Complete the following simulation trade activity: Choose a student to be the king of Mali. The king's job will be to tax people that come to the market place in Mali. Divide the rest of the students into three groups: --people from the desert in the north (carrying rock salt, cloth, books, and shells); --people from the south (carrying gold nuggets and nuts); and --the people from Mali in the market place (had gold nuggets). Set up a market place and conduct a brief bartering/trading role-playing session. People passing through the market place may use salt rocks, gold nuggets, or coins to pay taxes to the king.
The University was organized around three great Masajids or Mosques. The Masajid of Jingaray Ber, The Masajid of Sidi Yahya, The Masajid of Sankore. Masajids are places of worship for Muslims. Not only did students seek knowledge, but they also purified their souls through the sciences of Islam. Islam breeds leaders that are God fearing, just, honest, trustworthy and of excellent moral character. Graduate students were the embodiment of the teachings of the Holy Qur'an and the traditions of the Mohammed, the Prophet of Islam. Around the 12th century, the University of Timbuktu had an attendance of 25, 000 students in a city which had a population of 100, 000 people. The students came from all corners of the African continent in search of excellence in knowledge and trade. On graduation day, students were given Turbans. The turban symbolizes Divine light, wisdom, knowledge and excellent moral conduct. The turban represents the demarcation line between knowledge and ignorance. The knots and circles of the turban represent the name Allah. This means that the graduate students know the Divine obligations and responsibilities to be discharge honorably in their communities and toward their fellowmen. The University curriculum had four degrees or levels: 1. The primary degree At this level the students memorized the Holy Qur'an, perfected their mastery of the Arabic language and learned to communicate and write effectively. The students were also introduced to the basics in other sciences. This level is also called Qur'anic school. 2. The secondary degree Now the students have committed the Holy Qur'an to memory. This is very important because all the Islamic sciences are routed and derived from the Qur'an which constitute the source of authentic and authority. Any teachings or narrations that are not supported by the verses of the Qur'an are rejected and constitute an innovation. This level may be called the General Studies level. Here the students are introduced to the different branches of Islamic knowledge. These Islamic sciences are: grammar, commentaries of the Qur'an, the Hadiths or the Prophetic narrations, jurisprudence, mathematics, geography, history, Islamic schools of thoughts, physics, astronomy, chemistry, sciences of the purification of the heart and soul, etc. The students also spend time in learning a trade and the Islamic business code and ethics. The university trade shops offered classes in business, carpentry, farming, fishing, construction, shoe making, tailoring, navigation etc. This is very important because as an Imam or Islamic scholar one has to impart honest and unbiased judgments in settling legal issues. This integrity will be compromised if the Imam or the scholar living expenses are being supplied by the rich people. In order the Imam or scholar to be just and fair in discharging legal decrees, he has to earn his own halal (permissible) income. 3. The superior degree The curriculum was highly specialized. The students sat in classes of renowned professors. Sankore was one of the most important departments of the University in this regard. At this level, the studies were of higher learning and mastery and are comparable to any university in the Islamic world. The students did more of the research work. For instance, the professors of the different branches of Islamic knowledge would give the students questions on different subjects and topics to be researched. Each student would then present, argue and defend his position in front of the professors and other students who would storm him with a flow of tough questions. Students go from one department to the others and from one professor to the others in search of knowledge. Most students at this stage would find a Shayk or master and study under his guidance. The Shayk would purge the student of all his Shaytanic characteristics and tendencies, and then would ensure that the same graduate student be a good Islamic model for the generation to come. Graduation was based upon a student's excellent Islamic character and his mastery of Islamic knowledge. 4. The circle of knowledge This is the club of Muslim Imams, Scholars and Professors. It here that most of the important and crutial issues of Islam are being discussed. The caliphs or Muslims state leaders such as Askia Mohammed of the Songhai Empire, Mansa Musa of the Malian Empire, Shayk Amadu of the Fulani caliphate of Massina, The Amirs and sultans of the provinces of the Sudan would send crutial questions to the Ulemas or scholars of Timbuktu. The scholar who received the questions will make copies of these question or issues and distribute them among the members of the circle of knowledge. Each scholar will research the issue and then they all get together to share their answers and thus put together a manuscripts dealing in detail with the questions or issues and then issue a Fatwa or legal Islamic ruling by the government authorities will abide. There was also the case of one Muslim who was wealthy and generous. Whoever was in need in Timbuktu approached him and secured a loan. As time went by, the Imam ofJingare Ber noticed that the number of attendance of Mosque was decreasing each Friday. (Jingare Ber, up to the present day, is the only Masjid open on Fridays in Timbuktu. The entire population converges to this famous Mosque). The Imam inquired about the cause of the lowered attendance at the Masjid and discovered that most people of Timbuktu owed money to the generous wealthy man. The people who owed him money were unable to pay their debt so they decided to stay home for fear and embarassment of running into the man. The dilemma now is what to do. The matter was submitted to the circle of knowledge who decided that the wealthy man should stayed home or forgive the debt. The wealthy man was called in. He forgave the debtees and said he had no idea that the lower attendance was because of him.
A very practical feature of the new style of mosques was the arrangement of wooden posts (known as toron or “horns”) that protruded from the outer walls. They were used to hold scaffolding when the walls were replastered each year .
African Trading States And Kingdoms
Pre Class <ul><li>On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following question using your outline: </li></ul><ul><li>Why did powerful kingdoms emerge in West Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>How did trade affect the peoples of East Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>How did trade encourage cultural diffusion in Africa? </li></ul>
McInneshin’s Historical Map Index <ul><li>http://www.lasalle.edu/~mcinneshin/344/mapindex.htm </li></ul>
"Let's face it -- think of Africa, and the first images that come to mind are of war, poverty, famine and flies. How many of us really know anything at all about the truly great ancient African civilizations, which in their day, were just as splendid and glorious as any on the face of the earth?" --Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Wonders of the African World (PBS Online,1999): http:// www.pbs.org /wonders/ Pre Class – React to the quote below. Do you agree/disagree? Does it accurately reflect your vision of Africa? Why do you think we have lost sight of the great African civilizations?
Trading States and Kingdoms of Africa Pre-colonial African civilizations
Kingdoms of West Africa <ul><li>Why did powerful kingdoms emerge in West Africa? </li></ul>
The Salt-Gold Trade <ul><li>Trans-Saharan trade - scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>N. Africa- salt </li></ul><ul><li>W. Africa – gold </li></ul><ul><li>strong trading kingdoms emerge in W. Africa </li></ul>
The Empire of Ghana <ul><li>Soninke – founders; controlled gold south of Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>“ middlemen” of salt-gold trade </li></ul><ul><li>armed with iron tipped weapons </li></ul>Modern day Ghana
<ul><li>Welcomed Berbers (merchants from Northern edge of Sahara) who brought back gold to N. Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Became wealthy from TAXING the TRADE </li></ul>
The Empire of Mali <ul><li>Invasion and Fall of Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Berbers from the North captured Ghana, then split into smaller states </li></ul><ul><li>Mandingo farmers took advantage of weakness and est. empire of Mali </li></ul><ul><li>Sundiata = first ruler </li></ul>
Mansa Musa <ul><li>Increased empire’s wealth (captured salt mines) </li></ul><ul><li>Est. a SECURE empire </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted ISLAM – hajj to Mecca made Mali famous and increased contact between the Middle East, N. Africa and West Africa </li></ul>Mansa = emperor
Effects of Mansa Musa’s Hajj <ul><li>Based system of justice on Koran </li></ul><ul><li>Built mosques </li></ul><ul><li>Schools/libraries - people could study Qu’ran, other Islamic writings </li></ul><ul><li>Literally put Mali on the map </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans began to search West Africa for source of Mali’s riches </li></ul>
Islamization of Mali By the fourteenth century, Muslim traders were established in the town of Djenne, located in the inland delta of the Niger. The most impressive monument of intercultural borrowing is the Friday Mosque at Djenne. There, salt from the Sahara, goods from northern Africa and fine silks were exchanged for gold, and ivory. The monumental mosque was constructed around 1320 (the present building was reconstructed on the foundation of the original mosque in 1907).
Timbuktu : City of Legends <ul><li>Crossroads of trade between Arabia, N. Africa and W. Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Salt, gold, and kola nuts passed through </li></ul><ul><li>MM built the Grand </li></ul><ul><li>Mosque which attracted Muslim scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual and spiritual center of Africa </li></ul>
Rise of Songhai <ul><li>Sunni Ali captured Gao and Timbuktu </li></ul><ul><li>Askia Muhammad followed Islam – made Timbuktu center of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Moroccan soldiers overpowered Songhai warriors’ spears and arrows with guns and cannons </li></ul>
Askia Muhammad (Askia the Great) Timbuktu became known as "The Center of Learning," and "The Mecca of the Sudan"
What factors allowed for the emergence of trading city-states in East Africa? <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Ocean (monsoon winds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Middle East, India, far East </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to raw materials (exports from the interior) – gold, ivory, slaves, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Islam </li></ul>
East Africa: Kilwa Monsoon winds Cultural Diffusion Pd 1 – Jan 10, 2007 Swahili – blend of Bantu (African) and Arab language/culture
Zimbabwe “stone dwelling” <ul><li>10 th century walls – 36 ft. high/20 ft. thick – Europeans didn’t believe Africans did this! </li></ul>
Ibn Battuta Where did Ibn Battuta travel? How did his travels differ from those of Marco Polo?
Trading States and Kingdoms of Africa Pre-colonial African civilizations
<ul><li>In your group create a rap or a skit that addresses the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did empires/city states in Africa become rich? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did trade affect the lives of people in E. and W. Africa? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The more THOROUGH details you use from your notes, the more points you will earn. </li></ul><ul><li>STELLAR = 20 points </li></ul><ul><li>So-so = 10 points, and so on… </li></ul><ul><li>** UNDERLINE all facts in your rap/skit </li></ul>
Bronzes of Benin/Ife Bronzes (Brass) casts using the “Lost Wax Process”