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  • 2. • Religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, andworld views that relate humanity to an order of existence Many religions have narratives, symbols, and sacred histories that are intended to explain the meaning of life and/or to explain the origin of life or the Universe. From their beliefs about the cosmos and human nature, people derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a preferredlifestyle. According to • some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world
  • 3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON RELIGION A.Symbolic interactionist perspective • The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism, is a major framework of sociological theory. This perspective relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction.
  • 4. B.The Functionalist perspective • According to the functionalist perspective of sociology, each aspect of society is interdependent and contributes to society's stability and functioning as a whole. For example, the government provides education for the children of the family, which in turn pays taxes on which the state depends to keep itself running. That is, the family is dependent upon the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so that they can raise and support their own families
  • 5. C.The conflict perspective • Conflict perspective is one of the major theoretical approaches to sociological thought. It originated with Karl Marx and his critique of capitalism and has since developed along a number of lines. In general, the conflict perspective assumes that social life is shaped by groups and individuals who struggle or compete with one another over various resources and rewards, resulting in particular distributions of power, wealth, and prestige in societies and social systems.
  • 6. MAGIC AND RELIGION • Religion and magic became conceptually separated with the development of western monotheism, where the distinction arose between supernatural events sanctioned by mainstream religious doctrine ("miracles") and mere magic rooted in folk belief or occult speculation. In pre-monotheistic religious traditions, there is no fundamental distinction between religious practice and magic; tutelary deities concerned with magic are sometimes called "hermetic deities" or "spirit guides."
  • 7. FAITH AND RELIGION • Religion is always in danger of growing apart from the people when its leaders forget to reflect carefully on their own behavior and come to look upon themselves as figures of authority. • Faith is the function of human life that dispels the dark clouds of doubt, anxiety and regret, opens one’s heart and orients it toward good.
  • 8. SCIENCE AND RELIGION • Everything that the human race has done and thought is concerned with the satisfaction of deeply felt needs and the assuagement of pain. One has to keep this constantly in mind if one wishes to understand spiritual movements and their development. Feeling and longing are the motive force behind all human endeavor and human creation, in however exalted a guise the latter may present themselves to us.
  • 10. 1.FACILITATE THE QUEST FOR MORAL IDENTITY • Moral identity is the extent to which an individual holds morality as part of his or her self-concept, and it has been shown to influence the degree to which people emphasize their own versus others’ needs”. A person shows “moral awareness”, a subject with limited empirical research, according to the authors, by recognizing the implications of and moral contents of a situation. • Four (4) concepts come into play in this arena: selfinterested behavior; moral identity; moral awareness; and power.
  • 11. 2.PROVIDE INTERPRETATION FOR MAN’S ENVIRONMENT • Environmental interpretation is usually carried out in spaces or routes which facilitate knowledge about nature and the relationship between society and nature in a specific location or region. The creation of Interpretive Centers or Trails or the use of already existing ones is an important support mechanism for the environmental education processes and complements educational possibilities in an important way.
  • 12. 3.PROMOTE SOCIAL COHESION AND SOLIDARITY • EMILE DURKHIEM ‘Society can only exist if there exists among its members a sufficient degree of homogeneity. • Education perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by fixing in the child, from the beginning, the essential similarities that collective life demands.
  • 13. TYPES OF RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION Religious movements and denominations • religious movements involve groups of people who join together to spread a new religion or to reinterpret an old one. Religious movements are large and typically “open” in their memberships, especially at the beginning of the movement. • Denominations are large and established religious bodies that have a hierarchy of religious leaders operating within a formal, bureaucratic structure. Most denominational members are born into and grow up within the body .
  • 14. Sects and cults • Sects are smaller, less organized religious bodies of committed members. They typically arise in protest to a larger denomination, like the Anglicans originally did to the Roman church in the 1500s. They may have few or no leaders and little formal structure.sects actively seek new converts. People are more likely to join sects than to be born into them.. • At first cults may resemble sects, but important differences exist. Cults, the most transient and informal of all religious groups, provide havens for people who reject the norms and values of larger society. Cultists may live separately or together in communes. Additionally, cults normally center around a charismatic leader who focuses on bringing together people of the same turn of mind. The potential for abuse and other problems in such environments has led • American society to give much negative press to cults, although not all cults are necessarily abusive.
  • 15. THE MAJOR RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD:THEIR BELIEFS • Hinduism • Buddhism • Confucianism • Judaism • Catholicism • Protestantism • Islam
  • 16. The Future Of Religion • Each generation is less religious than the last and the grip of the Church is being steadily weakened. Ireland used to be the most religious country in Europe, yet even here religion is being eroded away. The simple fact is that religion’s future is one of decline into insignificance as the older generations die off and young fail to take their place. Churches are facing a crisis in even finding members to join as priests and the closing of churches will soon be a common sight. Within 50 to 100 years religion will be but a shadow of what it once was, a mere footnote belonging to a forgotten time. • As so much of religion is private, it is not easy to quantify the level of religious belief in the country. Officially, the vast majority of people claim to be religious and in the most recent census 84% of the population claimed to be Catholic.