Ch. 10 -_motivation and engagement
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Ch. 10 -_motivation and engagement

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  • M *The central mission and focus of activity in a classroom is learning. *Academic motivation and engagement make for both teachers and students who are happy to be in school and eager to learn. *But it takes the consistent effort of the teacher.
  • M *in our presentation we will discuss these theories of motivation and engagement *we will also discuss recommended practices to incorporate into your own classrooms
  • M *There are three types of engagement for students and teachers
  • Melisa There are two types of motivation: extrinsic and intrinsic Extrinsic rewards is the desire to do something because of external rewards Intrinsic reward is the desire to do something because it is enjoyable; sense of accomplishment or love of learning As teachers we want to foster intrinsic motivation.
  • Melisa Learning Goal (Mastery) Orientation- Students seek to acquire new skills and knowledge to develop competence. Performance Goal Orientation- Students complete tasks for the sake of task completion and seek a sense of competence by seeking favorable judgments
  • M *A learners value or disposition for a subject is positively correlated with the amount of success they have experienced in that subject.
  • Melisa Individuals with high self-efficacy tend to persist even in the face of difficulty in a task that they belief is within their ability.
  • M
  • Melisa This theory links very closely with the Circle of Courage addressing three of its basic tenets: belonging, independence and mastery.
  • M
  • Melisa I talk about Exit Slips…
  • M
  • Melisa M talks about Grade Check…
  • M
  • Melisa M talks about Multiple Intelligences…
  • M *Autonomy is supported by allowing freedom within the classroom structure
  • Melisa M talks about Sage and Scribe…
  • Melisa
  • Melisa *Reciprocal Effect of Engagement- student exhibits anxiety or boredom and may need greater support for success, more interesting material and activities, or more latitude in the classroom *Changing Beliefs- is explicitly teaching students with low self-efficacy to examine both success and failures in terms of effort, use of appropriate task specific strategies, and perseverance, while confirming that the students has the ability to complete the task. *Rewards- are for students who are less engaged may be enticed into the world of learning through rewards
  • M

Ch. 10 -_motivation and engagement Ch. 10 -_motivation and engagement Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 10 By: Melisa Ledesma and Meghan Carlson
  • Engagement and Motivation
    • Theories of motivation and engagement from psychology and education inform us about classroom structures and teacher behaviors that enhance motivation and engagement.
    • These theories compliment the basic tenets of the circle of courage.
  • Engagement
    • Behavioral engagement refers to participation in academic and social activities including extracurricular activities. It is related to conduct and on-task behavior.
    • Emotional engagement refers to positive and negative reactions to teachers, peers, school, and academic subjects. It is related to student interest, attitudes and values.
    • Cognitive engagement encompasses the idea of investment or willingness to exert effort and is related to motivational goals.
  • Motivation
    • Extrinsic motivation refers to a learners desire to complete a task or master a skill for the sake of an external reward, whether tangible or intangible.
    • Intrinsic motivation refers to the drive to accomplish a task or master a skill for reasons internal to the learner.
    • Activities should:
    • Have students work on projects that allow them to see how the information is relevant to their lives.
  • Prominent Motivational Theories
    • Goal theory tells us that the behavior, motivation, and engagement of a learner are influenced by the types of goals that he or she adopts in the learning process.
    • The are two types of goals that students can have:
    • Learning Goal (Mastery) Orientation
    • Performance Goal Orientation
    • Strategies should:
    • Present learners with problems to solve and work backwards toward an explanation of what can provide the desired result. This enables adults to take charge of their learning
  • Prominent Motivational Theories cont.
    • Expectancy – Value Theory tells us that learner motivation is a product of their personal expectation of success.
    • Activities should:
      • Have a high value or interest for learners
      • Encourage learners to have a high expectation that they can be successful but be challenged at the same time
      • Incorporate relevance and real-world connections
  • Prominent Motivational Theories cont.
    • Self-Efficacy Theory suggests motivation is mediated by ones sense of efficacy.
    • Learners have beliefs about their competence, and those beliefs determine the amount of effort that a learner will extend.
    • Strategies should:
    • Focus on individual improvement, progress, and mastery
    • Make evaluation private, not public
    • Recognize students' effort
    • Provide opportunities for improvement
    • Encourage view of mistakes as part of learning
  • Prominent Motivational Theories cont.
    • Attribution Theory suggests that individual motivation is affected by the amount of effort and the ability level of a student
    • Learners who attribute success to effort and ability will more likely persist on subsequent task.
  • Prominent Motivational Theories cont.
    • Self-Determination Theory states learners are most motivated when the basic psychological needs of belonging, competence, and autonomy are met.
    • This theory links very closely with the Circle of Courage addressing three of its basic tenets: belonging, independence and mastery.
    • Strategies should:
    • Allowing students to participate in determining what the class rules, consequences, and expectations might be
    • Providing opportunities for students practice self-assessment
  • Prominent Motivational Theories cont.
    • Behavioral Theory says that the amount of correct academic responses and appropriate learning behaviors can be increased through the use of positive consequences.
    • Helpful strategy:
      • Use incentive systems for academic work and appropriate learning work.
  • Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
    • Cues about learning goals
    • Develop learning with students in conjunction with school curricular requirements
    • Completing KWL (Know, Want, Learn) chart and KWHL (Know, Want, How, and Learn)
    • example: Charts (Exhibit 1)
    • Hold individual conferences with students on a regular basis.
    • Ask students what they learned when reviewing for the day.
    • example: Exit Slips (Exhibit 2)
  • Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
    • Help students develop learning goals
      • They should :
    • Be specific to performance standards
    • Be short term to increase motivation
    • Be challenging but within the students grasp
    • Include teacher feedback often
    • example: Index Card Assessment (Exhibit 3)
  • Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
    • Structures that deter competition and peer competition
    • Avoid competition as much as possible
    • Have students compare their performance on goals to their own personal starting point
    • example: Grade Check (Exhibit 4)
  • Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
  • Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
    • Competence
    • Differentiation
    • Clear and accurate feedback example Rubric
    • example: Rubric (Exhibit 7)
    • Adjusting teaching strategies example Multiple Intelligences
    • example: MI Test (Exhibit 8)
  • Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
    • Autonomy
      • Teachers can provide choices such as:
    • Topic for a report
    • Books to read
    • Types of project
    • Where to sit during independent work
    • example: Tic-Tac-Toe (Exhibit 9)
  • Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
    • Relatedness can be a powerful motivator in the classroom
    • Students who like and are liked by their teachers and peers are happier at school and have more fun learning
    • Practices that foster relatedness are:
    • Cooperative learning
    • example Co-op Roles (Exhibit 11)
    • Peer tutoring
    • example Sage and Scribe (Exhibit 10)
  • Promoting Effort and Strategy Use
    • While all students do not believe in the importance of effort, teachers can help them change their beliefs by teaching and exemplifying the connection between effort and achievement
    • Strategies include:
    • Sharing examples of times when effort and persistence paid off despite initial failure
    • Having students read about famous individuals who, because of their persistence, succeeded despite obstacles
  • Promoting Effort and Strategy Use
    • Reluctant learners are at a disadvantage due to a history of school failure, family or cultural factors, or disabilities such as learning or behavioral disorders.
    • Teachers can attend to motivation of reluctant learners by including:
    • Reciprocal Effect of Engagement
    • Changing Beliefs
    • Rewards
  • Circle of Courage
    • Three of the four tenets of the Circle of Courage are related to motivation and engagement.
    • The three tenets are:
      • Mastery
      • Independence
      • Belonging