“The wind of change is blowing through this continent, and whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact. We must all accept it as a fact, and our national policies must take account of it.” - British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in 1960 to the South African Parliament
What is the significance of this statement to the British Empire?
Settler Colonies – colonies where large numbers of Europeans settled
Kenya and Algeria
Violent nationalist movements
Europeans were weak, had new attitudes about colonies - independence
A Mau Mau oathing ceremony. Essentially, the Mau Mau oath was a declaration that they wanted to rid themselves of the English in Kenya. They wanted their land back. The British portrayed this oathing as one of the most terrible things around and put over 80,000 into detention camps and killed over 13,000. White settlers help drive the policy.
"We refused to do this work. We were fighting for our freedom. We were not slaves. ... There were two hundred guards. One hundred seventy stood around us with machine guns. Thirty guards were inside the trench with us. The white man in charge blew his whistle and the guards started beating us. They beat us from 8 am to 11.30. They were beating us like dogs. I was covered by other bodies - just my arms and legs were exposed. I was very lucky to survive. But the others were still being beaten. There was no escape for them.”
Rounding up Mau Mau “rebels” - and a “protected” settlement.
Cartoon shows a French flag being lowered at a military post, as fires burn in the countryside around. On 3 July 1962, Algeria became independent, after a bitter and bloody struggle between nationalists and French settlers . http://cat.llgc.org.uk/cgi-bin/gw/chameleon?skin=eresources&lng=en&search=KEYWORD&function=INITREQ&elementcount=3&t1=003381773&u1=1033&op1=0&t2=algeria&u2=21
Tutsi’s fled, then returned and tried to stage coup against govt.
Hutus extremists began mass killings of Tutsis after President’s plane was shot down
TODAY: violence has spread to neighboring countries (ie. Congo); Rwanda is an unstable democracy
Look at your ethnic conflict worksheet from yesterday, and answer the question at the bottom:
Violence continues today
What do the situations in the three countries that we studied have in common?
Genocide “ Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide ( relevant links ) Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the U.N. General Assembly on 9 December 1948. Entry into force: 12 January 1951.