
“Home Burdens of Uncle Sam”
“What Is The White Man’s Burden?”
What actions does the poem advocate?
From what perspective was it written?
Describe the tone of the poem.
How does this poem differ from Kipling’s in terms of its visions of American society?
Imperialism = hostile to liberty
Violation of “consent of the governed” ( Dec. of Indep.)
Despotism abroad might lead to despotism at home
Annexation would propel the US into the political and military cauldron of the Far East
The Filipinos wanted freedom, not colonial rule
Destruction of American ideals; “un-American;” problems at home
The Cares of a Growing Family
Becoming a World Power
At the turn of the 20 th century, how was the United States shaping its relationship with these countries/regions?
Philippines (not only the rebellion, but governance there as well)
Latin America (the region as a whole; consider the situation in Panama especially)
Use your terms/objectives to complete your group poster.
DILEMMA--Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??
Puerto Rico: 1898
1900 - Foraker Act .
PR became an “unincorporated territory.”
Citizens of PR, not of the US.
Import duties on PR goods
1901-1903 the Insular Cases .
Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.
Congress had the power to decide these rights.
Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!
1917 – Jones Act
full territorial status to PR.
no tariffs on PR goods coming into the US.
PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws.
PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections.
A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.
Teller Amendment (1898)
Platt Amendment (1903)
Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence.
The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt.
Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station.
Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt.
Cuban Independence? Senator Orville Platt
Our “Sphere of Influence”
Results of the Spanish American War
Affirmed U.S. presence as world power
More respect from European powers
Brought together North and South
“ navyism” (Mahan)
Philippines becomes “Achilles heel”
Was the taking of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines really a violation of fundamental American ideals of self government and democracy?
Why was the Philippine American War such a brutal affair, and why is it not as well remembered as the less costly Spanish American War?
Stereotypes of the Chinese Immigrant Oriental [Chinese] Exclusion Act, 1887
Inroads to China
The Boxer Rebellion: 1900
Society of Harmonious Fists
Revolt against foreigners
Multi-national force breaks rebellion (first time US troops set foot on Asian soil)
The Open Door Policy
Secretary John Hay
Open access to Chinese ports
No special privileges
Maintenance of Chinese independence
Nine Power Treaty (1922) – territorial and commercial integrity of China
The Open Door Policy
“ Mr. Bryan in 1899—‘I stand just where I stood three years ago!’” undated William Jennings Bryan Campaigning for the Presidency, 1896 William Jennings Bryan is shown staring through the White House fence contemplating a second run for President. On October 20, 1899, Bryan announced that during his 1896 campaign he stood for free silver at a ratio of 16-1 and asserted that “I stand today where I stood then.” This cartoon plays on those words: Bryan, who had lost the 1896 election, is standing in the same place—outside the gates of the White House looking in. Berryman’s cartoon proved prophetic—Bryan lost the Presidential election in 1900. U.S. Senate Collection Center for Legislative Archives Williams Jennings Bryan: the Perpetual Candidate
Imperialism or “Bryanism”? Bryan’s campaign emphasized the injustice of American imperialism McKinley’s campaign focused on prosperity and expansion of “civilization”
Election of 1900 * NM, OK, AZ – territories Political Party Presidential Nom. VP Nom. # % # % Republican William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt 292 65.3 7,219,193 51.7 Democratic William Jennings Bryan Adlai E. Stevenson 155 34.7 6,357,698 45.5
Panama: The King’s Crown
1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty – w/ GB – forbade construction of canal
Philippe Bunau-Varilla – incited rebellion to push sale to US
1903 Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty – secured Panamanian zone for US
Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .
“ preventive intervention”
TR didn’t want European countries acting as debt collectors to LA countries
U.S. would take over, pay off debts
“ Bad Neighbor Policy”?
Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick! Did Roosevelt more often “speak softly” or use the “big stick”? Was his approach to foreign policy aggressive or simply energetic?
Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905 Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy
TR – US needed Russia as counter-weight to Japanese empire’s growth
Treaty – we lose allies!
Russia – US stole their chance @ military victory
Japan – didn’t get territory they wanted; rivalry in Pacific begins
Gentlemen’s Agreement: 1908
In response to “yellow peril” and segregation of Asian students in San Fran schools
Japanese agreed to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S.
Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries.
U.S. govt got San Fran school board to rescind their order to segregate
Root-Takahira Agreement: 1908
A pledge to maintain the status quo in the Far East.
Recognition of China’s independence and territorial integrity, and support for continuation of the Open-Door Policy.
An agreement to mutual consultation in the event of future Far Eastern crises.
The Great White Fleet: 1907
Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1912
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. (R-MA)
Non-European powers, like Japan, would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere.
America as a Pacific Power
America's New Role
Constable of the World
"For Americans, Acts 16:9 is the high-fructose corn syrup of Bible verses—an all-purpose ingredient we’ll stir into everything from the ink on the Marshall Plan to canisters of Agent Orange. Our greatest goodness and our worst impulses come out of this missionary zeal, contributing to our overbearing (yet not entirely unwarranted) sense of our country as an inherently helpful force in the world. And, as with the apostle Paul, the notion that strangers want our help is sometimes a delusion."
- Sarah Vowell, Unfamiliar Fishes
Howard Zinn “Empire or Humanity?”
Is America an “empire”? How do we, as Americans, define empire?
How would Zinn respond to Turner’s thesis??
What do you think of Zinn’s approach? Does he present a persuasive argument for the existence of an American empire?
How would T.R. respond to Zinn?
Your reaction to his assessment of 9/11?
Is Zinn’s argument outdated given more recent changes in U.S. foreign policy during the Obama administration?
Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”
Improve financial opportunities for American businesses.
Use private capital to further U. S. interests overseas.
Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests.
The Mexican Revolution: 1910s
Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.
Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.
The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.
Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.
The Mexican Revolution: 1910s Emiliano Zapata Francisco I Madero Venustiano Carranza Porfirio Diaz Pancho Villa
Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”
The U. S. should be the conscience of the world.
Searching for Banditos General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in 1914.
U. S. Global Investments & Investments in Latin America, 1914