20th Century China

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20th Century China

  1. 1. 20c China: From Republic to Communist Power
  2. 2. REVOLUTION OF 1911 <ul><li>Qing forced to allow foreign troops on Chinese soil (Boxer Reb.) </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. reforms failed </li></ul><ul><li>no well-organized government to replace the Qing </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war raged </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of the republic </li></ul>
  3. 3. Results of the Revolution <ul><li>Domestic chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of new Western ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of 2 competing forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalists-Guomandang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communists-CCP </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Dr. Sun Yixian (1866 – 1925) (Dr. Sun Yat-sen) <ul><li>Father of the Chinese Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Western education </li></ul><ul><li>Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary – worked with secret societies against the Qing </li></ul><ul><li>1912 – elected provisional Pres. Of Republic of China </li></ul>
  5. 5. Map of “Sun’s China” in 1912 Note the term “spheres of influence”
  6. 6. Sun Yatsen’s Goals for China <ul><li>“ Three Principles of the People” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism, end of foreign domination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood (decent standard of living for all Chinese) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Chinese Warlords, 1920s Yuan Shi-kai <ul><ul><li>Takes power from Sun Yatsen in 1912 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional warlords ruled China </li></ul></ul>Who will restore ORDER in China??
  8. 8. <ul><li>Russians help Chinese to organize Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921 </li></ul>
  9. 9. China in 1924
  10. 10. Chiang Kai-shek Becomes President of Nationalist China, 1928 Mao Zedong
  11. 11. Communists vs. Nationalist Govt. 1925-1937 <ul><li>Chiang Kai-Shek </li></ul><ul><li>(Nationalist Govt.) </li></ul><ul><li>1945-49 – U.S. sent $3 billion in aid </li></ul><ul><li>American people liked Chiang, but not govt. officials! </li></ul><ul><li>Govt. corruption – grain tax during famine; opened fire on city dwellers protesting 10,000% in rice prices! </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong </li></ul><ul><li>(Communist leader) </li></ul><ul><li>Led commies who worked to win peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged literacy, improved food production </li></ul><ul><li>Recruits flocked to Red Army </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – much of N. China = communist </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mao With His Children, 1930s
  13. 13. The Long March 1934 <ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek attacked communist strong-hold in Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China </li></ul><ul><li>What effect do you think this experience had on Mao and his troops? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Survivors of the March
  15. 15. Japan Invades China 1937
  16. 16. Japanese Aggression 1931 - 1945
  17. 17. Victims of the Japanese bombing of Shanghai.
  18. 18. Japanese Soldiers March into Nanking December 9, 1937
  19. 19. The Japanese Invasion, 1937
  20. 20. Japanese Bayonet Practice
  21. 21. Beheadings Took Place in Public!
  22. 22. UNIT 731: Bio-Chemical Warfare
  23. 23. The Communist Revolution: 1946 - 1949
  24. 24. Civil War!! <ul><li>Broke out after WWII – stopped cooperating to beat Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Chiang and Nationalists flee to Taiwan (Formosa) </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Peoples’ Liberation Army, 1949 The Communist Victory
  26. 26. Taiwan: The Republic of China The People’s Republic of China
  27. 27. Mao’s Promises to the people: <ul><li>End government corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Redistribution of land to peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>China will be a world power </li></ul><ul><li>**end China’s humiliation at the hands of foreign powers! </li></ul>
  28. 28. In reality, Mao… <ul><li>declares himself Chairman </li></ul><ul><li>Rules China as a totalitarian state (gov’t controls all aspects of life) </li></ul><ul><li>Mao maintains power through…. </li></ul><ul><li>PLA – People’s Liberation Army </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Strict authoritarian control </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of Personality </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Great Leap Forward (or Backward?) 1958-1961
  30. 30. Great Leap Forward, 1958 <ul><li>GOAL: rapid modernization </li></ul><ul><li>5 Year Plan Targeted: Industry and agriculture </li></ul>“ It is possible to accomplish any task whatsoever.“ ~ Mao
  31. 31. <ul><li>700 million people put in 26,000 + communes </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled the land and peasants lives </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilized Chinese labor (bridges, irrigation systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Expected large scale farming = increase food output </li></ul>
  32. 32. Reasons the Great Leap Failed <ul><li>Peasant resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Other projects took priority </li></ul><ul><li>Workers not motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Millions died bc of famine (1959-61) </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976
  34. 34. Cultural Revolution-1966 <ul><li>Purpose: “renew revolutionary spirit” </li></ul><ul><li>Stressed class struggle to get rid of capitalists </li></ul>
  35. 35. A Campaign Against the “FOUR OLDS” <ul><li>Old Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Old Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Old Customs </li></ul><ul><li>Old Habits </li></ul>To Rebel Is Good!
  36. 36. A Red Guard Young students held mass rallies to support Mao & “root” out those who did not “fully” support Mao.
  37. 38. With regard to the great teacher Chairman Mao, cherish the word 'Loyalty'. With regard to the great Mao Zedong Thought, vigorously stress the word 'Usefullness'. (1968) Cult of Personality
  38. 39. The reddest, reddest, red sun in our heart, Chairman Mao, and us together Zhejiang Workers, Farmers and Soldiers Art Academy collective, 1968 Mao’s Little Red Book
  39. 41. Go among the workers, peasants and soldiers, and into the thick of struggle! 1967-1972
  40. 42. Propaganda Poster
  41. 43. Propaganda Poster
  42. 44. Effects of Cultural Rev. <ul><li>chaos in China </li></ul><ul><li>Schools closed </li></ul><ul><li>Production dropped 12% </li></ul><ul><li>’ 69 – Chinese army restored order; Red Guards sent to rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Many lost faith in Mao and Communist party </li></ul>
  43. 45. “ Ping-Pong Diplomacy”: U. S. Players at Great Wall, 1971 &quot;The ping heard round the world.&quot; – Time Magazine
  44. 46. Mao Meets President Nixon, 1972
  45. 47. Communist China Under Mao <ul><li>Industrialized China </li></ul><ul><li>Increased literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Class privileges ended </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Chinese received health care </li></ul><ul><li>One-party dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Denied people basic rights and freedoms </li></ul>
  46. 48. Power Struggle Modernists Communist Traditionalists Zhou Enlai “ The Gang of Four” : Jiang Qin, Chen Boda, Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan 1976
  47. 49. Communist Government and a Capitalist Economy
  48. 50. Deng Xiaoping (1905-1997) “ The 4 Modernizations” Progress in: <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul>EMPHASIS: Economic reform NOT class struggle!
  49. 51. Gap Between Rich & Poor Deng : If you open a window, some flies naturally get in!
  50. 52. The economy modernizes… <ul><li>“ responsibility system” – individuals could make profits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some collective farming re-introduced in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>benefited from natural resources (OIL) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Open Door” to trade – “Special Economic Zones” to promote foreign trade </li></ul>
  51. 53. Tiananmen Square, 1989 More democracy!
  52. 54. Tiananmen Square, 1989 Student activist, Wang Dan, Beijing University
  53. 55. Tiananmen Square, 1989 Democracy—Our Common Ideal!
  54. 56. Tiananmen Square, 1989 The “ Goddess of Democracy ”
  55. 57. Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Government Clamps Down
  56. 58. Tiananmen Square, 1989 One Lone Man’s Protest
  57. 59. Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Massacre: The People’s Army Moves In
  58. 60. Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Army Looks for Dissidents
  59. 61. Tiananmen Square, 1989 Student Leaders Are Arrested
  60. 62. Tiananmen Square, 1989 Chinese Students Mourn the Dead
  61. 63. Tiananmen Square, 1989 The Reestablishment of Order
  62. 64. Demography <ul><li>may be no surer predictor of destiny than trade data. But of the two momentous changes championed by Deng Xiaoping a quarter-century ago, coercive population controls and experiments with market economics, the jury is still out on which will do more to shape China's long-term potential. </li></ul>
  63. 65. Demography
  64. 66. Demography <ul><li>There are too many retirees in China, and not enough young people to replace them. </li></ul>
  65. 67. Demography <ul><li>&quot;The evidence is overwhelming that a large population of unmarried adult males is a risk factor for both crime and war,&quot; Ms. den Boer said in an interview. &quot;The fact that China is an authoritarian country is another risk factor.&quot; </li></ul>
  66. 68. Mao, Panchen Lama, Dalai Lama in Beijing, 1954 <ul><li>Tibet --> an autonomous area. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalai Lama fled in the late 1950s to India. </li></ul>
  67. 69. What’s the Message Here?

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