Chapter 13 the consolidation of the large nation states

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chapter 13 presentation: arabiye artola, tausi wadutumi, and melissa quintana

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Chapter 13 the consolidation of the large nation states

  1. 1. Chapter 13 The Consolidation of the Large Nation-States:The Idea of the Nation State &The Unification of Italy <br />Artola, Arabiye<br />Quintana, Melissa<br />Wadutumi, Tausi<br />Period 2<br />
  2. 2. 1859-1871 What was going on?<br />Formation of <br />new German empire<br />Unified kingdom of Italy<br />Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary<br />Changes in tsarist Russia<br />Central authority in USA<br />United Dominion of Canada<br />“Europeanization” of the Empire of Japan<br />New technologies and the rapid development of new industries strengthened the political power of nation states which became strong social and economic shaping forces in modern societies. <br />
  3. 3. The idea of the Nation-State<br />Before 1860, two prominent European nation states: Great Britain and France<br />Characteristic political organizations were small states comprising of fragments of a nation in central Europe (mixture of small and large non national states and empires were found around the world)<br />Portugal, Switzerland, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries were small and peripheral nation states.<br />1860-1870: nation-state system prevailed (consolidation of large nations became a model for other peoples)<br />Nation state concept brought people together into larger units and broke them apart into smaller ones. <br />Ottoman Empire = Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania BECAME INDEPENDENT<br />French Revolution+ Napoleonic domination of Europe+ failure of patriotic aspirations in Germany + Italy + Central Europe in the Revolution of 1848 = all contributed to the establishment of national ideas <br />19th century: nationalism, national unity, independence and the creation of the nation state became : Secular faith<br />Nation state: supreme political authority rests upon and represents the will and feeling of its inhabitants. <br />
  4. 4. National Consolidation Constitutional Progress <br />Governments found that they could not effectively rule without this sense of membership <br />Parliaments were set up in:<br />Italy<br />Germany<br />Japan<br />Canada<br />Russia<br />ONLY REALIZED THROUGH A SERIES OF WARS <br />
  5. 5. The Crimean War 1854-1856<br />Importance:<br />On of the long series of Russo-Turkish wars<br />It seriously weakened Austria and Russia, nations that wanted to preserve the Treaty of Vienna of 1815<br />First war to be covered by newspaper correspondents<br />First war in which women avidly participated in; they became army nurses and were led by Florence Nightingale <br />
  6. 6. How did it begin?<br />Tsar Nicholas I of Russia wanted to take advantage of the decaying Ottoman Empire and decided to move into two Danubian principalities: Wallachia and Moldavia (aka Romania) <br />His excuse was that he wanted to “protect” the Christians in the Ottoman empire<br />The French disagreed, they believed that they were the official protectors of these Christians as they always been involved in Middle Eastern affairs<br />They provided large amounts of trade, financed Christians missions, and were building the Suez Canal.<br />They pushed the Turks to resist Russian penetration<br />War between Russia and Turkey broke out in 1853 <br />
  7. 7. What happened?<br />In 1854, France and Great Britain (they were later joined by Piedmont) had joined the side of the Turks and had agreed to protect Turkey and the Middle East from the Russians<br />The British successful blockade Russia in the Baltic and Black Sea outlets<br />Most of the fighting was confined to the Crimean Peninsula<br />Austria did not want Russia nor the Westerns power involved in the peninsula so they mobilized and drove the Russian out of the Danubian principalities <br />
  8. 8. Peace in 1856<br />Alexander II, Tsar Nicholas’s successor, agreed to peace seeing as he did not have much of a choice<br />Peace of Paris Treaty 1856: <br />Pledged to “maintain the integrity of the Ottoman Empire”<br />Russian gave ups its claims to protect the Christians in the Turkish empire<br />Romania and Serbia were recognized as self-governing principalities under the protection of the European powers<br />Now that Austria and Russia were weak, this gave opportunity for the consolidation of new nation-states like Italy <br />
  9. 9. The Beginning of Italian Nationalism<br />Italy consisted of several large states and a few very small ones<br />These governments were separated from their people, leading to a desire for a new liberal national state<br />This sparked the Italian Risorgimento: a desire to return to the prosperity of ancient times and the Renaissance<br />Joseph Mazzini merged the concept of Italian unity and holiness to give the Italian Risorgimento a moral purpose<br />The events of 1848 proved that nationalism was not possible when the papacy could no longer support nationalism and it was proven that italy could not rid themselves of the Austrian presence <br />
  10. 10. The Program of Cavour<br />The prime minister of Piedmont, Camillo do Cavour then made Piedmont a model of progress, efficiency, and fair government<br />He implemented constitutional and parliamentary practices<br />He was largely anticlerical; he reduced the rights of church bodies and religious holidays<br />He embraced a “politics of reality”: he was willing to work with Republicans although he didn’t approve of them and entered war to pit France and Austria against each other in order to remove the Austrian presence from Italy<br />Cavour tricked Austria into declaring war with French military support<br />The French and Piedmont won two major battles (Magenta and Solferino in 1859) but revolution broke out in Italy and the French blamed Napoleon III for the war<br />Napoleon III made a separate peace with Austria which gave Lombardy to Piedmont and presented Italy with a government presided over by the pope<br />Revolutions kept spreading, however, with smaller states overthrowing their rulers and joining Piedmot<br />
  11. 11. The Completion of Italian Unity<br />Giuseppe Garibaldi, a Piedmontese republican organized about 1,510 Red Shirts (Garibaldi’s Thousand) for an armed expedition to the south<br />The government of the Two Sicilies fell quickly as it was corrupt and inspired little loyalty from its population<br />Cavour wanted to avoid the international scandal which would occur if Garibaldi’s army met up with the French army in Rome, so he sent a Piedmont army to Naples<br />When the two armies met, monarch Victor Emmanuel and the chief of the Red Shirts rode together through Naples<br />Thus in 1861, “Italy was ‘made’ ...It had been made by the long high-minded apostolate of Mazzini, the audacity of Garibaldi, the cold policy of Cavour, by war and insurrection, by armed violence endorsed by popular vote.” <br />Venetia (1866) and Rome (1870) were later added<br />
  12. 12. Persistent Problems after Unification<br />Unification did not settle or end very much<br />Nationalists wanted to expand Italy to other regions where they saw the Italia irredenta- “an unredeemed Italy”- waiting to be incorporated into the state<br />The Italian government’s occupation of Rome in 1870 divided the church and state<br />Italian patriots were bound to be anticlerical and Catholics were required to dislike Italy<br />Regional differences between northern and southern Italy didn’t change. The agrarian, religious south was seen as backwards by the north<br />Italy became parliamentary but not democratic. Suffrage was only given to 600,000 people of the 20 million Italians.<br />The parliament was also corrupt and revolutionary emotions didn't end <br />Garibaldi tried to seize Rome himself twice more<br />

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