Chinese Belief Systems

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  • Chinese Belief Systems

    1. 1. Ancient Chinese Belief Systems 05/31/11
    2. 2. The Warring States Period <ul><li>Warlords ruled </li></ul><ul><li>Each Chinese state attempted to dominate the others </li></ul>CHAOS 476BC-221BC
    3. 3. <ul><li>Period of Warring States led people to ask… </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is the Basis for an Enduring and Stable Society?” </li></ul><ul><li>Several philosophers felt THEY had the answer to this question… </li></ul>
    4. 4. Zhou Dynasty ERA of PHILOSOPHY <ul><li>The “axis age” (pivotal) </li></ul><ul><li>China found its balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taoism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legalism </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Kung Fuzi or “Kung the Teacher” </li></ul><ul><li>only effective system of government = set </li></ul><ul><li>relationships for each indiv. </li></ul><ul><li>Moral order </li></ul><ul><li>society needed to be governed by Li , or virtuous behavior ( respect , kindness, honesty, hard work, generosity) </li></ul>
    6. 6. 1. Ruler Subject 2. Father Son 3. Husband Wife 4. Older Brother Younger Brother 5. Friend Friend 5 Principle Relationships
    7. 7. Differences in Cultures INDIA 1. Brahmin CHINA 1. Scholar-Gentry 2. Kshatriyas 2. Peasants 3. Vaishyas 4. Sudras 3. Artisans 4. Merchants Untouchables Soldiers Imperial Nobility Domestic Slaves
    8. 8. The Key: <ul><li>Filial Piety – Being devoted to one’s parents (family) at all times </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Jen — “Humanity”, “Being Human” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chun TZU— The Humane Person or “Superior Man” </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Mencius </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodox Confucianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>man, by nature = good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a ruler could not govern without the people's consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>penalty for despotic rule was the loss of the &quot;mandate of heaven&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. MANDATE OF HEAVEN <ul><li>Emperor = “son of heaven” </li></ul><ul><li>held the Mandate of Heaven as long as he was virtuous. </li></ul>The Temple of Heaven
    11. 12. Legalism : Man and Law and Order
    12. 13. Key Beliefs <ul><li>Human nature = selfish, deceitful </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectualism and literacy discouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh, strict rules </li></ul><ul><li>Law replaces morality </li></ul><ul><li>ruler possesses power… NOT the people </li></ul>Han Fei – 200 BC
    13. 14. FOCUS: Man’s relationship with his environment (not society) Taoism Lao Zi - founder
    14. 15. Beliefs <ul><li>Dao= the “way”; force that flows through all life. </li></ul><ul><li>Society does not need rules </li></ul><ul><li>Watch/listen to nature as a guide for how to live </li></ul><ul><li>Love, moderation and contentment </li></ul>
    15. 16. Yin <ul><li>Masculine </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Heaven; Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Cold </li></ul><ul><li>Weak </li></ul><ul><li>Earth; Moon </li></ul>The Universe of Opposites: Find the Balance! Yang
    16. 17. The Uniqueness of Daoism How is a man to live in a world dominated by chaos, suffering, and absurdity?? Confucianism --> Moral order in society. Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order. Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity.
    17. 18. What's Your Philosophy of Life?
    18. 19. Explain…
    19. 20. <ul><li>P’u: Pooh is the “uncarved block” </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Read the article </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>WHO ARE YOU? </li></ul>Tao of Pooh
    20. 21. Taoist Philosophy From “Winnie the Pooh” A clever mind is not a heart. &quot;Rabbit's clever,&quot; said Pooh thoughtfully. &quot;Yes,&quot; said Piglet. &quot;Rabbit's clever.&quot; &quot;And he has Brain.&quot; &quot;Yes,&quot; said Piglet, &quot;Rabbit has Brain.&quot; There was a long silence. &quot;I suppose,&quot; said Pooh, &quot;that that's why he never understands anything.&quot; There is more to knowing than just being correct. &quot;Lot's of people talk to animals,&quot; said Pooh. &quot;Maybe, but...&quot; &quot;Not very many listen , though,&quot; he said. &quot;That's the problem,&quot; he added. The wise know their limitations; the foolish do not. Roo and Tigger were walking along the forest one morning, and Tigger was talking about all the things that Tiggers can do.... &quot;I can swim,&quot; said Roo. &quot;I fell into the river, and I swimmed. Can Tiggers swim?&quot; &quot;Of course they can. Tiggers can do everything.“ &quot;Can they climb trees better than Pooh?&quot; asked Roo, stopping under the tallest Pine Tree, and looking up at it. &quot;Climbing trees is what they do best,&quot; said Tigger. &quot;Much better than Poohs.&quot; And the next thing they knew, they were stuck in the tallest pine tree.
    21. 22. Who Are You? Life is Fun doesn't know his limitations Knowledge for the sake of Complaining About Something Knowledge for the sake of Appearing Wise Knowledge of Being Clever
    22. 23. “Healing and the Mind: the Mystery of Chi”
    23. 24. Pre Class: According to the 3 Chinese philosophers we studied, how is a stable society created and maintained? 05/31/11
    24. 25. Who said it?? <ul><li>Make TWO COLUMNS in your notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Read each quote and write which philosopher you think made the statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lao Tzu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Han Feizi </li></ul></ul>Who Said It? Why?
    25. 26. <ul><li>“ Make it your guiding principle to do your best for others and to be trustworthy in what you say. Do not accept as friend anyone who is not as good as you. When you make a mistake do not be afraid of mending your ways.” </li></ul>
    26. 27. <ul><li>“ the nature of man is evil. His goodness is acquired.” </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>“ Nature does not hurry, yet everything is accomplished.” </li></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>“ Let the ruler be a ruler, the subject a subject, the father a father, the son a son.” &quot;Truly if the ruler be not a ruler, the subject not a subject, the father not a father, the son not a son, then even if there be grain, would I get to eat it?” </li></ul>
    29. 30. <ul><li>&quot;Without going out-of-doors, one can know all he needs to know. Without even looking out of his window, one can grasp the nature of everything. Without going beyond his own nature, one can achieve ultimate wisdom. Therefore, the intelligent man knows all he needs to know without going away, And sees all he needs to see without looking elsewhere, And does all he needs to do without undue exertion.&quot; </li></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><li>&quot;I am the owner of my karma . I inherit my karma. I am born of my karma. I am related to my karma. I live supported by my karma. Whatever karma I create, whether good or evil, that I shall inherit.&quot; </li></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><li>The more laws and order are made prominent, the more thieves and robbers there will be. </li></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>“ When your parents are alive, you should not go too far afield in your travels. If you do, your whereabouts should always be known.” </li></ul>
    33. 34. <ul><li>A bodhisattva surrenders everything to enter the fortress of nirvana. One must eventually give up this life; why not give to all living beings. </li></ul>
    34. 35. <ul><li>http://www.globaled.org/chinaproject/confucian/quotes1.html </li></ul>
    35. 36. <ul><li>Philosophy has become way of life in China: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REN—benevolence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LI—ritual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family, honesty, loyalty, hard-work, education </li></ul></ul>

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