Truman & Eisenhower


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Truman & Eisenhower

  1. 1. for todays discussion, go to:
  2. 2. Was the primary threat from the Soviet Union military or ideological?
  3. 3. Was it right for the Truman administration to frame the US - Soviet relationship in the late 40s as "us vs. them"?
  4. 4. Was Truman right to fire MacArthur when and how he did?a. What would have happened if MacArthur had gotten his way and expanded the conflict with the Chinese?
  5. 5. Who was to blame for the Cold War?
  6. 6. Demobilization - Economic anxieties• falling GNP• rising prices (end of price controls)• labor troubles - Taft-Hartley (“slave labor law”) passed by R Congress – Outlawed “closed shop” – Unions liable for damages – Govt could step in an ask for injunction – Leaders took noncommunist oath• GI Bill (Servicemens Readjustment Act)• loans for college, homes, farms, businesses
  7. 7. Truman & Eisenhower America’s economy post-WWII Truman’s domestic policyEisenhower’s domestic & foreign policy
  8. 8. Economic Boom 1950-70• defense spending (begins with Korea)• cheap energy (oil from M.E.)• higher productivity o efficient machinery & increase in education• economic shift out of agricultureo Middle class doubleso Migration to the Sunbelt
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Truman: TheComeback Kid
  11. 11. Election of 1948 •Truman (D) v. Dewey (R) •Eisenhower refuses nomination •Dems split –“Dixiecrats” (Southern Dems) nominate Strom Thurman on States’ Rights Party ticket; opposed to civil rights –Henry Wallace – new progressive party
  12. 12. DemocraticPlatform "Our immediate task is to remove the last remnants of the barriers which stand between millions of our citizens and their birthright. There is no justifiable reason for discrimination because of ancestry or religion or race or color."
  13. 13. Truman’s Second TermTruman wins 2nd term; 5th term for New Deal Coalition;Dems win Congressliberalism - still a force in American politics “Fair Deal”–Improved housing**–Universal healthcare–Full employment–Higher minimum wage**–Price supports for farmers–Extending Social Security**–Civil rights – integrated the armed forcesOpposed by conservative R’s and D’s
  14. 14. When does the "real value" drop significantly? Whatwould cause this?
  15. 15. Obama SOTU clip - $9.00 minimumwage• The grey line shows the minimum wage, unadjusted for inflation, whereas• the blue line shows you what it would be worth in 2012. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt first created the minimum wage in 1938, it was 25 cents. Truman got it raised from 40 - 75 cents. Adjusted• for inflation, that would be worth $4.07 today. The minimum wage had its lowest buying power in 1948, when it was worth about $3.81 in todays dollars. It had its highest buying power in• 1968, when it was worth about $10.56. At $7.25 in 2012, our current minimum wage is in the middle of those two• extremes. President Obamas proposal to raise the minimum wage to $9 would put it back to a value last seen in the early 1980s.
  16. 16. A Herblock cartoonfrom March 1949depicts a glum-looking PresidentHarry S. Trumanand “John Q.Public” inspectingworm-ridden applesrepresentingTruman’s FairDeal proposalssuch as civil rightsand rent controls.The alliance of
  17. 17. Objectives•Outline the Eisenhower-Dulles approach to theCold War and the nuclear arms race with theSoviet Union.•Define the basic principles of Eisenhower’sforeign policy in Vietnam, the Middle East, andCuba.•Describe the practice of “EisenhowerRepublicanism” in the 1950s, includingdomestic consequences of the Cold War.
  18. 18. The 1952 ElectionNixon Checkers speech
  19. 19. •
  20. 20. •As the first Republican president in 2 decades,what challenges do you think Eisenhower facedwhen entering office?•How do you think Ike’s experience as militarycommander (supreme Allied CommanderEurope, army chief of staff, then NATOsupreme commander) impacted his views onforeign policy?
  21. 21. “Should any political party attempt to abolish Social Security, unemployment insurance, and “Should any political party attempt to abolish Social Security, unemployment insurance, and eliminate labor and farm programs, you would not hear of that party again in our political history”~ Ikeeliminate labor and farm programs, you would not hear of that party again in our political history”~ Ike
  22. 22. Ike’s “Dynamic Conservatism”•Small government•Guard US from “creeping socialism”•Put brakes on military build up & balancethe budget•Curbed TVA•Condemned polio vaccine at “Socializedmedicine”
  23. 23. “Unscrambling the eggs” fried by New and Fair DealersOperation Wetback – illegal imm. hurt undercutbracero program – 1 million illegal imm. deported in 54Native American Policy – cancel tribal preservation policies in “Indian New Deal” – “terminate” tribes as legal entities – Dawes Severalty Act 1887 – assimilation – NA resisted – policy abandoned in 61**realized he had to cement New Deal reforms for thesurvival of his party – Social Security, unemployment,labor, farm programs, etc.
  24. 24. One Upping the NewDeal•Interstate Highway Act 56•Construction jobs•Sped suburbanization•Positives • Benefits trucking, automobile, oil and travel industries•Negatives • robbed RR of business, air quality, energy consumption, city centers devastated by competing commercial suburbs
  25. 25. "Well, I Got That In, All Right"Source: Herblock, the Washington Post, January 1958.
  26. 26. A BOLD Foreign Policy •BRINKMANSHIP – Sec. of State John Foster Dulles •“massive retaliation” •Scale back conventional forces – army, navy •Strategic Air Command – build up of airfleet that carried city- flattening nukes •Khrushchev rejects “open skies” policy •Hungarian uprising in 56 proved this policy too heavy for minor crises •Too rigid, expensive
  27. 27. The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, } Promised free Hungarian elections. Prime Minister } This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.
  28. 28. The Vietnam NightmareBegins •Ho Chi minh led nationalists against Fr colonial rule •US fruitlessly aided Fr financially, but no military aid •Dien Bien Phu fell to Ho - March 54 •Geneva Accords – divided Vietnam @ 17th parallel •Ho – communist govt in North; agreed to unifying elections – NEVER HELD •Ngo Dinh Diem – pro-West govt in South (Saigon) backed by US militarily and financially
  29. 29. Trouble in the MiddleEast •Iran •Resisted W. oil companies •CIA backed coup to install Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi – dictator •SECURED W. oil interests, but fueled resentment among Iranians – took revenge 20 yrs later
  30. 30. Suez Crisis•US withdrew aid to build dam on Nile•Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal (US and Brstockholders) – threatened W. oil supplies•Fr, GB, and Israel attack Egypt – Oct. 56•US refused to release emergency oil suppliesto allies•Fr & GB withdrew – UN called in to stabilize**Turning Point – US = net oil importer, nolonger possessed “oil weapon;” OPEC formed –Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, Venezuela
  31. 31. The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957
  32. 32. The Eisenhower Doctrine - 1957 Ike seeks to curb SU influence in Middle East after Suez War Secure W. oil resources military and/or economic assistance to countries facing aggression from communist nations
  33. 33. Premier Nikita KhrushchevAbout the capitaliststates, it doesntdepend on youwhether we(Soviet Union) exist.If you dont like us,dont accept ourinvitations, and dontinvite us to come De-Stalinization Programto see you. Whetheryou like it our not, history is on ourside. We will bury you. -- 1956
  34. 34. Nikita Khrushchev comes to power in SU and believes in PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE; economic and scientific competition “You do not like Communism. We do not like capitalism. There is only one way out – peaceful co- existence.” “We may argue. The main thing is to argue without using weapons.”
  35. 35. U2 Spy Incident: Renewed Confrontation •SU: NO “Open Skies” @ Geneva •U.S. begins reconnaissance flights over S.U. •U2 spy plane (piloted by Francis Gary Powers) shot down by Soviet anti-aircraft in May 1960 •RESULT: K calls off summit to discuss arms race, takes away Ike’s invite to S.U.
  36. 36. Castro’s Cuba•LA resented US aid to Europe, intervention inLA affairs, and support of dictators•US supported Batista in exchange forencouraging US investments•59 – Castro’s revolution–Seized US property–Aligned w/ Moscow•Monroe Doctrine?? Domino effect?•Ike: Org. of American States, $500 in aid to LA– too little too late!
  37. 37. U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane wasshot down over Soviet airspace.
  38. 38. An Historic Irony: SergeiKhrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?