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Sarason11 ch02

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  • 1. Theoretical Perspectives
  • 2. The importance of paradigms Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005 1. It is necessary to have a paradigm in order to guide the questions that are asked--otherwise, research & conceptualization of problems would be aimless. 2) It is important to be aware of the assumptions or beliefs that are implicit to the paradigm. 3) It is important to be aware of other available paradigms--other possible explanations.
  • 3. Major paradigms in psychopathology Biological models Psychological models Psychoanalytic models  Behavioral models  Cognitive-behavioral models  Humanistic models Social environmental models Vulnerability models/ biopsychosocial models Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 4. Major paradigms in psychopathology Biological models: Genetic ↔ Structural ↔ Biochemical (especially neurotransmitter models) ↔ Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 5. An example of Behavioral Genetic Results Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 6. The Nervous System Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 7. Brain structures and functions Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 8. Neurotransmission Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 9. Major paradigms in psychopathology Psychoanalytic models Sigmund Freud ↔ The Vienna Circle (Carl Jung; Alfred Adler) The Ego Analysts (Karen Horney; Eric Fromm) The Interpersonal School (Harry S. Sullivan) Object Relations Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 10. Key Freudian Concepts:  Psychic determinism; the role of unconscious conflicts  Personality is a closed energy system  Sexuality, aggression and other instinctual drives shape the nature of personality  Personality has 3 major components (id, ego and superego) ↔  Defense mechanisms Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 11. Dimensions of the Mind: Freud Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 12. Key Freudian Concepts:  Psychosexual stages of development model  oral stage (birth to 1 year)  anal stage (1 to 3 years)  phallic stage (3 to 6 years)--Oedipal & Electra complexes  latency stage (6 to 12 years)  genital (adolescence to adulthood)  Fixation; the importance of early development  Psychoanalysis - the talking cure (free association, dream analysis, interpretation, analysis of defenses, interpretation of transference). Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 13. Major paradigms in psychopathology Psychoanalytic models: Sigmund Freud ↔ The Vienna Circle (Carl Jung; Alfred Adler) The Ego Analysts (Karen Horney; Eric Fromm) The Interpersonal School (Harry S. Sullivan) Object Relations School (Heinz Kohut) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 14. Behavioral models Classical Conditioning (I. Pavlov) ↔ Operant Conditioning The Law of Effect (Thorndike) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 15. Classical Conditioning Step 1: Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) > Unconditioned response (UCR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) No response Step 2: Pairing UCS and CS > Conditioned Response (CR) + Step 3: Conditioned Stimulus (CS) > Conditioned Response (CR) Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 16. Operant Conditioning Positive reinforcement- increasing a behavior by providing a positive reinforcer when the behavior occurs Negative reinforcement- increasing a behavior by removing a negative reinforcer when the behavior occurs Punishment- decreasing a behavior by providing a negative reinforcer when the behavior occurs Extinction (omission training)- decreasing a behavior by removing a positive reinforcer when the behavior occurs Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 17. Operant Conditioning Other concepts: - Shaping - Schedules of reinforcement - Primary and secondary reinforcers Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 18. Recent variations of behavioral theory Social learning theory  Delay of reinforcement  Social modeling Cognitive- behavioral theory  Information processing models of abnormal behavior  Cognitive restructuring of mis-perceptions  Irrational and Core beliefs Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 19. The Humanistic/ Existential or “3rd force” in psychotherapy  Reacted against the determinism of psychoanalysis and behavior therapy (Carl Rogers)  Focus is on conscious experiences, trying to understand the person from his/her frame of reference.  Positive opinion about human nature--basically good, & if conditions are right, will grow & develop.  Emphasis is on health, self-concept, self-actualization-- humans have an inborn need for growth. Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 20. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualization Esteem Needs Belongingness Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 21. Client-centered therapy (C. Rogers) Major techniques: 1. Empathic listening/ unconditional positive regard 2. Reflection of content 3. Reflection of intent/ feeling Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005
  • 22. The Community-Cultural Perspective Abnormal Psychology, 11/e by Sarason & Sarason © 2005 1. Recognizes the importance of the context of problems-- poverty, homelessness, lack of education or personal resources, stigma & labeling, etc. 2. Maladaptive behavior is seen as a result of the inability to cope with external demands or stresses. 3. Recognizes role of families and social support in either increasing or reducing risk of mental disorder.