Theoretical
Perspectives
The importance of paradigms
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
1. It is necessary to have a paradigm in...
Major paradigms in psychopathology
Biological models
Psychological models
Psychoanalytic models
 Behavioral models
 C...
Major paradigms in psychopathology
Biological models:
Genetic ↔
Structural ↔
Biochemical (especially neurotransmitter mode...
An example of Behavioral Genetic Results
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
The Nervous System
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Brain structures and functions
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Neurotransmission
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Major paradigms in psychopathology
Psychoanalytic models
Sigmund Freud ↔
The Vienna Circle (Carl Jung; Alfred Adler)
The E...
Key Freudian Concepts:
 Psychic determinism; the role of unconscious
conflicts
 Personality is a closed energy system
 ...
Dimensions of the Mind: Freud
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
Key Freudian Concepts:
 Psychosexual stages of development model
 oral stage (birth to 1 year)
 anal stage (1 to 3 year...
Major paradigms in psychopathology
Psychoanalytic models:
Sigmund Freud ↔
The Vienna Circle (Carl Jung; Alfred Adler)
The ...
Behavioral models
Classical Conditioning (I. Pavlov) ↔
Operant Conditioning
The Law of Effect (Thorndike)
Abnormal Psych...
Classical Conditioning
Step 1: Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) > Unconditioned response (UCR)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) No re...
Operant Conditioning
Positive reinforcement- increasing a behavior by
providing a positive reinforcer when the behavior oc...
Operant Conditioning
Other concepts:
- Shaping
- Schedules of reinforcement
- Primary and secondary reinforcers
Abnormal P...
Recent variations of behavioral theory
Social learning theory
 Delay of reinforcement
 Social modeling
Cognitive- beha...
The Humanistic/ Existential or “3rd force” in
psychotherapy
 Reacted against the determinism of psychoanalysis and
behavi...
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization
Esteem Needs
Belongingness Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
A...
Client-centered therapy (C. Rogers)
Major techniques:
1. Empathic listening/ unconditional positive regard
2. Reflection o...
The Community-Cultural Perspective
Abnormal Psychology, 11/e
by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
1. Recognizes the importance of t...
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Sarason11 ch02

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Sarason11 ch02

  1. 1. Theoretical Perspectives
  2. 2. The importance of paradigms Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005 1. It is necessary to have a paradigm in order to guide the questions that are asked--otherwise, research & conceptualization of problems would be aimless. 2) It is important to be aware of the assumptions or beliefs that are implicit to the paradigm. 3) It is important to be aware of other available paradigms--other possible explanations.
  3. 3. Major paradigms in psychopathology Biological models Psychological models Psychoanalytic models  Behavioral models  Cognitive-behavioral models  Humanistic models Social environmental models Vulnerability models/ biopsychosocial models Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  4. 4. Major paradigms in psychopathology Biological models: Genetic ↔ Structural ↔ Biochemical (especially neurotransmitter models) ↔ Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  5. 5. An example of Behavioral Genetic Results Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  6. 6. The Nervous System Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  7. 7. Brain structures and functions Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  8. 8. Neurotransmission Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  9. 9. Major paradigms in psychopathology Psychoanalytic models Sigmund Freud ↔ The Vienna Circle (Carl Jung; Alfred Adler) The Ego Analysts (Karen Horney; Eric Fromm) The Interpersonal School (Harry S. Sullivan) Object Relations Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  10. 10. Key Freudian Concepts:  Psychic determinism; the role of unconscious conflicts  Personality is a closed energy system  Sexuality, aggression and other instinctual drives shape the nature of personality  Personality has 3 major components (id, ego and superego) ↔  Defense mechanisms Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  11. 11. Dimensions of the Mind: Freud Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  12. 12. Key Freudian Concepts:  Psychosexual stages of development model  oral stage (birth to 1 year)  anal stage (1 to 3 years)  phallic stage (3 to 6 years)--Oedipal & Electra complexes  latency stage (6 to 12 years)  genital (adolescence to adulthood)  Fixation; the importance of early development  Psychoanalysis - the talking cure (free association, dream analysis, interpretation, analysis of defenses, interpretation of transference). Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  13. 13. Major paradigms in psychopathology Psychoanalytic models: Sigmund Freud ↔ The Vienna Circle (Carl Jung; Alfred Adler) The Ego Analysts (Karen Horney; Eric Fromm) The Interpersonal School (Harry S. Sullivan) Object Relations School (Heinz Kohut) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  14. 14. Behavioral models Classical Conditioning (I. Pavlov) ↔ Operant Conditioning The Law of Effect (Thorndike) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  15. 15. Classical Conditioning Step 1: Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) > Unconditioned response (UCR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) No response Step 2: Pairing UCS and CS > Conditioned Response (CR) + Step 3: Conditioned Stimulus (CS) > Conditioned Response (CR) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  16. 16. Operant Conditioning Positive reinforcement- increasing a behavior by providing a positive reinforcer when the behavior occurs Negative reinforcement- increasing a behavior by removing a negative reinforcer when the behavior occurs Punishment- decreasing a behavior by providing a negative reinforcer when the behavior occurs Extinction (omission training)- decreasing a behavior by removing a positive reinforcer when the behavior occurs Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  17. 17. Operant Conditioning Other concepts: - Shaping - Schedules of reinforcement - Primary and secondary reinforcers Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  18. 18. Recent variations of behavioral theory Social learning theory  Delay of reinforcement  Social modeling Cognitive- behavioral theory  Information processing models of abnormal behavior  Cognitive restructuring of mis-perceptions  Irrational and Core beliefs Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  19. 19. The Humanistic/ Existential or “3rd force” in psychotherapy  Reacted against the determinism of psychoanalysis and behavior therapy (Carl Rogers)  Focus is on conscious experiences, trying to understand the person from his/her frame of reference.  Positive opinion about human nature--basically good, & if conditions are right, will grow & develop.  Emphasis is on health, self-concept, self-actualization-- humans have an inborn need for growth. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  20. 20. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization Esteem Needs Belongingness Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  21. 21. Client-centered therapy (C. Rogers) Major techniques: 1. Empathic listening/ unconditional positive regard 2. Reflection of content 3. Reflection of intent/ feeling Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  22. 22. The Community-Cultural Perspective Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005 1. Recognizes the importance of the context of problems-- poverty, homelessness, lack of education or personal resources, stigma & labeling, etc. 2. Maladaptive behavior is seen as a result of the inability to cope with external demands or stresses. 3. Recognizes role of families and social support in either increasing or reducing risk of mental disorder.
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