It can refer to a number of artistic and
professional disciplines which focus on visual
communication and presentation.
Various methods are used to create and
combine symbols, images and/or words to
create a visual representation of ideas and
Multimedia is a broad term that applies to the
integration of text, graphics, sound, video
and animation into a document.
The term can be used as a noun (a medium
with multiple content forms) or as an
adjective describing a medium as having
multiple content forms.
This is a more narrow term that applies to the
use of graphics in a document.
It encompasses every aspect of graphics from
the creation to the final product whether in
print or in some other medium.
It requires you to make decisions such as the
size of file, the number and type of colors
used, and what format is most appropriate.
This can be defined as everything on the page
that is not actual textual content.
Examples are photographs, drawings, line
art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers,
symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineer
drawings, or other images.
Film Cameras: Digital Cameras:
Lower priced cameras No processing charges
Very high resolution No film charges
Lots of accessories & gizmos Instant results
Better tonal quality New and fun
Better exposure control Special effects
Less time for making prints Can send via email
& slides Easier on the environment
More stable history Have your own darkroom
A chip with millions of photosites
Collects the data that's stored in each image
Record the brightness of the light that falls on it
Stored as a set of numbers
Sets the color & brightness of pixels
Is a data representation of a specific location in a
matrix or grid
The more pixels in a captured image, the higher the
A 1 Megapixel camera captures roughly
1200 pixels x 800 pixels
When you enlarge a digital image, the pixels show
Web pages and e-mails 72
Photo-printing: snapshots 200
Printing press 300
PPI =Pixels Per Inch
PPI is many times refer to as DPI, but they are
PPI =Pixels Per Inch
refers to the square pixels in a digital image
DPI=Dots Per Inch
refers to printed dots and the space between
Each colored box represents a certain
number of megapixels.The numbers along
the top and left side are print dimensions in
inches at 300ppi (pixels per inch). Most books
and magazines require 300ppi for photo
quality. For example, the chart shows that
you can make a 5" x 7" photo quality print
from a 3 megapixel camera.
See next slide for chart
inches @ 300ppi (numbers inside colored boxes are megapixels)
Notice that as the print size doubles, the megapixels required increases geometrically.You can make nice 8" x 10" prints with a 6 or 8
megapixel camera, but to make a true photo quality 16" x 20" print, you need between 24 and 30 megapixels. Don't be fooled by
manufacturers' claims that say you can make 16" x 20" prints from an 8 megapixel camera.While you certainly can make a print that
size, it will not be true photo quality.
A megapixel is 1 million pixels. It's an area
measurement like square feet.
A typical 8 megapixel camera produces
images that are 3266 x 2450* pixels.
If you multiply 3266 by 2450, you get
8,001,700 or 8 million pixels.
To find the largest photo quality image you
can print, simply divide each dimension by
3266 / 300 = 10.89 inches
2450 / 300 = 8.17 inches
If you are not publishing your images in a book or
magazine, and you're just making prints for yourself or
your friends, you can "cheat". Good quality inkjet printers
can make a nice looking print at 250 or 200ppi. At 200ppi,
the maximum print size becomes:
3266 / 200 = 16.33 inches
2450 / 200 = 12.25 inches
If you know how to use image editing software like
Photoshop, you can "cheat" even more by increasing the
image size, and even doubling the number of pixels in the
image.The quality of the camera and lens becomes more
important at this point because any loss of detail or
sharpness is magnified. If an image is enlarged too much
in this manner, it will look "fuzzy" or "pixelated".
Megapixels Pixel Resolution* Print Size @ 300ppi Print size @ 200ppi Print size @ 150ppi**
3 2048 x 1536 6.82" x 5.12" 10.24" x 7.68" 13.65" x 10.24"
4 2464 x 1632 8.21" x 5.44" 12.32" x 8.16" 16.42" x 10.88"
6 3008 x 2000 10.02" x 6.67" 15.04" x 10.00" 20.05" x 13.34"
8 3264 x 2448 10.88" x 8.16" 16.32" x 12.24" 21.76" x 16.32"
10 3872 x 2592 12.91" x 8.64" 19.36" x 12.96" 25.81" x 17.28"
12 4290 x 2800 14.30" x 9.34" 21.45" x 14.00" 28.60" x 18.67"
16 4920 x 3264 16.40" x 10.88" 24.60" x 16.32" 32.80" x 21.76"
35mm film, scanned 5380 x 3620 17.93" x 12.06" 26.90" x 18.10" 35.87" x 24.13"
*Typical Resolution.Actual pixel dimensions vary from camera to camera.
**At 150ppi, printed images will have visible pixels and details will look "fuzzy".
1 GB is poor ($13)
2 GB is ok ($15)
4 GB good ($20)
8 GB better ($40)
16 GB best ($115)
Fill the frame
Rule of thirds
Place subject off center
Get down on subjects level
Look of lines
Look for reflections
Tell a story
Paint or photo programs create images by using
pixels, which is known to as a raster (or bitmap) image
If an image is enlarged beyond its original size it will
Drawing programs create images using
mathematically defined lines and curves, which is
known as a vector image
If an image is enlarged beyond its original size it will
retain clean crisp lines
A lossless compression algorithm discards no
information. It looks for more efficient ways to
represent an image, while making no
compromises in accuracy.
In contrast, lossy algorithms accept some
degradation in the image in order to achieve
smaller file size.
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
very flexible format that can be lossless or lossy.The
details of the image storage algorithm are included as
part of the file. In practice,TIFF is used almost
exclusively as a lossless image storage format that
uses no compression at all. File sizes are quite big.
a lossless storage format. However, in contrast with
commonTIFF usage, it looks for patterns in the image
that it can use to compress file size.The compression
is exactly reversible, so the image is recovered
creates a table of up to 256 colors from a pool of 16 million. If the image has
fewer than 256 colors, GIF can render the image exactly.
GIF achieves compression in two ways. First, it reduces the number of colors
of color-rich images, thereby reducing the number of bits needed per pixel, as
"lossless" only for images with 256 colors or less. For a rich, true color
image,GIF may "lose" 99.998% of the colors.
is optimized for photographs and similar continuous tone images that contain
many, many colors. It can achieve astounding compression ratios even while
maintaining very high image quality.
JPG works by analyzing images and discarding kinds of information that the
eye is least likely to notice. It stores information as 24 bit color. Important: the
degree of compression of JPG is adjustable. At moderate compression levels
of photographic images, it is very difficult for the eye to discern any difference
from the original, even at extreme magnification.
is an image output option available on some digital cameras
disadvantage is that there is a different RAW format for each
manufacturer, and so you may have to use the manufacturer's
software to view the images. (Some graphics applications can read
some manufacturer's RAW formats.)
is an uncompressed proprietary format invented by Microsoft.There is
really no reason to ever use this format.
PSD, PSP, etc. , are proprietary formats used by graphics
Photoshop's files have the PSD extension, while Paint Shop Pro files
be sure to save your end result as a standardTIFF or JPG, or you may
not be able to view it in a few years when your software has changed
The idea behind contrast is to avoid elements
on the page that are merely similar. If the
elements (type, color, size, line thickness,
shape, space, etc.) are not the same, then
make them very different.Contrast is often
the most important visual attraction on a
page—it’s what makes a reader look at the
page in the first place.
Repeat visual elements of the design
throughout the piece. You can repeat
colors, shapes, textures, special
thicknesses, fonts, sizes, graphic
concepts, etc.This develops the organization
and strengthens the unity.
Nothing should be placed on the page
arbitrarily. Every element should have some
visual connection with another element on
the page.This creates a
clean, sophisticated, fresh look.
Items relating to each should be grouped
close together.When several items are in
close proximity to each other, they become
one visual unit rather than several separate
units.This helps organize
information, reduces clutter, and gives the
reader a clear structure.
White space is the space on a page that is not
occupied by any text or graphics. You might call
it “blank” space. Beginners tend to be afraid of
white space; professional designers use lots of
Use white space to separate and emphasize
parts of a desktop publishing document.
White space makes the document easier to read
and allows the reader to move quickly from one
part of the document to another.
Each graphic element should fulfill a specific
Its relative importance and its environment
should determine the size of a graphic
Effective graphic design guides the reader
through a publication.
Consistency in design helps the people
reading you document to find their way
Think of graphic design as the visual
equivalent of a jigsaw puzzle. Your job is to
assemble a total picture from a series of
Part of being a good designer is
understanding how you want to lead the
reader’s eye around the page; that is, which
item you want them to look at first, which
second, and so on.
Successful design is based on attention to
A concordant relationship occurs when you
use only one type family without much
variety in style, size, weight, and so on. It is
easy to keep the page harmonious, and the
arrangement tends to appear quite and
rather sedate or formal—sometimes
A conflicting relationship occurs when you
combine typefaces that are similar in style,
size, weight, and so on. The similarities are
disturbing because the visual attractions are
not the same (concordant), but neither are
they different (contrasting), so they conflict.
A contrasting relationship occurs when you
combine separate typefaces and elements
that are clearly distinct from each other. The
visually appealing and exciting designs that
attract your attention typically have a lot of
contrast built in, and the contrasts are
Serif describes the extensions at the end of the
main strokes that define each letter; these
extensions are called serifs.
Oldstyle—Footlight MT Light
▪ Slanted serifs
▪ Diagonal stress
▪ Thin serifs
▪ Vertical stress
▪ Thick serifs
▪ Vertical stress
“Sans” means “without” (in French) , san serif
typefaces are those with out serifs on the end
of the strokes. San serif typeface is almost
always monoweight, meaning there is
virtually no visible thick/thin transition in the
stroke; the letter forms are the same
thickness all the way around.
Comic Sans MS
The script category includes all those
typefaces that appear to have been hand
lettered with a calligraphy pen, both
connected style & non-connected styles
Decorative fonts are great– they’re fun,
distinctive, easy to use, often times cheaper,
and there is a font for any whim you wish to
express. If the thought of reading an entire
book in the font make you want to throw up,
you can probably put it in the decorative pot.
This is a font that is made of symbols. Many
fonts actually have symbols, but some font
are all symbols. In design software they are
known as glyphs.
Precision is often a key to good design
Units of Measurement
Defining your document in points, picas or
inches is a personal preference
Point = 1/72 of an inch
Point = 1/12 of a pica
Pica = 1/6 of an inch
Pica = 12 point
Inch = 72 points per inch
Inch = 6 picas per inch
Who is the intended audience?
What is the basic message you are trying to
In what format will readers encounter my
What similar messages have my readers
encountered from other sources or
How does this publication relate to my other
They are called the primary colors because
they are the only colors you can not create.
If you take equal amount of the color next to
it you’ll get the secondary colors
To fill the empty spots take equal amount of
the color next to it you’ll get the tertiary
Colors directly across form each other, exact
A set of three color equidistant from each
Choose a color from one side of the wheel,
find the compliment directly across the
wheel, but use the colors on each side of the
A set of two or three colors that are next to
each other on the wheel. No matter which
ones you combine, they all share an under
tone of the same color.
Hue—the pure color
Shade—add black to a hue to create
Tint—add white to a hue to create
A combination composed of one hue with
any number of is corresponding tints and
Most fun of all, choose one of the four color
relationships (complimentary, triad, split
complementary triad, analogous), but in
stead of using hues, use various tints and
shades of those colors. This expand your
Tone—the difference in the value of color; the
particular quality of brightness, deepness, or
hue of any color
You want to make sure you have contrasting
If you must stick to a particular color scheme
you can possible add shadows to help
separate the two elements.
Tend to have some red or yellow in them
Come to the front
It takes very little to make an impact (red & yellow
jump into your eyes)
Tend to have some blue in them
Recede into the background
Sometimes you have to use more to make an
impact or contrast effectively
Sometimes it can be overwhelming.
Start with a logical approach.
Ask yourself some questions.
Is it a seasonal project?
Summer—reds & yellows
Autumn—oranges & browns
Are there official colors?
Start with tint & shades
Or split compliment colors
Does your project include a photograph or
Pick up a color in the photograph & choose a
range of colors based on that
Choose analogous color to keep the project
sedate and calm
Choose complimentary colors to add some visual
Are you working on a recurring project?
You might want to set a color palette that you use
With the four colors of ink you can print many thousands
of colors, which is why it is called “four color process”
This is the color model we use for print
It does not appear as vivid as what you will see on your
computer monitor, so don’t be disappointed
This is the color you see on you computer monitor,TV &
RGB is composed of beams of light the goes straight from
monitor to your eyes
RGB file sizes are smaller and some techniques in
Photoshop only work in RGB