Scientific work
related to water
, May 2012 Augusta
How we did the work
 We studied two rivers (Belelle and Mandeo) and two
intertidal zones (Ortigueira’s ria and Cobas beac...
Belelle and Mandeo river
Ortigueira’s ria:situation
Ortigueira’s ria
Cobas beach:situation
Cobas beach
Rivers
Aspects observed:
 Parts of the course
 Flora and fauna
 Chemical data
 Anthropogenic
action
 Pollution
 Uses...
Parts of the rivers’ course
High course
- The river has more inclination and carries little
water.
- Due to the inclinatio...
Parts of the rivers studied
 We only observed and collected data in the middle course and
the low course of the rivers.
...
The middle course of the river
The low course of the river
• The low course is less dynamic and the quantity of disolved oxygen is
lower.
• The low cours...
Flora: the riparian forest
 The riparian forest is one of the most outstanding
features of the river bank.
 It follows t...
Flora: the riparian forest
Sycamore plane
Acer pseudoplatanus
Hazelnut tree
Corilus avellana
Alder
Alnus glutinosa
Flora: the riparian forest
Bay laurel
Laurus nobilis
Oak
Quercus robur
In spring In autumn
Flora
Wild saffron
Royal fern
Osmunda Regalis
Willow - Salix sp.
Celery - Apiumgraveolens
FAUNA
Chysomela menthastri
on mint leaf
Mint beetle
Temporary frog
Calopterix virgo Salamander
Erithacus rubecula
European...
Chemical data
 We measured temperature, pH, conductivity and
dissolved oxygen in the middle course and the low
course of ...
Chemical data
Part of the
river
Temperature pH Conductivity Dissolved
oxygen
Belelle river Middle
course
9.6 ºC 6.64 190 µ...
Chemical data: low course
Chemical data: middle course
Anthropogenic action
It’s noticeable all along the course
of the river
It has been present for a long time
because water i...
ANTHROPOGENIC ACTION
The riparian forest has diminisheddue to the invasion of pastures
POLLUTION We found some sporadic
spots in the low course
Uses
The uses that we could observe were: household
consumption, irrigation, farming usage, power
generation, recreational...
Uses
Hydroelectrical plant
Public washing place
Detour for consumption
Recreational uses
Agriculture and livestock
Intertidal zones
We studied two zones:
 Ortigueira’s ria
 Cobas beach
Intertidal zone
Zone of coast that is under water at high tide and above water at low tide
Intertidal zone: substrate type
Hard: rocky
Intertidal zone: substrate type
Soft: sandy-muddy
High tide line: supralittoral zone
The high tide line features species like:
Armeria flowers
Xantoria and Crythmun
maritim...
High tide line
Yellow Xantoria Zone
Green Seaweed Zone
Dun Seaweed Zone
Red Seaweed Zone
FLORA: seeweed
Dun seaweed
Green seaweed
Red seaweed
FLORA
Salicornia sp.Limonium sp.
Examples of plants that
aren’t seaweed
Specific fauna
Limpet
Anemone
Balanus sp.
Monodonta sp. Litorina litoralis
Carcinus maenas
Pollicipes cornucopia
Clams / C...
Intertidal zone:
occasional fauna
Cormoran
Seagull colony
Purple sandpiper
Rat
Anas platyrhynchos
Larus argentatus
Dolphin...
In the lab: seawater study
The aim of the study was:
 To separate the seaweed’s pigments
by paper chromatography.
 To ex...
Seaweed chlorophyll
Extracting the pigments
Seaweed pigments
Filtering the extract
Seaweed pigments
Separating the green, red and brown pigments by
paper chromatography
Density of seawater
Finding out the density of seawater by weighting
Density of sea water. Results
Mass
(g)
Volume
(cm3
)
Density
(g/cm3
)
25,51 25 1.020
25,49 25 1.019
25,47 25 1.019
Density...
Uses
– Fishing
– Recreation
– Energy: waterwheel
– Gathering seaweed for different uses
Changes and pollution
Private property, law isn’t respected.
No public walking path
Rats: waste waters
Discarded fishing g...
THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR
YOUR ATTENTION
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Scientific work related to water

  1. 1. Scientific work related to water , May 2012 Augusta
  2. 2. How we did the work  We studied two rivers (Belelle and Mandeo) and two intertidal zones (Ortigueira’s ria and Cobas beach).  Dates: November and March  Students involved: 1st ESO (12-13 year-olds), 2nd ESO (12-13 year-olds), 3rd ESO (14-15 year-olds), 4th ESO (15-16 year-olds) and 1st Bach (16-17 year-olds)  Subjects: Biology, Chemistry and Science for the Contemporary World  We worked on the field, in the lab and in class.  We organised some conferences about these subjects.
  3. 3. Belelle and Mandeo river
  4. 4. Ortigueira’s ria:situation Ortigueira’s ria
  5. 5. Cobas beach:situation Cobas beach
  6. 6. Rivers Aspects observed:  Parts of the course  Flora and fauna  Chemical data  Anthropogenic action  Pollution  Uses: energy, agriculture, recreation
  7. 7. Parts of the rivers’ course High course - The river has more inclination and carries little water. - Due to the inclination the water is very oxygenated. Middle course - Higher flow; affluents; riparian forest. Low course - Forms part of the estuary. The course of the rivers is divided in three parts:
  8. 8. Parts of the rivers studied  We only observed and collected data in the middle course and the low course of the rivers.  In the middle course the water is more dynamic and has more disolved oxygen, so it is cleaner. This is the part where the water for human supply (consumption) comes from.
  9. 9. The middle course of the river
  10. 10. The low course of the river • The low course is less dynamic and the quantity of disolved oxygen is lower. • The low course may be under the influence of tides.
  11. 11. Flora: the riparian forest  The riparian forest is one of the most outstanding features of the river bank.  It follows the river course.  It’s important for the conservation of the river course.  Common trees: European alder, sycamore plane, hazelnut tree, bay laurel and oak.
  12. 12. Flora: the riparian forest Sycamore plane Acer pseudoplatanus Hazelnut tree Corilus avellana Alder Alnus glutinosa
  13. 13. Flora: the riparian forest Bay laurel Laurus nobilis Oak Quercus robur In spring In autumn
  14. 14. Flora Wild saffron Royal fern Osmunda Regalis Willow - Salix sp. Celery - Apiumgraveolens
  15. 15. FAUNA Chysomela menthastri on mint leaf Mint beetle Temporary frog Calopterix virgo Salamander Erithacus rubecula European robin Lutra lutra European otter Gerris lacustris
  16. 16. Chemical data  We measured temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen in the middle course and the low course of the river.
  17. 17. Chemical data Part of the river Temperature pH Conductivity Dissolved oxygen Belelle river Middle course 9.6 ºC 6.64 190 µS/cm 8.5 ppm Low course 10.1 ºC 7.15 251µs /cm 8.3 ppm Conclusions: The highest pH and conductivity are found in the low course due to the influence of tides. Portable digital Multiline P3 WTW
  18. 18. Chemical data: low course
  19. 19. Chemical data: middle course
  20. 20. Anthropogenic action It’s noticeable all along the course of the river It has been present for a long time because water is very useful and necessary, as some constructions we found on the way bear witness to. Nowadays, there is still pressure due to the same reasons Some constructions in the river bank
  21. 21. ANTHROPOGENIC ACTION The riparian forest has diminisheddue to the invasion of pastures
  22. 22. POLLUTION We found some sporadic spots in the low course
  23. 23. Uses The uses that we could observe were: household consumption, irrigation, farming usage, power generation, recreational uses Waterwheel Irrigation Recreation
  24. 24. Uses Hydroelectrical plant Public washing place Detour for consumption Recreational uses Agriculture and livestock
  25. 25. Intertidal zones We studied two zones:  Ortigueira’s ria  Cobas beach
  26. 26. Intertidal zone Zone of coast that is under water at high tide and above water at low tide
  27. 27. Intertidal zone: substrate type Hard: rocky
  28. 28. Intertidal zone: substrate type Soft: sandy-muddy
  29. 29. High tide line: supralittoral zone The high tide line features species like: Armeria flowers Xantoria and Crythmun maritimun Crythmun marking the high tide line
  30. 30. High tide line Yellow Xantoria Zone Green Seaweed Zone Dun Seaweed Zone Red Seaweed Zone
  31. 31. FLORA: seeweed Dun seaweed Green seaweed Red seaweed
  32. 32. FLORA Salicornia sp.Limonium sp. Examples of plants that aren’t seaweed
  33. 33. Specific fauna Limpet Anemone Balanus sp. Monodonta sp. Litorina litoralis Carcinus maenas Pollicipes cornucopia Clams / Cardium edule Martesterias glaciaris Holoturia
  34. 34. Intertidal zone: occasional fauna Cormoran Seagull colony Purple sandpiper Rat Anas platyrhynchos Larus argentatus Dolphin family - Calderon
  35. 35. In the lab: seawater study The aim of the study was:  To separate the seaweed’s pigments by paper chromatography.  To extract iodine from seaweed.  To measure the density of seawater. A sample of seawater and seaweed was taken to the lab.
  36. 36. Seaweed chlorophyll Extracting the pigments
  37. 37. Seaweed pigments Filtering the extract
  38. 38. Seaweed pigments Separating the green, red and brown pigments by paper chromatography
  39. 39. Density of seawater Finding out the density of seawater by weighting
  40. 40. Density of sea water. Results Mass (g) Volume (cm3 ) Density (g/cm3 ) 25,51 25 1.020 25,49 25 1.019 25,47 25 1.019 Density (g/cm3 ) 1.019 The density of sea water in Cobas beach is 1019 kg/m3
  41. 41. Uses – Fishing – Recreation – Energy: waterwheel – Gathering seaweed for different uses
  42. 42. Changes and pollution Private property, law isn’t respected. No public walking path Rats: waste waters Discarded fishing gear
  43. 43. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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