Topic 2 - The Nature of Science


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This topic reviews the nature of science including the six step scientific method, scientific theories and laws.

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Topic 2 - The Nature of Science

  1. 1. Topic 2 The Nature of Science Write out all notes in BLUE . (notes in black are optional) Name: ___________________
  2. 2. <ul><li>Topic 2 Objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>List the 6 steps of a scientific investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between a scientific theory and a scientific law </li></ul><ul><li>- Compare Indian Science and Western “ologies” </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>A. Scientific Method – a universal six </li></ul><ul><li>step approach to solve scientific </li></ul><ul><li>problems. </li></ul>The scientific method was developed so scientists could test possible explanations to questions, and allow others to verify the results. TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  4. 4. STEP 1: Defining the Problem The scientific method begins when a person asks a question. For example, “Do the seeds of a particular plant species need light to germinate?” What are you trying to prove, discover, or learn about? TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  5. 5. STEP 2: Collecting Information Gather information about what has already been learned about the problem. The question is usually followed by a thorough search for information about the topic. TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  6. 6. STEP 3: Making a Hypothesis Hypothesis - a possible explanation for an observed set of facts. Based on your research, what do you think the solution to the problem is? Sometimes, this is referred to as an educated guess. TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  7. 7. STEP 4: Doing Experiments The experiment must be done under controlled conditions. This means all factors that affect the results of the experiment (called variables) must be controlled except for the variable being studied. A carefully designed procedure used to test the hypothesis. TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  8. 8. STEP 5: Observing & Measuring A collection of information and data about the experiment. This is a careful examination of the information gathered during the experiment. TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  9. 9. STEP 6: Conclusion Make a conclusion based on the results or data. The conclusion may support or reject the hypothesis. What is the outcome of the experiment? Does the data collected prove or disprove your hypothesis? TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  11. 11. STEP 1 – Defining the Problem 1. Does vitamin C help to cure a common cold? TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  12. 12. STEP 2 – Collecting Information 2. Read scientific journals and books, interview friends and family, talk to medical professionals TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  13. 13. TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE STEP 3 – Make a Hypothesis 3. Vitamin C does help to reduce the number of days a person suffers from the common cold.
  14. 14. STEP 4 – Do Experiments 4. To test the hypothesis, two groups of 100 cold sufferers are selected. Group A is given 1,000mg of vitamin C and group B is given a placebo (sugar pill) each day for one week beginning with the first day of cold symptoms. TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  15. 15. STEP 5 – Collect Data from Experiments 5. The following data is collected: TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE 0 0 7 8 10 5 56 53 3 100 100 1 Group B (placebo) Group A (vitamin C) # of days with a cold
  16. 16. STEP 6 – Conclusion 6. Vitamin C does not have an effect on the duration of the common cold. (rejects the hypothesis) TOPIC 2 – THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
  17. 17. B. Theories and Laws Examples : - Big Bang Theory - Cell Theory - Theory of Global Climate Change Theories – Explanations that apply to a broad range of phenomenon and that are supported by experimental evidence.
  18. 18. Scientific Law - a statement that describes some aspect of a phenomenon that is always true. B. Theories and Laws Examples : - Law of Gravity - Newton’s Laws of Motion - The law of Stratigraphic Succession
  19. 19. Topic 2 Assignment 1. Notes on the Nature of Science 2. Read Case Study “Indian Science and Western “ologies”. 3. Answer article questions #1-3 Staple all parts together and hand in.