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African Independence/Ethnic Conflict
 

African Independence/Ethnic Conflict

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  • Rounding up Mau Mau “rebels” - and a “protected” settlement.
  • The same pattern being a dependence on a cash crop or western control of the extraction of a resource (gold, diamonds, etc.)
  • Mobutu in Congo and his palaces

African Independence/Ethnic Conflict African Independence/Ethnic Conflict Presentation Transcript

  • Pre Class
    • List 3 negative consequences of the “scramble for Africa.” Think about: how did the creation of borders affect the people of Africa? How did outside rule affect people’s lives?
  •  
    • Who was Jomo Kenyatta?
    • What was his purpose in writing this story?
    • Who do the characters in the story represent?
    • How does the man solve his problem with the animals?
    • What is Kenyatta’s message?
    • What do you think the proverb at the end of the story means?
  • Pre-Class (in your NOTEBOOK)
    • Why do you think the Europeans created borders that were bound to create ethnic conflict in the future?
    • Europeans believed they were culturally superior
    • borders recognized European authority in areas in which they already had interests. (REMEMBER: Africans were not invited to the Berlin Conference in 1884-85.)
  • Our Competing Visions of Africa
    • "We are past the stage of just being passengers.“
    • ~Turner Isoun, Nigeria's Minister of Science and Technology
  • The Road to African Independence
    • African Nationalism (early 1900s)
      • Pan - Africanism - “Africa for the Africans”
    • WWII – economically weakens European powers; realize injustice of colonization
    Over 200,000 Africans had fought in Europe and Asia for the Allies’ freedom and democracy – most noticed the contradiction
  • The Vision of Kwame Nkrumah
    • Unify Africa politically and economically (Pan-Africanism)
    • Harness vast natural resources in Africa
    • Lessen influence of West
  • Marcus Garvey
    • Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
    • Black nationalist in U.S.
    • “ Africa for the Africans”
    "Up, you mighty race, you can accomplish what you will!" (1887 – 1940)
    • “The wind of change is blowing through this continent, and whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact. We must all accept it as a fact, and our national policies must take account of it.” - British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in 1960 to the South African Parliament
    • What is the significance of this statement to the British Empire?
  •  
  • Internal
    • Tribal/religious differences
    • poor education system
    • No tradition of political leadership in modern times
    • Diverse geography and climate
    • social hierarchies
    External
    • Economic dependence on former colonial powers
    • Western investments remain - what is the impact of this?
    • Cold War influences
    Challenges to Independence Movements
  • Transition to Independence
  • Settler Colonies – colonies where large number of Europeans settled
    • Kenya and Algeria
    • Violent independence movements
    • Weariness/new anti-colonial sentiments lead to independence anyway
    A Mau Mau oathing ceremony. Essentially, the Mau Mau oath was a declaration that they wanted to rid themselves of the English in Kenya. They wanted their land back. The British portrayed this oathing as one of the most terrible things around and put over 80,000 into detention camps and killed over 13,000. White settlers help drive the policy.
  • Jomo Kenyatta
    • Mau Mau rebellion – armed resistance against white minority rule
    • Jailed
    • 1 st President of indep. Kenya
                                     
    • "We refused to do this work. We were fighting for our freedom. We were not slaves. ... There were two hundred guards. One hundred seventy stood around us with machine guns. Thirty guards were inside the trench with us. The white man in charge blew his whistle and the guards started beating us. They beat us from 8 am to 11.30. They were beating us like dogs. I was covered by other bodies - just my arms and legs were exposed. I was very lucky to survive. But the others were still being beaten. There was no escape for them.”
    Rounding up Mau Mau “rebels” - and a “protected” settlement.
    • What is the cartoon trying to say? What perspective is it conveying?
    http://www.llgc.org.uk/illingworth/illingworth_s005.htm
  • Cartoon shows a French flag being lowered at a military post, as fires burn in the countryside around. On 3 July 1962, Algeria became independent, after a bitter and bloody struggle between nationalists and French settlers . http://cat.llgc.org.uk/cgi-bin/gw/chameleon?skin=eresources&lng=en&search=KEYWORD&function=INITREQ&elementcount=3&t1=003381773&u1=1033&op1=0&t2=algeria&u2=21
  • Non-Settler Colonies
    • moved more quickly towards independence
    • Ghana under Nkrumah was first black majority govt to gain independence ( 1957)
    Kwame Nkrumah (1909- 1972) Organized strikes and boycotts against British
  • Results of Decolonization
    • elites gain power, favor supporters
    • Economic dependence on West + political corruption cripples economies
    • political parties reflected ethnic, regional, or religious groups - few true national parties
    • corrupt African dictators ignored needs of people
    • Large loans to modernize economies squandered by those in power
    • * Note that Africans who were hired by Europeans to oversee their colonies often ruled cruelly. Why do you think this was the case?
    • * Do former European powers have a special obligation to assist in the development of their former African colonies?
    • Look at this map of Kenya’s ethnic groups. How do you think the large numbers of ethnic groups might affect an African country’s ability to establish a government?
  • 21 and the World is Yours: Kenya
  • Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Jigsaw Activity
    • In your “expert groups”
      • By yourself, CAREFULLY read about ethnic conflict in the country you’ve been assigned
      • Circle the names of groups involved in the conflict
      • Underline any events/actions that contributed to the conflict between these groups
      • With other group members, Complete the worksheet you’ve been given
    • In your “learning groups”
      • Patiently, and carefully teach your group about the country that you learned about yesterday
      • LISTEN first, WRITE second
    Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Jigsaw Activity
  • Pre Class
    • Why, after fighting for freedom from European colonial rule, do you think that in many countries dictators replaced colonial rulers?
    • ethnic divisions
    • absence of democratic traditions
  • Nigeria
  • Tribal rivalries (Hausas, Fulani, Yoruba and Ibo) AND religious conflicts between Christians and Muslims
    • Muslim North and Christian/traditional South
    • Slavery trade & colonial rule worsened things
    • Coups and violence throughout history
    • Fighting over oil has prevented the formation of a stable govt.
    • Strict SHARIA (Islamic) LAW in recent years has led to attacks on Christians
  • Kenya
  • Kikuyu v. Kalenjin
    • LAND – after Brits left, they sold it to Kikuyu at low prices
    • Jomo Kenyatta (Kikuyu) – Kalenjin felt govt. showed Kikuyu favoritism in land policies
    • Daniel Moi (Kalenjin)– Pres. ’78 – govt. carried out attacks on Kikuyu
    • Thousands have died, hundreds of thousands displaced
  • Rwanda
  • Hutus (farmers) v. Tutsis (herdsmen)
    • Tutsi’s ruled until 1800s
    • Belgians appointed Tutsi’s to govt. positions
    • Hutu majority took power when Belgians left
    • Tutsi’s fled, then returned and tried to stage coup against govt.
    • Hutus extremists began mass killings of Tutsis after President’s plane was shot down
    • TODAY: violence has spread to neighboring countries (ie. Congo); Rwanda is an unstable democracy
  • What are some similarities?
    • European influence
    • LAND
    • Power
    • Wealth
    • Unstable governments
    • Violence continues today
    • What major factor prevented African countries from creating stable governments after gaining independence?
    • What are some ways the colonial period affects life in Africa today.
  •  
    • What happened to Nkrumah’s vision? Why did it fail? Did it ever have a chance?
  • South Africa- The Exception
    • White minority gain independence in 1910 - some 4 million whites
    • In 1948 the government enacted an extreme form of racial segregation called apartheid
    • The African National Congress (ANC) opposed measures
  • South Africa- The Exception
    • Gov’t takes strong anti-communist stance - West ignores apartheid
    • Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison for ANC actions
    • 1980’s apartheid final ends
    • Mandela becomes first African president
    • Relatively peaceful transfer of power
    • Why do some societies have so
    • much while others have so little?
    • According to Brown…
    • Geography determines which societies flourish and grow and which are conquered and lag behind in the development of technology, power, and wealth
    • Most deaths in children under age 5 are due to:
    • A. infectious diseases and malnutrition
    • B. premature birth/birth defects
    • C. accidents
    • True or False: At least 40% of the deaths in children under age 5 that occur worldwide
    • each year could be prevented by administering existing vaccines to young
    • children.
    • List what you believe are the 5 most deadly infectious diseases worldwide.
    • Were you surprised by the answers to any of the questions? If so, which ones, and why?
    • As a person living in the U.S., would you expect to suffer from the infectious diseases that are the top killers worldwide? Why?
    • In an age where so much medical technology is available, particularly in the form of medications and vaccines, why do you think so many people are still dying from preventable diseases?
    • How does it make you feel when you think about people in developing countries dying from these types of diseases at alarmingly high rates?
    • Who should be responsible for helping to eradicate these diseases? Why?
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OM2dmFwFgq0