List 3 negative consequences of the “scramble for Africa.” Think about: how did the creation of borders affect the people of Africa? How did outside rule affect people’s lives?
Who was Jomo Kenyatta?
What was his purpose in writing this story?
Who do the characters in the story represent?
How does the man solve his problem with the animals?
What is Kenyatta’s message?
What do you think the proverb at the end of the story means?
Pre-Class (in your NOTEBOOK)
Why do you think the Europeans created borders that were bound to create ethnic conflict in the future?
Europeans believed they were culturally superior
borders recognized European authority in areas in which they already had interests. (REMEMBER: Africans were not invited to the Berlin Conference in 1884-85.)
Our Competing Visions of Africa
"We are past the stage of just being passengers.“
~Turner Isoun, Nigeria's Minister of Science and Technology
The Road to African Independence
African Nationalism (early 1900s)
Pan - Africanism - “Africa for the Africans”
WWII – economically weakens European powers; realize injustice of colonization
Over 200,000 Africans had fought in Europe and Asia for the Allies’ freedom and democracy – most noticed the contradiction
The Vision of Kwame Nkrumah
Unify Africa politically and economically (Pan-Africanism)
Harness vast natural resources in Africa
Lessen influence of West
Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Black nationalist in U.S.
“ Africa for the Africans”
"Up, you mighty race, you can accomplish what you will!" (1887 – 1940)
“The wind of change is blowing through this continent, and whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact. We must all accept it as a fact, and our national policies must take account of it.” - British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in 1960 to the South African Parliament
What is the significance of this statement to the British Empire?
poor education system
No tradition of political leadership in modern times
Diverse geography and climate
Economic dependence on former colonial powers
Western investments remain - what is the impact of this?
Cold War influences
Challenges to Independence Movements
Transition to Independence
Settler Colonies – colonies where large number of Europeans settled
Kenya and Algeria
Violent independence movements
Weariness/new anti-colonial sentiments lead to independence anyway
A Mau Mau oathing ceremony. Essentially, the Mau Mau oath was a declaration that they wanted to rid themselves of the English in Kenya. They wanted their land back. The British portrayed this oathing as one of the most terrible things around and put over 80,000 into detention camps and killed over 13,000. White settlers help drive the policy.
Mau Mau rebellion – armed resistance against white minority rule
1 st President of indep. Kenya
"We refused to do this work. We were fighting for our freedom. We were not slaves. ... There were two hundred guards. One hundred seventy stood around us with machine guns. Thirty guards were inside the trench with us. The white man in charge blew his whistle and the guards started beating us. They beat us from 8 am to 11.30. They were beating us like dogs. I was covered by other bodies - just my arms and legs were exposed. I was very lucky to survive. But the others were still being beaten. There was no escape for them.”
Rounding up Mau Mau “rebels” - and a “protected” settlement.
What is the cartoon trying to say? What perspective is it conveying?
Cartoon shows a French flag being lowered at a military post, as fires burn in the countryside around. On 3 July 1962, Algeria became independent, after a bitter and bloody struggle between nationalists and French settlers . http://cat.llgc.org.uk/cgi-bin/gw/chameleon?skin=eresources&lng=en&search=KEYWORD&function=INITREQ&elementcount=3&t1=003381773&u1=1033&op1=0&t2=algeria&u2=21
moved more quickly towards independence
Ghana under Nkrumah was first black majority govt to gain independence ( 1957)
Kwame Nkrumah (1909- 1972) Organized strikes and boycotts against British
Results of Decolonization
elites gain power, favor supporters
Economic dependence on West + political corruption cripples economies
political parties reflected ethnic, regional, or religious groups - few true national parties
corrupt African dictators ignored needs of people
Large loans to modernize economies squandered by those in power
* Note that Africans who were hired by Europeans to oversee their colonies often ruled cruelly. Why do you think this was the case?
* Do former European powers have a special obligation to assist in the development of their former African colonies?
Look at this map of Kenya’s ethnic groups. How do you think the large numbers of ethnic groups might affect an African country’s ability to establish a government?
21 and the World is Yours: Kenya
Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Jigsaw Activity
In your “expert groups”
By yourself, CAREFULLY read about ethnic conflict in the country you’ve been assigned
Circle the names of groups involved in the conflict
Underline any events/actions that contributed to the conflict between these groups
With other group members, Complete the worksheet you’ve been given
In your “learning groups”
Patiently, and carefully teach your group about the country that you learned about yesterday
LISTEN first, WRITE second
Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Jigsaw Activity
Why, after fighting for freedom from European colonial rule, do you think that in many countries dictators replaced colonial rulers?
absence of democratic traditions
Tribal rivalries (Hausas, Fulani, Yoruba and Ibo) AND religious conflicts between Christians and Muslims
Muslim North and Christian/traditional South
Slavery trade & colonial rule worsened things
Coups and violence throughout history
Fighting over oil has prevented the formation of a stable govt.
Strict SHARIA (Islamic) LAW in recent years has led to attacks on Christians
Kikuyu v. Kalenjin
LAND – after Brits left, they sold it to Kikuyu at low prices
Jomo Kenyatta (Kikuyu) – Kalenjin felt govt. showed Kikuyu favoritism in land policies
Daniel Moi (Kalenjin)– Pres. ’78 – govt. carried out attacks on Kikuyu
Thousands have died, hundreds of thousands displaced
Hutus (farmers) v. Tutsis (herdsmen)
Tutsi’s ruled until 1800s
Belgians appointed Tutsi’s to govt. positions
Hutu majority took power when Belgians left
Tutsi’s fled, then returned and tried to stage coup against govt.
Hutus extremists began mass killings of Tutsis after President’s plane was shot down
TODAY: violence has spread to neighboring countries (ie. Congo); Rwanda is an unstable democracy
What are some similarities?
Violence continues today
What major factor prevented African countries from creating stable governments after gaining independence?
What are some ways the colonial period affects life in Africa today.
What happened to Nkrumah’s vision? Why did it fail? Did it ever have a chance?
South Africa- The Exception
White minority gain independence in 1910 - some 4 million whites
In 1948 the government enacted an extreme form of racial segregation called apartheid
The African National Congress (ANC) opposed measures
South Africa- The Exception
Gov’t takes strong anti-communist stance - West ignores apartheid
Nelson Mandela sentenced to life in prison for ANC actions
1980’s apartheid final ends
Mandela becomes first African president
Relatively peaceful transfer of power
Why do some societies have so
much while others have so little?
According to Brown…
Geography determines which societies flourish and grow and which are conquered and lag behind in the development of technology, power, and wealth
Most deaths in children under age 5 are due to:
A. infectious diseases and malnutrition
B. premature birth/birth defects
True or False: At least 40% of the deaths in children under age 5 that occur worldwide
each year could be prevented by administering existing vaccines to young
List what you believe are the 5 most deadly infectious diseases worldwide.
Were you surprised by the answers to any of the questions? If so, which ones, and why?
As a person living in the U.S., would you expect to suffer from the infectious diseases that are the top killers worldwide? Why?
In an age where so much medical technology is available, particularly in the form of medications and vaccines, why do you think so many people are still dying from preventable diseases?
How does it make you feel when you think about people in developing countries dying from these types of diseases at alarmingly high rates?
Who should be responsible for helping to eradicate these diseases? Why?