Essential Question:
How did events during/after WWI
create conflicting views regarding
the fate of Palestine in the early ...
Pre Class
•What was the most
difficult part about
developing your
partition plan?
•Look at the maps in
your packet. If you...
The PartitionThe Partition
Plan…Plan…
• The territory of Palestine should be
divided as follows:
• A Jewish State covering...
The partition plan also laid down:
• A guarantee of the rights of minorities and
religious rights, including free access t...
• Jews –
accept
the plan
• Arabs –
reject it
Why?
11stst
Arab Israeli War :Arab Israeli War :
“The War of Independence” (Jews)“The War of Independence” (Jews)
“The Catastro...
Israel Becomes a Nation:
May 14, 1948
David Ben-Gurion,
1st
Prime Minister
Chaim Weizmann,
1st
President
War Begins!: May 15, 1948
Why do youWhy do you
think Israelthink Israel
was able towas able to
hold off these,hold off the...
• Israel outnumbered,
but wins, gains
territory
• forces its neighbors to
sign a series of
armistices
– created the
intern...
Palestinians fleeing their homes in 1948.
Nakba, the Palestinian Catastrophe (1948)
The war cont’d…The war cont’d…
• 700,000 Arab refugees (people who flee
their homeland to seek refuge elsewhere).
• Palest...
Superpower InvolvementSuperpower Involvement
• US – has always firmly backed Israel
– Military and economic aid
• Former S...
Pre ClassPre Class
• What important event in Israel’s history
happened in 1948?
• What was the reaction in the Arab world?...
Suez War - 1956Suez War - 1956
• Israel, Britain and France
attacked Egypt after
Nassar nationalized (took
over) the Suez ...
Israeli troops preparing for combat in the Sinai peninsula.
““Six Day War” - 1967Six Day War” - 1967
• Israel made major territorial
gains
– Sinai Peninsula, Gaza
Strip from Egyptian...
Creation of the PLOCreation of the PLO
• Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
– Palestinians were living in refugee c...
1972 – Munich Olympics1972 – Munich Olympics
Yom Kippur WarYom Kippur War
- 1973- 1973
• Syria and Egypt
attacked Israel in
an attempt to
regain lands they
lost during...
1973 – Arab Oil Embargo1973 – Arab Oil Embargo
•Arab response to US
support of Israel in
Yom Kippur War
•impact on US
•Hig...
The first signs that all was not well with Detroit was the 1973 oil crisis, when Middle East producers declared a boycott....
Camp David Accords - 1978Camp David Accords - 1978
• Israel (Menachum
Begin) & Egypt
(Anwar Sadat)
– U.S. (President Jimmy...
Intifada - 1987Intifada - 1987
• “intifada” means “shaking off” (Arabic)
• Palestinian uprising
• Frustration with Israeli...
• Life inside Hebron’s isolated Jewish enclave: an Israeli
soldier stands guard as a settler’s baby crawls by in
1997. Und...
• As is often the case in areas of conflict, young boys learn early to
emulate the defiance of their fathers, while mother...
• Rubber bullets, while not as deadly as the real thing, do
kill and maim if they hit the right target. This boy — lucky
n...
• While conflict rages, the United Nations tries to keep food flowing to the
elderly and helpless in the sprawling refugee...
• The village of Fahme on the West Bank is home
to the intifada’s outcasts: the families of
Palestinians who work for Isra...
Early 1990s – Peace is DifficultEarly 1990s – Peace is Difficult
• During the Intifada – some Palestinians joined
undergro...
Oslo Accords - 1993Oslo Accords - 1993
• Israel and PLO met in
Oslo, Norway
• Agreed to recognize
each other
• Israel – wi...
Recent Attempts at PeaceRecent Attempts at Peace
• 2000 - Camp David – Pres. Bill Clinton, Yassir
Afarat (Palestinian Auth...
UnresolvedUnresolved IssuesIssues
1. Jerusalem
– Capital of Israel
– E. Jerusalem – Palestinians outnumber Jews –
Palestin...
Israel West Bank Gaza Strip Total
Jews 5,137,8001
255,6001
01
5,393,4001
Arabs 1,439,7001
2,460,4922
1,428,7572
5,328,949
WHY IS PEACE SOWHY IS PEACE SO
DIFFICULT??DIFFICULT??
This is a conflict over LAND,
fueled by RELIGION -
BOTH SIDES BELIEV...
• Israeli Prime Minister - Ehud Olmert
• Palestinian National Authority – set up
after Oslo Accords to provide security an...
Return of ViolenceReturn of Violence
• 1994 – Israel and Jordan sign peace agreement
• Israel and PLO – peace talks stalle...
Two Perspectives…Two Perspectives…
As either an Israeli or Palestinian, write a
paragraph in which you describe your
feeli...
The Arab Israeli ConflictThe Arab Israeli Conflict
Then and NowThen and Now
Origins of the Conflict
Write a paragraph that...
Arab-Israeli Timeline AssignmentArab-Israeli Timeline Assignment
• Sample Timeline (made using timetoast)
• Please, email ...
• What transpires is inspiring; they find
that what divides them is secondary to
what unites them as human beings,
and the...
Arab Israeli Conflict
Arab Israeli Conflict
Arab Israeli Conflict
Arab Israeli Conflict
Arab Israeli Conflict
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  • The reasons they left are still hotly disputed: the official Israeli view is that the Palestinians themselves chose to leave the Jewish state, while Palestinians say they were terrorised into abandoning their homes.
  • Arab Israeli Conflict

    1. 1. Essential Question: How did events during/after WWI create conflicting views regarding the fate of Palestine in the early 20th century?
    2. 2. Pre Class •What was the most difficult part about developing your partition plan? •Look at the maps in your packet. If you were a Jew in Palestine in 1947, would you support this UN Partition Plan? A Palestinian? Explain.
    3. 3. The PartitionThe Partition Plan…Plan… • The territory of Palestine should be divided as follows: • A Jewish State covering 56.47% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem) with a population of 498,000 Jews and 325,000 Arabs; • An Arab State covering 43.53% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem), with 807,000 Arab inhabitants and 10,000 Jewish inhabitants; • An international trusteeship regime in Jerusalem, where the population was 100,000 Jews and 105,000 Arabs.
    4. 4. The partition plan also laid down: • A guarantee of the rights of minorities and religious rights, including free access to and the preservation of Holy Places; • A constitution of an Economic Union between the two states: custom union, joint monetary system, joint administration of main services, equal access to water and energy resources.
    5. 5. • Jews – accept the plan • Arabs – reject it Why?
    6. 6. 11stst Arab Israeli War :Arab Israeli War : “The War of Independence” (Jews)“The War of Independence” (Jews) “The Catastrophe” (Arabs)“The Catastrophe” (Arabs) • British leave Palestine; Israel is surrounded by hostile Arab nations • Israel declares its independence (1948) • The next day armies from surrounding Arab countries invade Israel
    7. 7. Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 David Ben-Gurion, 1st Prime Minister Chaim Weizmann, 1st President
    8. 8. War Begins!: May 15, 1948 Why do youWhy do you think Israelthink Israel was able towas able to hold off these,hold off these, as well asas well as subsequent,subsequent, invasions??invasions??
    9. 9. • Israel outnumbered, but wins, gains territory • forces its neighbors to sign a series of armistices – created the internationally recognized borders of Israel (over 78% of what was Palestine)
    10. 10. Palestinians fleeing their homes in 1948.
    11. 11. Nakba, the Palestinian Catastrophe (1948)
    12. 12. The war cont’d…The war cont’d… • 700,000 Arab refugees (people who flee their homeland to seek refuge elsewhere). • Palestinian Arabs resented leaving what they believed to be their land and neighboring Middle East governments resented having the Palestinians within their borders. • Tensions will heighten again in the 1960s.
    13. 13. Superpower InvolvementSuperpower Involvement • US – has always firmly backed Israel – Military and economic aid • Former Soviet Union – provided arms to Arab countries (Syria, Iraq and Egypt) • How did this involvement FUEL the Arab Israeli conflict?? – US and SU rearmed their allies in the Middle East after each war
    14. 14. Pre ClassPre Class • What important event in Israel’s history happened in 1948? • What was the reaction in the Arab world? • Explain how this one event is remembered very differently by the Israelis and Arabs.
    15. 15. Suez War - 1956Suez War - 1956 • Israel, Britain and France attacked Egypt after Nassar nationalized (took over) the Suez Canal • Israeli troops occupied (but later left) the Sinai Peninsula • Egypt aligns itself with the Soviets
    16. 16. Israeli troops preparing for combat in the Sinai peninsula.
    17. 17. ““Six Day War” - 1967Six Day War” - 1967 • Israel made major territorial gains – Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip from Egyptian Control – West Bank from Jordanian control – East Jerusalem from the Arabs – Israel – premier military power in region – Now governing 1 million Palestinians
    18. 18. Creation of the PLOCreation of the PLO • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) – Palestinians were living in refugee camps following Israel’s gains in the Six Day War – Formed with the goal of winning self rule for Palestinians – Waged guerilla warfare against Israel – Committed terrorist acts (hijackings, bombings) – Funded/trained by other Arab countries
    19. 19. 1972 – Munich Olympics1972 – Munich Olympics
    20. 20. Yom Kippur WarYom Kippur War - 1973- 1973 • Syria and Egypt attacked Israel in an attempt to regain lands they lost during the 6 Day War • Israel pushes back; UN negotiated a cease fire •October 1973 (Yom Kippur) war Ceasefire Lines
    21. 21. 1973 – Arab Oil Embargo1973 – Arab Oil Embargo •Arab response to US support of Israel in Yom Kippur War •impact on US •High gas prices •Economic Output down 6% •inflation
    22. 22. The first signs that all was not well with Detroit was the 1973 oil crisis, when Middle East producers declared a boycott. Queues formed at petrol stations, and consumers for the first time switched in large numbers to smaller, more economical cars – often made by the Japanese – which they found more reliable. The Detroit-made cars had more defects, and Detroit's attempts to build a successful small car failed. Source: BBC
    23. 23. Camp David Accords - 1978Camp David Accords - 1978 • Israel (Menachum Begin) & Egypt (Anwar Sadat) – U.S. (President Jimmy Carter) was the mediator • Egypt is first Arab country to recognize Israel • Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula • Other Arab nations condemned the peace, making peace efforts more difficult
    24. 24. Intifada - 1987Intifada - 1987 • “intifada” means “shaking off” (Arabic) • Palestinian uprising • Frustration with Israeli occupation • Strikes against Israeli businesses, boycott of Israeli goods, attacks on Israeli soldiers and civilians • Israel – arrested, deported leaders, closed schools on West Bank, destroyed homes of suspected rebels
    25. 25. • Life inside Hebron’s isolated Jewish enclave: an Israeli soldier stands guard as a settler’s baby crawls by in 1997. Under the Oslo peace accords, 80 percent of Hebron was turned over to the control of the Palestinian Authority. msnbc.com
    26. 26. • As is often the case in areas of conflict, young boys learn early to emulate the defiance of their fathers, while mothers and daughters cast a more skeptical eye on political struggle. This brother and sister are pictured in their home in the West Bank village of Jenin in 1989. msnbc.com
    27. 27. • Rubber bullets, while not as deadly as the real thing, do kill and maim if they hit the right target. This boy — lucky not to have lost an eye — is treated at Gaza City’s main hospital after being struck by a plastic bullet in 1989. msnbc.com
    28. 28. • While conflict rages, the United Nations tries to keep food flowing to the elderly and helpless in the sprawling refugee camps on the Gaza Strip. This boy’s mother had just found out that food deliveries for this week in 1988 had been suspended because of an Israeli military curfew. msnbc.com
    29. 29. • The village of Fahme on the West Bank is home to the intifada’s outcasts: the families of Palestinians who work for Israel’s security services. Here Fahme children play “intifada”. msnbc.com
    30. 30. Early 1990s – Peace is DifficultEarly 1990s – Peace is Difficult • During the Intifada – some Palestinians joined underground terrorist groups that called for the destruction of Israel – Islamic Jihad – Hamas • More than 2 million Palestinians living in refugee camps in occupied territories (W. Bank, Gaza Strip) supported PLO – Israel supported Jewish settlement in occupied territories (Pal. lived there since 6 Day War)
    31. 31. Oslo Accords - 1993Oslo Accords - 1993 • Israel and PLO met in Oslo, Norway • Agreed to recognize each other • Israel – withdraw forces from occupied territories; allow Palestinians limited self rule in Gaza and Jericho (in W. Bank) • Yassir Arafat – leader of PLO; Palestinians hoped for independent state Yitzhak Rabin (Israeli PM, Yassir Arafat (PLO leader) and Bill Clinton
    32. 32. Recent Attempts at PeaceRecent Attempts at Peace • 2000 - Camp David – Pres. Bill Clinton, Yassir Afarat (Palestinian Authority), PM Barak (Israel) Americans failed to prepare Israelis and Palestinians for talks (not enough diplomacy before the talks) – Prompted a second intifada • 2002 - Roadmap for Peace – failed attempt at two state solution; new conflict in ‘06 w/ election of Hamas in Gaza
    33. 33. UnresolvedUnresolved IssuesIssues 1. Jerusalem – Capital of Israel – E. Jerusalem – Palestinians outnumber Jews – Palestinians want Jerusalem to be their capital 2. “Right to Return” – would grant Palestinians who fled their homes during the Arab Israeli wars the right to return – Israel says NO – too many people, most born SINCE wars happened 3. Borders/Settlements - Future of Jewish settlements in E. Jerusalem, W. Bank and Gaza 4. Water
    34. 34. Israel West Bank Gaza Strip Total Jews 5,137,8001 255,6001 01 5,393,4001 Arabs 1,439,7001 2,460,4922 1,428,7572 5,328,949
    35. 35. WHY IS PEACE SOWHY IS PEACE SO DIFFICULT??DIFFICULT?? This is a conflict over LAND, fueled by RELIGION - BOTH SIDES BELIEVE THEIR RELIGION JUSTIFIES THEIR CAUSE
    36. 36. • Israeli Prime Minister - Ehud Olmert • Palestinian National Authority – set up after Oslo Accords to provide security and civilian rule in W. Bank and Gaza – Mahmoud Abbas (President)
    37. 37. Return of ViolenceReturn of Violence • 1994 – Israel and Jordan sign peace agreement • Israel and PLO – peace talks stalled • Second Intifada (2000) – full-scale uprising against Israel; suicide bombers killed Israelis on buses, in restaurants and shops • March 2002 – Israeli military forces invaded Palestinian-ruled areas of W. Bank and Gaza (that they believed were centers of terrorist activities)
    38. 38. Two Perspectives…Two Perspectives… As either an Israeli or Palestinian, write a paragraph in which you describe your feelings on the ongoing conflict in your homeland. Use the following words: - Palestine, homeland, Jews, Arabs, Zionism, partition, independence, refugees, war, land, religion - Underline the words in your paragraph
    39. 39. The Arab Israeli ConflictThe Arab Israeli Conflict Then and NowThen and Now Origins of the Conflict Write a paragraph that describes the origins of the A-I Conflict using the following words - Palestine, homeland, Jews, Arabs, Zionism, partition, independence, refugees, war, land, religion - Underline the words in your paragraph
    40. 40. Arab-Israeli Timeline AssignmentArab-Israeli Timeline Assignment • Sample Timeline (made using timetoast) • Please, email me your timeline: lindme@abington.k12.pa.us • When your timeline is finished: Look closely at the events that you chose, and their descriptions. Write down 3 conclusions that you can draw by examining your timeline.
    41. 41. • What transpires is inspiring; they find that what divides them is secondary to what unites them as human beings, and they walk away with mutual respect, tolerance for one another and friendships they never thought possible. –www.fire-within.org

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