Closing the American Frontier The frontier," he claimed, "is the line of most rapid Americanization." The presence and predominance of numerous cultural traits -- "that coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and acquisitiveness; that practical inventive turn of mind, quick to find expedients; that masterful grasp of material things... that restless, nervous energy; that dominant individualism"
Explain the growing U.S. involvement in East Asia, and summarize America’s “Open Door” policy toward China.
Discuss the significance of the “pro-imperialist” Republican victory in 1900 and the rise of Theodore Roosevelt as a strong advocate of American power in international affairs.
Describe Roosevelt’s assertive polities in Panama and elsewhere in Latin America, and explain why his “corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine aroused such controversy.
Discuss Roosevelt’s foreign policies and diplomatic achievements, especially regarding Japan.
Who were the major world powers in the late 19th century?
Imperialism - control by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region Motives 1. Commercial/business interests - new markets and raw materials 2. Military/strategic interests - Security/dominance in the Western Hemisphere 3. Belief in cultural superiority/missionary zeal - Social Darwinist thinking; religious/missionary interests; “civilizing mission” America becomes an Empire
1. Commercial/Business Interests U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908
Hawaii: "Crossroads of the Pacific" Imiola Church – first built in the late 1820s
How did the U.S. view Hawaiians? Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849 by virtue of economic treaties.
Queen Liliuokalani Hawaii was reduced to 17% of its original native population because of disease. American sugar planters imported Chinese and Japanese laborers in such large numbers that Hawaiians became outnumbered! Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
Criticized President McKinley as weak “and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.”
“ Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!” Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
“ The warship Maine was split in two by an enemy’s secret infernal machine.” ~ The Journal Hearst’s paper offered a $50,000 reward! ($1,167,963 today)
“ Mr. Bryan in 1899—‘I stand just where I stood three years ago!’” undated William Jennings Bryan Campaigning for the Presidency, 1896 William Jennings Bryan is shown staring through the White House fence contemplating a second run for President. On October 20, 1899, Bryan announced that during his 1896 campaign he stood for free silver at a ratio of 16-1 and asserted that “I stand today where I stood then.” This cartoon plays on those words: Bryan, who had lost the 1896 election, is standing in the same place—outside the gates of the White House looking in. Berryman’s cartoon proved prophetic—Bryan lost the Presidential election in 1900. U.S. Senate Collection Center for Legislative Archives Williams Jennings Bryan: the Perpetual Candidate
Imperialism or “Bryanism”? Bryan’s campaign emphasized the injustice of American imperialism McKinley’s campaign focused on prosperity and expansion of “civilization”
Election of 1900 * NM, OK, AZ – territories Political Party Presidential Nom. VP Nom. # % # % Republican William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt 292 65.3 7,219,193 51.7 Democratic William Jennings Bryan Adlai E. Stevenson 155 34.7 6,357,698 45.5
Philippe Bunau-Varilla – incited rebellion to push sale to US
1903 Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty – secured Panamanian zone for US
Panama Canal TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: 1905 Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power .