What makes a SWOT analysis effort successful? You must start with your Vision, Mission and Values statement. You must objectively prepare your businesses internal and external status. You must be realistic and forthright in preparing the businesses, and your, strengths and weaknesses Be specific but keep it short and simple, don’t over analyze. Developing strategies and tactics that match the SWOT analysis results. Writing an operating plan based on your SWOT Analysis, strategies and tactics. Implementation of a resulting operating plan.EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESSefficiency is (―doing the thing right―)effectiveness is (―doing the right thing―)It is useful to identify efficiency and effectiveness measures separately, since online marketing and webanalytics often tend to focus on efficiency. Hasan and Tibbits (2000) note that the internal process
measures in particular are concerned with the efficiency and the customer and business valueperspectives are indicated with effectiveness, but these measures can be applied across all four areas aswe have shown.Efficiency is all about saving time, money or effort. Effectiveness is all about getting the job done.Efficiency is doing things right, and effectiveness is doing the right things.Efficiency is a measure of speed and cost. For example: Efficiency says "Getting someone inhere right away is more important than getting the right person later." Effectiveness is ameasure of quality. Effectiveness says the opposite: "Hiring the right person is more importantthan hiring someone right away."_________________________________________________________________________Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion ofthe "greenhouse effect"1 -- warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earthtoward space.Certain gases in the atmosphere block heat from escaping. Long-lived gases, remaining semi-permanentlyin the atmosphere, which do not respond physically or chemically to changes in temperature are describedas "forcing" climate change whereas gases, such as water, which respond physically or chemically tochanges in temperature are seen as "feedbacks."A layer of greenhouse gases – primarily water vapor, and including much smaller amounts of carbondioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – act as a thermal blanket for the Earth, absorbing heat and warmingthe surface to a life-supporting average of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius). We live in a greenhouse Life on Earth depends on energy coming from the sun. About half the light reaching Earths atmosphere passes through the air and clouds to the surface, where it is absorbed and then radiated upward in the form of infrared heat. About 90 percent of this heat is then absorbed by the greenhouse gases and radiated back toward the surface, which is warmed to a life-supporting average of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius). Is the Sun to Blame? How do we know that changes in the sun aren’t to blame for current global warming trends? Since 1978, a series of satellite instruments have measured the energy output of the sun directly. The satellite data show a very slight drop in solar irradiance (which is a measure of the amount of energy the sun gives off) over this time period. So the sun doesnt appear to be responsible for the warming trend observed over the past 30 years. Longer-term estimates of solar irradiance have been made using sunspot records and other so-called ―proxy indicators,‖ such as the amount of carbon in tree rings. The most recent analyses of these proxies indicate that solar irradiance changes cannot plausibly account for more than 10 percent of the 20th century’s warming.2If the warming were caused by a more active sun, then scientists would expect to see warmertemperatures in all layers of the atmosphere. Instead, they have observed a cooling in the upperatmosphere, and a warming at the surface and in the lower parts of the atmosphere. Thats becausegreenhouse gasses are trapping heat in the lower atmosphere.One degree may sound like a small amount, but its an unusual event in our planets recent history.Earths climate record, preserved in tree rings, ice cores, and coral reefs, shows that the global averagetemperature is stable over long periods of time. Furthermore, small changes in temperature correspond toenormous changes in the environment.
Global Climate Change: Recent Impacts7 Likelihood that trend occurred in latePhenomena 20th centuryCold days, cold nights and frost less frequent over land Very likelyareasMore frequent hot days and nights Very likelyHeat waves more frequent over most land areas LikelyIncreased incidence of extreme high sea level* LikelyGlobal area affected by drought has increased (since Likely in some regions1970s)Increase in intense tropical cyclone activity in North Likely in some regionsAtlantic (since 1970)* Excluding tsunamis, which are not due to climate change.Agriculture as a Contributor to the Causes of Climate ChangeAccording to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the three main causes of the increase ingreenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil fuels, land use, and agriculture.Agriculture has been shown to produce significant effects on climate change, primarily through theproduction and release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.Another contributing cause of climate change is when agriculture alters the Earths land cover, which canchange its ability to absorb or reflect heat and light. Land use change such as deforestation anddesertification, together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide.Deforestation as a contributor to the Causes of Climate changeIt is important, first to understand what a precious resource rainforests play in our world. They form partof a delicate ecosystem that has taken millions of years to evolve.Rainforests every year help to absorb almost 20% of man made CO2 emissions therefore deforestationcan be classed as a major contributor to the causes of climate change. Cutting down rainforests fasterthan they can be replaced has a devastating effect on the carbon emission cycle producing an extra 17%of greenhouse gases. Remember trees absorb CO2. More deforestation means more CO2 build up in theatmosphere.Deforestation by means of cutting down and burning these tropical rainforests usually pave the way foragriculture and industry which often produce even more CO2.PHILIPPINE FOOD SECURITY POLICY AND STRATEGY IN FLUX: SOME RECOMMENDATIONSIn may be said that the agriculture, rural development and natural resources management sectors of thePhilippine economy and government has been in transition since 1986. This is true particularly inreference to the very frequent changes in sector leadership and governance that have been made in theDepartments of Agriculture, Agrarian Reform and Environment and Natural Resources since 1986. Since1986 all Secretaries of the DA, DAR and DENR have, with only a single exception, been unable to servetheir full six-year terms as provided by law. Yet prior to 1986 the ministers/secretaries of agriculture andagrarian reform served for 13 to 20 years—in the process learning from both their mistakes and victories.TOLENTINO : The Globalization of Food Security 57At the very least, the frequent changes have causedthe programs and projects in each department to be halted then re-started with each episode ofreplacement of the secretary and other senior officials. There have been at least six periods of transitionbetween outgoing and incoming secretaries of agriculture since 1986. These transition periods have eachlasted, nominally, at least a few months. Yet the task of agriculture sector management must go with theseasons. Crops cannot be hurried through their growth cycles. Yet the sector grows all the more complex
and long-term in nature with rapid population growth, increased food requirements, intensified domesticresource scarcity and global openness. Given that the DA is a very complex organization and the taskof governance for agricultural growth is by itself a complex undertaking, the period of administrativetransition is merely a sub-period of the overall learning period required to achieve a level ofunderstanding and expertise sufficient for effective sector governance.FOOD SECURITYAttainment of food security is an important goal for the Philippines as well as the rest of the Asia-Pacificregion. Substantial resources have been channeled toward attainment of this goal. In the Philippines, foodsecurity and agricultural efficiency had always been a priority program of every administration. However,there are still a number of existing policy and institutional constraints that block the realization of a ―food-secure‖ country. Food security can only be achieved if certain conditions in the economy are met. To alarge extent, it is dependent on the rate of economic growth and distribution of incomes in a country.Since the Philippines and other developing economies are basically agricultural economies, where a largeportion of its population, especially the poor, depend on food or food-related activities, the need to ensuresustainable agricultural growth and development becomes an imperative. One immutable fact aboutdevelopment is the eventual decline of the share of agriculture in a country’s economic output and totalemployment. This occurs not through the instruments of policymakers but by economic forces that,together, in the long term, transform a country’s economic structure and allow the non agriculture sectorto lead. The nature and timing of policy intervention, however, determine to a large extent whether or notthe outcome of this transformation process is beneficial to society—commonly referred to in general termsas higher economic well-being. For ease of measurement, higher economic growth and better incomedistribution are some of the common proxies used to gauge well-being, albeit the fact that divergent viewshave been proffered on the issue.The concept of food security has likewise become a fashionable topic of debate since the food crisis of themid-70s. Food policy analysts and government policymakers have different interpretations about thematter. The predominant view among those that decide for agriculture in less developed countries is toequate food security with self-sufficiency for the reason that food, particularly food grains, are politicalcommodities. Food policy analysts, on the other hand, put premium on income in gauging food securitybased on the claim that poverty is the main cause of food insecurity. Thus, both on historical andanalytical grounds, it is clear that policy should do for agriculture what is appropriate for the wholeeconomy, not for the sector alone because agriculture is not the end but rather a means to an end. Foodself-sufficiency through high food price policy, for example, would be counterproductive because its wageeffect is a drag to growth with dire consequences on employment. It also penalizes poor consumersincluding food-deficit farmers.ECONOMYThe AQUINO administration has vowed to focus on improving tax collection efficiency - rather thanimposing new taxes - as a part of its good governance platform. The economy still faces several long-termchallenges, including reliance on energy imports and foreign demand for overseas Filipino workers.Philippine GDP grew 7.3% in 2010, spurred by consumer demand, a rebound in exports and investments,and election-related spending. The economy weathered the 2008-09 global recession better than itsregional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports,relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four- to five-million overseas Filipinoworkers, and a growing business process outsourcing industry.Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 33%industry: 15%services: 52% (2010 est.)2012 Outlook
Expect acceleration of public expenditures to continue well into 2012 and beyond, as well as substantial acceleration of disbursements, including those for infrastructure and capital outlay, in the coming months. Investment is expected to post a strong growth in 2012 despite the global economic uncertainties, as we anticipate strong investments from both public and private sectors. The construction sector will get a boost from public construction in 2012 due to continued spending for the government’s Disbursement Acceleration Program’s projects that were carried over from the previous year, and from the faster budget execution process of government. Construction will also get a boost from the acceleration of the implementation of the Private-Public Partnership program this year. In addition, expect that private construction will remain robust, particularly in the property sector, given the upward momentum in the office sector, and the relatively high BPO office demand in strategic areas across the country. Also expect the residential sector to remain supported by the demand from families of overseas Filipinos. There is likewise an expected expansion of investments in energy; mining; low-cost housing and office buildings; and the industries in the priority areas – agribusiness, consumer durables, information technology (IT), health and wellness, transport, telecommunications, and especially tourism to contribute positively to the country’s economic growth in 2012. While NEDA is optimistic that 2012 will be substantially better than 2011, it remains vigilant and continues toclosely monitor external developments that continue to pose significant risk to the country’s growth. As many analysts expect, global economic recovery might stall in 2012 mainly due to the growing concerns over Europe. The International Monetary Fund projects the Euro area will suffer a mild recession due to lingering concerns on how to appropriately and quickly restore confidence in the economy in order to support growth while at the same time addressing fiscal imbalance and providing more liquidity and monetary accommodation. Similarly, the government is also watching closely developments in the U.S. economy, whether the recovery will gain momentum or will remain fragile. Likewise, the government recognizes the risk that China could slow down or even experience a ―hard landing.‖ASPECTS OF AGRI ED NEEDING IMPROVEMENTWhat are the effects of rural to urban migration?As countries pursue development and industrialization drives, the need to build urban centres becomecertain. It is in this pursuance that leads to somewhat neglect of the no urban centres. This calls forpeople in the rural areas desiring to move to the urban centres. Every man wants a standard of livingbetter than where he is now thus; the drive to move to the urban centres becomes obvious. In thedeveloping countries, this passion becomes so great that the movement becomes rampant. The purposeof this piece is to reflect on the serious problem of excessive rural-urban migration and rising urbanunemployment and underemployment in developing countries and how to restore a proper balancebetween rural economic and social opportunities to curb rural-urban migration.Rural areas are isolated areas of an open country with low population density. Occupation by the ruralfolks is mostly primary in nature. For instance, farming, lumbering, fishing, quarrying etc. are the majoractivities offered by the rural people. Most of the industries are being concentrated in the urban centres. Itbecomes relatively hard for the rural folks to make ends meet. Since the available occupations in the ruralareas are mostly primary, they offer a low profit capital and the few elite are not motivated because of theprimary nature, and fewer wage offered by the jobs in the rural areas, not much to be desired. Theseasonality of the primary job or the agricultural activity which they are engaged in results to seasonalunemployment and the small scale business industries are been wiped off by the demand for thetechnological products from the urban centres thus causing structural unemployment. This leaves muchpeople in the rural areas unemployed in most part of the year. Rural areas are characterized with chronicfood insecurity widespread and livelihoods are more vulnerable. Rural folks have limited access to basicsocial services, safe water, roads that are accessible year round, and electricity and telephone services.Poverty is most severe among rural farmers, who are mainly traditional small-scale producers. About sixin ten small-scale rural farmers are poor, and many are women. Women bear heavy workload in additionto their domestic chores, they are responsible for about 60 per cent of agricultural production. More thanhalf the women who head households in rural areas are among the poorest 20 per cent of the population.
The fate of the youth and students in rural area is not promising. They are mostly at disadvantage to theircounterparts at urban areas who have easy access to quality education, internet facilities, employmentopportunities, better health care and opportunities for advancement. Notwithstanding thesedisadvantages, the rural folks are facing, they enjoy certain advantages. For instance, living in a rural areaallows residents to enjoy the natural environment instead of having to go to recreational sites. In addition,rural people do not have to struggle with the daily stresses of urban life such as being stuck in traffic,dealing with higher rates of crime, and in many cases, paying higher taxes. These absences of stressorscan have a great effect on the overall quality of life and as one researcher notes, "People living in ruraland sparsely populated areas are less likely to have mental health problems than those living in urbanareas and may also be less likely to relapse into depression or mental illness once they have recoveredfrom these in more densely populated areas" (J. W. Combs 1960). The big question is, are theseadvantages much enough than the disadvantages to motivate those there (rural folks) to stay there? Thebig response to the big the question is "NO" since its disadvantages outweigh that of the advantages.These phenomena is the main push factor causing the rural folks to move to areas (urban areas) havingcomparative advantage than the rural areas (thus from the rural areas to the urban centers) (Samkof,2002).Urban area is an area with relatively high population density that contains a set of closely relatedactivities. Urban areas are endowed with free-standing built-up area with a service core with a sufficientnumber and variety of shops and services, equipped with better administrative, commercial, education,entertainment and other social and civic functions. Urban areas generally have advanced systems forsanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. Parents in the urban areas have a number ofchoices available for the education of their children and can often select from a long list of both public andprivate school districts, which leads to the potential for better education. It is also worth noting that urbanareas offer residents the possibility to choose from a range of employment opportunities at any number ofcompanies or organizations. Aside from this, urbanites have better access to choices in healthcare as welland if they suffer from diseases they have a number of specialists to choose from in their area.Development is mostly concentrated in the urban areas which intend to facilitate interaction betweenpeople and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process. There is a widely availability of modernamenities like the internet, telephone and satellite communication facilities in the urban areas. Majority ofthe households in urban areas are blessed with technological advancement or products which lead toeffective and efficient work done since most of the jobs are done technologically instead of man power.Urban folks are at an advantage of using these technological amenities (internet facilities and computer)to broaden the scope of their knowledge compared to their counterparts at the rural area where theseproducts (technological products) are limited, and in most cases lacking. Again there is unlimited access tofinancial opportunities to the urban producer. His rural colleague being poor in nature has limited accessto financial institutions. The presence of credit available to the urban producers to expand their businessand engage in other ventures is one of the advantages the urban folks have over the rural folks whoalthough have the available raw materials, lack the capital and technological expertise which can beprovided by the financial sectors. As stated earlier these advantages compel most of the rural folks tomove to the urban centers to have access to the numerous advantages endowed in those areas.The act of moving from the rural area to the urban centers for economic and social opportunities is termas rural-urban migration. Rural-urban migration has led to urban areas in developing countries to witnessa rapid increase in urban population concentration within the past decades. In Ghana, for example, theurban population in1960 was 23 percent of the total population. The proportion increased by almost10percent to 32 percent in 1984 (Statistical Service of Ghana, 1988). This has engendered both scholarlyand policy interests and concerns. The concerns have emanated from the fact that the bulk of the urbanpopulation is constituted of migrants from rural areas and other small towns. The causes of thisThe loss of rural population to urban centers is often bemoaned for its implied adverse effect on ruraldevelopment. The empirical data have revealed that migration is generally selective of the young,versatile, and/or better educated members of the community (Ritchey, 1976; Browning Ritchey, 1976;Browning & Feindt, 1969). This creates a form of "brain drain" on the rural populations.The deleterious consequences of rural-urban migration has led to the demand for urban socioeconomicamenities exceeding their supply, the urban areas often become spectacles of multifarious problems suchas overcrowding, congestion, inadequate housing, high rates of unemployment and underemployment,crime and other forms of delinquency. The quality of life at both the areas of origin and destination are,therefore, significantly affected. The repercussion of the ongoing analysis is being discussed below;Unemployment in the rural areas:in the developing world, there are limited job opportunities available,so the influx of people from the rural areas to the urban who are mainly unskilled in profession causesthem not fit for the available jobs in the urban which are mainly skilled in nature. Thus there will be a risein the unemployment and the underemployment rate in the urban areas as well as the rural areas. As the
migration happens, the labour force in the rural areas is being reduced and this will go a long way toaffect the output that can be produced in the long run.The key to solving this problem of excessive rural urban migration in restoring a proper balance betweenrural economic and social opportunities are;Improvement in the quality of education: in an attempt to reduce congestion in urban school as wellas some fortunate rural areas, there should be a policy that will lead to the improvement in the quality ofeducation in the rural areas. This should not just be the number of school built but also the quality ofteachers, the resources in the school like library, playing field, serene environment and even betterstructure of the school as far as building is concerned. Well trained teachers must be posted into the ruralareas and adequately motivated; teachers bungalows; rural teachers allowances, teachers that will teachwhat they have to teach and inculcate in their student the passion to believe in themselves. The schoolshould be of the same standard as the ones in the urban centres; a building and not just a structure. Theresources available should be made ease to the student so that they can increase their innermostendowments. There have to be changes in the curriculum, teaching learning materials and the teachingstrategy, a total revamping of the educational sector and changes in the attitude and the mindset of everymember of the community: the learners, the educated, parents and society at large. This policy will affectthe learned and later impact on the farmers and the rural community at large.ACHIEVEMENTS AND INNOVATIONS IN AGRICULTUREGrowth in agriculture.The agriculture and fisheries sector has proven its resilience in the face of severe natural disasters.Recovering from the long dry spell in 2010, both palay and corn recorded 15.9% growth involume at production levels of 10.75 million metric tons of rice and 5.49 million metric tons ofcorn.Agricultural production volume grew by 4.28 percent in the first nine months of 2011, a markedimprovement over the 2.81 percent decline during the same period in 2010.It is worth noting that the growth achieved in rice production is the highest in the last 10 years.Boosted by the increase in production of other crops like sugarcane, coconut and others, the cropssubsector contributed 50.07 percent to total agricultural production while the shares of othersubsectors were as follows: fisheries - 20 percent, livestock-16 percent and poultry- 14 percent.Making farmers believe in government means showing them that the DA serves their interests. Wehave lowered rice importation for this year from 2.4 million metric tons in 2010 to 860,000 metrictons. Of the total volume imported, 600,000 metric tons were imported by the private sector and farmersgroups, while 200,000 metric tons are NFA imports. These resulted in savings for government andserved the interest of Filipino farmers.The Food Staples Sufficiency Program (FSSP) is at the heart of our food security policy. TheFSSP includes a set of interventions to improve productivity, increase farmers incomes andensure the countrys food supply. For 2012 and 2013, while we will continue to import, the NFACouncil is considering allowing the private sector to handle bigger portions of imports.SPECIFIC INNOVATIONSEngaging landless rural workers as service providersOn 12 December, the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Social Work and Developmentlaunched the Agrikulturang Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino in Las Navas, Northern Samar. The nationallaunch comes after a partnership between the two agencies that started in August 2011 to engagelandless farmers under the DSWDs Cash-for-Work Program in paddy diking (the building of "pilapil"around farms) to allow these farms to benefit from the Catubig irrigation project.From just four hectares of farms being served, last August, by an irrigation project started 10 years ago,
the service area with built up paddy dikes increased to 303 hectares within less than four months. Thiswas the result of the work of eight batches of workers with 50 farmers per batch. Farmers are groupedinto teams of 10 persons and they work for 10 days for each hectare to build some 650 meters of "pilapil."Each batch undergoes training in paddy diking. Aside from the training, the DA also provided tools that theworkers use for the job. Seventeen more batches of 100 persons per batch are being prepared to work on30 hectares per batch. The workers get paid for four days of training and for 11 days at work at P200 perday. Altogether, the project will cover some 4,000 hectares that will create jobs for thelandless rural workers and produce food for the province of Northern Samar.The same workers who are building the paddies will be trained and organized into service provider groupsthat will eventually be able to contract other farm jobs from paddy diking to plowing, replanting,harvesting, irrigation canal repair and desilting and other labor-intensive farm activities.The poverty reduction strategy is to organize "skills-based" service provider groups who will be able tocontract to do farm services that the group can guarantee in terms of quality and competitive pricing.Management and marketing will be important add-on components of the groups to enable them to solicitenough jobs for the group, sufficient income and maintain themselves in a given area because of the goodjob they do.We have started the work on the service provider scheme for coconut replanting and coconut fertilizationand for the repair and desilting of irrigation canals.. Farmers will be engaged to undertake the PhilippineCoconut Authoritys coconut planting project that targets 138,125 farmers to replant the same number ofhectares of coconut farms. Other farm laborers will be tapped to do coconut fertilization while othercoastal families will produce salt that will be procured by the program to fertilize the coconut trees. Theprogram is, likewise, linked with the DSWD Cash-for-Work Program.Philippine Shell Foundation Inc. ProgramSanayan sa Kakayahang AgrikulturaThe Sanayan sa Kakayahang Agrikultura (SAKA) Program was created in 1985, two years after SKIL waslaunched. It is offered to sons and daughters of farming families with small land holdings. SAKA is anagricultural skills training program designed to improve farm productivity and management of eitherlowland or upland farming. It is also intended to help alter the stigma placed in farming and the lack ofinterest of young people to invest their future in the farm.Since 1985, SAKA has undergone various modifications to fit the changing needs of young farmersthrough the introduction of new farming techniques and technologies.In partnership with the Pampanga Agricultural College, Don Severino Agricultural College (now CaviteState University), and Benguet State University, SAKA began as a two-year course that trained scholarson crop and animal production, aquaculture, agro-forestry technology, farm management, farmequipment maintenance, basic accounting, and communication skills.Scholars were lent money while enrolled in the course to jumpstart income-generating projects out oftheir own farm produce. Upon completing the two-year course, SAKA scholars earned a Diploma inAgriculture Technology.Later on, SAKA was redesigned and compressed into a one-year course. This set up allowed scholars toreturn to their farms and practice their new skills after a year of training. Finishing the course renderedthem a Certificate in Agricultural Technology and Management.Today, SAKA is a one-year course that is not only concerned with tilling the land and improving yields. Italso imparts scientific farming technologies and farm entrepreneurship skills to scholars. Upon completionof the course, SAKA graduates earn a Certificate in Farm Entrepreneurship and are given access tomicrocredit to enable them to implement their back-to-farm plans.THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVEOLPMENTDarwins Theory of EvolutionCharles Darwin (1809-1882) believed that young, untrained infants share many characteristics with theirnonhuman ancestors and that observing child development might provide insights into the evolutionaryhistory of the human species.» Freuds Psychoanalytic TheorySigmund Freud (1856-1939) challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development byproposing that we are driven by motives and emotions on which we are largely unaware and that we are
shaped by our earliest experiences in life.» Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial DevelopmentErik Erikson (1902- ) revised Freuds theory by placing more emphasis on social influences, developingstares with a broader focus, emphasizing the ego, expressing a more positive view of human nature, andapplying the theory across the entire life span.» Piagets Cognitive Developmental TheoryJean Piaget (1896-1980) viewed intelligence as a process that helps an organism adapt to its environmentand proposed four major periods of cognitive development.» BehaviorismJohn B. Watson believed that conclusions about human development and functioning should be based onobservations of overt behavior rather than on speculations about unconscious motives or cognitiveprocesses that remain unobservable.» Skinners Operant Conditioning TheoryB. F. Skinner belived that the essence of human development is the continual acquitsition of new habits ofbehavior and that these learned behaviors are controlled by external stimuli (reinforcers and unishers).» Banduras Social Cognitive TheoryAlbert Bandura claimed that humans are cognitive beings whose active processing of information from theenvironment plays a major role in learning and human develpment.» Vygotskys Cognitive TheoryLev Vygotsky insisted that childrens minds are shaped by the particular social and historical context inwhich they live and by their interactions with adults.» Information Processing TheoryThe information proccessing approach to humban development emphasizes the fundamental mentalprocesses involved in attention, perception, memory, and decision making by using a computeranalogy.» Biobehavioral TheoriesThese theories look to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental differences amongpeople or animals are responsible for differences in their traits.» Bowlbys Attachment TheoryJohn Bowlby believed that many invant behaviors that promote emotional attachments have evolvedbecause they make it more likely that the invant will be cared for by adults and will therefore survive.» Cross-Cultural TheoriesThis perspective looks to find the typical rather than the unique and look for the underlying similaritiesamong cultures in order to define universal occurrences.» Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory of DevelopmentUrie Bronfenbrenner emphasized that the developing person is embedded in a series of environmentalsystems that interact with one another and with the individual to influence development.» Contextual TheoriesThese perspectives hold that development arises from the ongoing interrelationships between thechanging organism and achanging world. Changes in the person produce changes in his or her environment, changes in theenvironment produce changes in the person, and this interchange goes on continuously.» Risk and Resiliency TheoriesThese theories investigate the survival of individuals (resiliency) that are faced with adversity (risk).Theories of Cognitive Development There exist several theories of cognitive development, and no one theory has yet to explain all ofthe aspects of cognitive development. These theories are presented in the following.1) Jean Piagets stages of Development: Piagets theory is generally thought to be the most comprehensive theory of cognitive development.The general principles of Piagets theory include the following. He felt that intelligence is an aid in how one
adapts to the environment. Intelligence can be displayed on a continuum and is shown as one hasincreasingly complex responses to their environment. Equilibration refers to how development occursthrough stages - a process of cognitive development in which children seek a balance between theinformation and experiences they encounter. Piaget considered four main stages of development. Thesensorimotor stage is when an infant develops in terms of sensory input and motor output. In other wordsthe infant responds reflexively to their environment (i.e., crying, sucking, and grasping). As well they begin to gain representational thought at about 18-24 months as they start to be able tothink about objects and people who are not in their immediate environment. The Proeoperational stage (2-7 years) is made up of a development in how children can mentally represent things and verballycommunicate. The concrete-operational stage (7-12 years) is characterized by a childs ability to mentallymanipulate their thoughts about real objects. They now have thoughts and memories of objects, and canperform mental operations on these. The final stage of the formal operational stage (12 onwards) ischaracterized by the ability to make mental manipulations on internal and abstract symbols - they beginto see others perspectives.2) Neo-Piagetian Theorists: These theorists believe in Piagets idea of developmental stages but further it by building on his fourstages, most often suggesting a fifth stage of development - problem finding. In this stage, an individualcan figure out what problem they are facing and decide how to solve them. This fifth stage can be thoughtof as post-formal thinking in which an individual can recognize the unfolding of evolution and thought.3) Lev Vygotskys Theory: The main difference in Vygotskys theory is that he emphasizes the role of environemeny in childrenintellectual development - that development proceeds from the outside in - through internalization.Internalization is the process by which an individual absorbs knowledge from their external environment.Therefore, it is social rather than biological factors that most affect the child. He believed that there existsa Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which is the range of ability between a persons level of abilitiesand their capabilities that may not be directly exposed. Therefore when observing childrens abilities weneed to be careful in how we measure them as we mat not be observing all that they are capable of dueto environmental circumstances that prevent them from showing their fill potential.4) Information processing Theories of Development: This type of theorist seeks to understand cognitive development in terms of how children at differentages process information differently. The way that children and all people process information includes avariety of functions - these including perception, memory, understanding language and speaking it,understanding numbers and being able to work with them, problem solving and using reason and logicwhen thinking.Cognitive Development There are five broad questions that cognitive psychology addresses when looking at cognitivedevelopment. These include: What kind of cognitive abilities does a newborn have? At what age do webegin to show certain cognitive abilities? Are there critical periods in development when these skills mustbe acquired? What causes differences in peoples cognitive skills? What is the bigger influence -environment or biological influences? Is development stagelike or smooth? Is development an all overprocess or do specific areas develop faster than others? The two main concepts in cognitive development is maturation and learning. Maturation is anypermanent change in thought or behaviour that occur through the biological process of aging withoutregard to environmental influences. Learning is any relatively permanent change in thinking or behaviourthat is a result of experience. Maturation is programmed - it will happen regardless of the environment.Things that occur through maturation include reflexes. Learning will only take place is an individual has aparticular experience. The question of maturation versus learning is an age old debate - but today mostpsychologists believe that maturation and learning influence cognitive ability. We may be born with aparticular biological capability, but the extent to which it will be brought out depends on the environmentalcues we are exposed to. Certain environments may bring out different cognitive abilities. The next question that concerns psychologists is whether development occurs in a series of stages orwhether it is a continuous progression that gradually unfolds. Stages occur in a sequence - one musthappen before the other can, for example crawling before walking and language development. Each stageis associated with a specific set of abilities used in thinking. Therefore, when in a certain stage a child willthink and reason differently than if they were in a different stage. Given these characteristics of stages -do children exhibit stage-like development? Different psychologists believe different things. And those thatbelieve that stages do exist also realize that these stages are not clear cut. The third controversial question addresses whether development occurs generally through out thebrain or whether certain specific areas develop at different paces. For example, does a child learn how to
remember the alphabet at the same time they learn to remember numbers? Since the 1970s manypsychologists have come to believe that the brain develops in specific areas rather than generally. The next question that psychologists are concerned with is what ages do infants; children and adultsdemonstrate various kinds of thought and behaviours? It is important to know this as we need to knowthe normal stages of a childs development and what they should know when. The age that a child firstacquires motor skills does not predict later intelligence; however, the one thing that does predict this is aninfants preference for novelty - stimulus that is moderately different from that that they already know.Most developmental psychologists would agree that the key to understanding cognitive development isnot the identification of the specific stages that a child will acquire new skills, but rather an understandingof how there abilities progress and unfold.How Do Nature and Nurture Influence Human Development?How Much Do Nature And Nurture Influence Human Development Respectively?The debate concerning "how do nature and nurture influence human development‖ has factors whichsupport both nature and nurture. Nature is responsible for the growth of a person from the fetus level tilldevelopment into a normal adult. The genetic makeup of a human being is responsible for their sex, skincolor, color of their eyes and hair as well as distinguishing features which are inherited. Nature can onlyassist in the growth of a fetus into a normal well-developed adult who may have inherited some specialtalents. Thus it can be concluded that nature uses the genetic coding to help in physical development anddoes impart some positive or negative traits to an individual. However, it is nurture which can be utilizedto improve positive traits and diminish the effect of negative traits in a child.It is indeed important to recognize that nature in the form of inherited traits does exist but a person’soverall behavior is influenced a great deal by nurture or upbringing and the environmental factors involvedin this upbringing. Several recent studies carried out on infant and child behavior have shown that there issignificant evidence to support the fact that nurture strongly influences human development especially inthe early years. In traditional society most parents encourage their kids to take part in extracurricularactivities like learning music, dance or sports in accordance with the child’s talents and interests. Thetalents have been given by nature but they can only be developed into skills through the hard work ofnurture.ConclusionUndoubtedly, nurture plays a very big role in early human development. Nurture in some way or anotherspeeds up an individuals capacity to study and learn new things. There is the common saying that―practice makes perfect.‖ There for an individual can improve knowledge by practicing to adapt to allcreations in these circumstances or environment. The part which nurture plays in human development hasbeen demonstrated by psychologists in experiments in which stepping practice was administered to acohort of inference for just a few minutes many times in a day. It was later that these children were ableto walk several days earlier than infants who had not been given stepping practice (Zalazo, Zelazo & Kolb,1972.)In conclusion, when anyone asks the question ―how do nature and nurture influence human development,‖it is evident that nature is responsible for producing healthy, well-developed babies. It is also nurture thatplays an important role in the early stages of human development. Research has drawn beyond doubt thatearly human development is quicker and more focused due to nurture as it builds up on the talentsprovided by nature. Nature is responsible for the normal development of the fetus into a normal andhealthy infant but it cannot entirely develop that fetus into an intelligent, knowledgeable or athletic adult.This is possible only through the exposure that nurture gives a person. Therefore when answering thequestion ―how do nature and nurture influence human development‖, and it would be correct to say thatalthough the nature has some degree of influence on human development, nurture strongly influencesearly human development.
STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT The process of prenatal development occurs in three main stages. The first two weeks afterconception are known as the germinal stage; the third through the eighth week are known as theembryonic period; and the time from the ninth week until birth is known as the fetal period.The Germinal StageThe germinal stage begins with conception, when the sperm and egg cell unite in one of the two fallopiantubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up toa week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after conception.The Embryonic StageThe mass of cells is now know as and embryo. The beginning of the third week after conception marksthe start of the embryonic period, a time when the mass of cells becomes a distinct human being. Theembryo begins to divide into three layers each of which will become an important body system.Approximately 22 days after conception, the neural tube forms. This tube will later develop into thecentral nervous system including the spinal cord and brain.The Fetal StageOnce cell differentiation is mostly complete, the embryo enters the next stage and becomes known asa fetus. This period of develop begins during the ninth week and lasts until birth. The early body systemsand structures established in the embryonic stage continue to develop. The neural tube develops into thebrain and spinal cord and neurons form. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation.The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growthoccurs in the later stages of pregnancy.This stage of prenatal development lasts the longest and is marked by amazing change and growth.During the third month of gestation, the sex organs begin to differentiate and by the end of the month allparts of the body will be formed. At this point, the fetus weight around three ounces.The end of the third month also marks the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. During the secondtrimester, or months four through six, the heartbeat grows stronger and other body systems becomefurther developed. Fingernails, hair, eyelashes and toenails form. Perhaps most noticeably, the fetusincreases quite dramatically in size, increasing about six times in size. The brain and central nervoussystem also become responsive during the second trimester. Around 28 weeks, the brain starts to maturemuch faster with activity that greatly resembles that of a sleeping newborn.During period from seven months until birth, the fetus continues to develop, put on weight, and preparefor life outside the womb. The lungs begin to expand and contract, preparing the muscles for breathing._______________________________________________________________________________ SOCIOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION Several social forces are at work during the process of curriculum development. Probably the mostpowerful is the national economy, because schools are challenged constantly to meet the workforcedemands of a changing world. The world of the twenty-first century will be technologically advancedworld, and the workplace will require more education than ever before. Modern careers require skills thatare more technologically complex, and also more interactive. Successful workers in the modern worldmust possess both an understanding of electronic technology and the ability to work cooperatively withothers to solve problems of a highly intricate nature. The curriculum must change to meet theseneeds.Social Forces that Influence Curriculum Development In curriculum development, the social phenomena must be taken into consideration, withoutforgetting that the individual must maintain his identity and individuality. The curriculum must assist theindividual to understand the process of harmonization and to develop a repertoire of behaviors that willserve in a broad range of situations such as compassion, understanding, sensitivity, awareness, affection,acceptance, initiative and inquiry. The curriculum must foment a reasonable conformity to social normsand standards without going against individual expression. There must be choice up to a point.
Another social force that impacts curriculum development is the women’s movement. As womengained a new level of confidence in themselves during the 1960s and 1970s, they entered the workforce inlarge numbers though their salaries were often unequal to those of their male counterparts. In spite of thefact that most professions have attracted more women into their ranks, careers are by and large stillgender oriented. The curriculum has clearly not met the needs of the female population as they attempt toenter traditionally male professions. As a result, a significant human resource remains underutilized in oursociety. As society changes, so do the boundaries of acceptable behavior, and no one questions theinfluence of student and family behavior on the curriculum of the schools. Curriculum is formal,informal, and hidden. Informal curriculum is most affected by the behavior of people in schools, and it isa curriculum that is deteriorating in many cases. Standards of acceptable behavior for adults (educators,parents, and adults in general) and students have declined, and the result has been a code of ethics tooconfusing for most young people to understand, let alone internalize. Many families have becomefragmented, in some cases forcing children to try and construct their own set of values. Many studentsdemonstrate a lack of self-discipline that has in turn had a less than desirable effect on their behavior atschool. Although the formal curriculum may have to change to meet these students’ needs moreadequately, it is the informal curriculum, including that of the family and the surrounding community thatwill have to be strengthened if violence and disciplinary problems in the schools are to be reduced. Other social factors, including the financial burden and changes in the student population, havemade it more challenging than ever for educators to develop curriculum appropriate for all students. Theresponsibility cannot, however, simply be laid at the feet of teachers and administrators. Clearly there is amuch larger sphere of influence, encompassing the family, the community, the media, the nationaleconomy, and the changing international scene, that brings an unprecedented variety of learners to theschoolhouse door each day-and consequently an unprecedented demand for curriculum development aswell. SUMMARY Many forces today influence society. Each social institution, including educational system, affectsand is affected by other facets of society. Social customs and aims in cultural, political, and economicmatters also shape school curriculum. Each of society’s institutions is accorded important functions toperform in relation to the system as a whole and to its various parts. Decisions of governmental agencies,for example, affect the school and home. And operations of these two institutions in turn affectgovernmental practice.WHAT IS CURRICULUM?CURRICULUM has numerous definitions, which can be slightly confusing. In its broadest sense acurriculum may refer to all courses offered at a school. This is particularly true of schools at the universitylevel, where the diversity of a curriculum might be an attractive point to a potential student.A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill inorder to pass a certain level of education. For example, an elementary school might discuss how itscurriculum, or its entire sum of lessons and teachings, is designed to improve national testing scores orhelp students learn the basics. An individual teacher might also refer to his or her curriculum, meaning allthe subjects that will be taught during a school year.On the other hand, a high school might refer to a curriculum as the courses required in order to receiveone’s diploma. They might also refer to curriculum in exactly the same way as the elementary school, anduse curriculum to mean both individual courses needed to pass, and the overall offering of courses, whichhelp prepare a student for life after high school.In colleges, specific courses make up the individual’s curriculum, allowing one to obtain a degree orcertification in a certain field. Usually an individual will have to complete a certain amount of generaleducation courses, and then specialized courses within a chosen field. In this way, the curriculum isindividualized to the person’s desire for a certain type of expertise. Not following the prescribed curriculummay mean not obtaining a degree.
What Is Curriculum Planning?Curriculum planning involves a series of organizational methods that are focused on achieving optimalstudent comprehension. This comprehension is typically demonstrated in terms of what the students havelearned and how they can apply that knowledge. Instructors might structure their curriculum around dailylesson plans, certain units within a class, or an entire educational program.During the curriculum planning phase, instructors usually take into consideration various external factorsthat might compliment or hinder their lesson curriculum. Current issues and trends in society mightnecessitate the adjustment of certain lesson topics. There might also be certain institutional requirementsthat the instructor could need to implement into their curriculum.Instructors are typically responsible for making sure that their curriculum planning meets the educationalneeds of students. If, for example, an instructor is teaching an astronomy course, it is his or her duty tomake sure that the materials that are assembled are the most current and most comprehensible. Whenthe astronomers find something new, these discoveries can be included in curriculum lessons.Students usually have different methods of understanding information. Curriculum planning can be donein such a way as to accommodate many different learning styles. Depending on the subject being taught,lesson plans can implement ideas such as lectures, experiments, field trips, and research papers.Progress indicators are typically an integral part of curriculum planning. They allow instructors to adjusttheir lessons accordingly if a concept is not fully understood by the students. Instructors usually need tocreate their own set of planning guidelines to keep curriculum lessons on task.ACCREDITATIONAccreditation ensures that the quality of professional programs merits public confidence. The AccreditationStandards establish basic requirements for baccalaureate and master’s levels. Accreditation Standardspertain to the following program elements:• Mission, goals, and objectives• Curriculum• Governance, structure, and resources• Faculty• Student professional development• Nondiscrimination and human diversity• Program renewal• Program assessment and continuous improvementAccrediting a new courseWhen a clients training needs cannot be met by customising a course within the guidelines of anexisting Training Package or accredited course, nationally recognised training may still be offered bydeveloping a new accredited course.Any course developed by a registered training organisation (RTO) must be accredited by a state orterritory training authority (STA) if the RTO intends to issue nationally recognised qualifications orstatements of attainment to students who successfully complete the course.STAs will consider applications for the accreditation of courses where: a Training Package or competency standards in the area proposed has not yet been developed competency standards from two or more Training Packages are incorporated to achieve a qualification not otherwise available current Training Package qualifications are not relevant to industry or community needs.Course development and accreditation processAn RTO’s first step in getting a course accredited is to contact its STA to discuss the specificrequirements for curriculum development, and the accreditation application. The next three steps inthe course development and accreditation process are: Research and consultation Course development Submission and accreditation.
Research and consultationThe need for the course must be established through research and consultation. During this step anRTO must ensure the proposed course does not duplicate an existing Training Package or accreditedcourse.The RTO must consult with its state or territory course accrediting authority and possible stakeholderssuch as industry enterprise and community groups. Consultation is required at all phases of coursedevelopment to ensure it is related to realistic industry, workplace or community needs.Course developmentA course can be developed by: using units of competency from Training Packages developing units of competency eg specific enterprise units of competency developing modules comprised of learning outcomes if the course proponent can justify to the accrediting body that units of competency are not appropriate.A course can also be developed by using a combination of the above processes.Submission and accreditationAfter a course has been developed, it must be submitted to the relevant state or territory courseaccrediting authority body for accreditation.While considering a submission to accredit a course, the state or territory course accrediting authoritymay require additional information. The course developer should be prepared to provide any additionalinformation requested.If the course is accredited, the RTO will receive an accreditation document, which will detail: the title and national code for the accredited course the start and end date of the accreditation.Accreditation feesAccreditation fees vary according to the course and qualifications proposed. Fees can range from $500for a short course to $4000 for a degree or diploma._______________________________________________________________________________AFMAThe Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997 (AFMA, Republic Act 8435) is a piece oflandmark legislation that aims to accelerate the pace of development of agriculture and fisheries. Itprescribes a comprehensive set of policies and programs that aim to jumpstart agriculture and fisheriesmodernization.Department of Agriculture Administrative Order No. 6 (1998), the Implementing Rules and Regulations ofRA 8435, mandates the NAFC to assist the DA in the broad-based monitoring of the agriculture andfisheries modernization process (Rule 113.1).The NAFC has initially embarked on monitoring agency compliance with the deadlines for the completionof various groundwork activities set under the law. It has since started to upgrade its monitoring activityto include examination of the more substantive provisions of the law.HIGHLIGHTS OF THE STATUS OF ACTIVITIES UNDER THE IMPLEMENTING RULES ANDREGULATIONS (IRR) OF THE AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES MODERNIZATION ACT (AFMA)(As of June 30, 2011)STRATEGIC AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT ZONES (SAFDZ)The following activities were completed:• Preparation of the list and composition of the Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Development (NPAAAD);• Identification of SAFDZ areas;• Completion of the NPAAAD and SAFDZ maps for the whole country The maps are available to thepublic;
• Issuance of guidelines to local government units (LGUs) on the incorporation of the SAFDZ in theenactment and updating of LGU land use and zoning plans and ordinances; and• Issuance of guidelines on premature conversion of agricultural lands to non-agricultural areas throughDepartment of Agrarian Reform (DAR)Administrative Order No. 1 series of 1999, which was issued on March 30, 1999.AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES MODERNIZATION PLAN (AFMP)• The AFMP 2001-2004 of DA has been formulated and disseminated. The DA availed of a World BankTechnical Assistance (TA) for the formulation of the framework for the successor AFMP.• A plan for the participatory planning and capability building activities under the AFMP was completed.• Reading and other information materials for planning activities had been prepared.• The Plan Performance Monitoring Indicator System (PPMIS) has been finalized and is being implementedin the DA regional offices and some attached agencies.CREDIT• The design and the operating policies and procedures of the Agro-Industry Modernization Credit andFinancing Program (AMCFP) had been approved and issued.• Dialogue sessions among stakeholders in rural, agricultural and fisheries financing are continuouslybeing conducted.• The joint circular between the Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Finance (DOF) andDepartment of Budget and Management (DBM), which established the rules and regulations on thetransfer of the Directed Credit Program (DCP) funds into the AMCFP was approved on March 11, 2003.• Implementation of the AMCFP is on-going. Highlights of the Status of Activities Under the IRR of theAFMA (As of June 30, 2011) 2- The following programs are being undertaken under the AMCFP Special Lending Facility: a) Agricultural Microfinance Program (AMP) with the People’s Credit and Finance Corporation (PCFC); andAgri-Fishery Microfinance Program (AFMP) with the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP).R.A. 100681 - ORGANIC AGRICULTURE ACT OF 2010Bill Highlights Policy - To promote, propagate, develop further and implement the practice of Organic Agriculture that will cumulatively condition and enrich the fertility of the soil, increase farm productivity, reduce pollution and destruction of the environment, prevent depletion of natural resources, further protect the health of farmers, consumers and the general public, and save on imported farm inputs. Coverage – (a) Policy Formulation on regulation, registration, accreditation, certification and labeling on organic agriculture; (b) Research, development and extension of appropriate sustainable environment and gender friendly, organic agriculture; (c) Promotion and encouragement of the establishment of facilities, equipment and processing plants that would accelerate the production and commercialization of organic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other appropriate farm inputs; and(d) Implementation of organic agricultural programs, projects and activities, including the provision and delivery of support services with focus on the farmers and other stakeholders. National Organic Agricultural Program – through the promotion and commercialization of organic farming practices, cultivation and adoption of production and processing methods which have already been developed, or to be developed, continuing research and upgrading thereof, the capacity building of farmers and the education of consumers thereon, the extension of assistance to local government units (LGUs), peoples’ organizations (POs), nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders including individuals and groups who are practicing and promoting
these methods as well as those who are willing to do other pertinent activities, and documentationand evaluation of the program.National Organic Agricultural Board (NOAB) – to carry out the policy and the programsprovided in this Act, there is hereby created a NOAB which shall be the policy-making body andshall provide direction and general guidelines for the implementation of the National OrganicAgriculture Program. The NOAB shall be attached to the Department of Agriculture (DA). The NOABshall ensure the full participation of POs, NGOs and the general public through coordination andconsultative mechanisms such as, but not limited to, public hearings, meetings and joint projects.Organic Agriculture and the Protection of the Environment – The NOAB shall constantly deviseand Implement ways of producing organic farm inputs and help alleviate the problems of industrialwastes and community garbage disposal. The BAFPS shall conduct studies and consultations in order toadvise local government on the collection and disposal of wastes and the production of organic farminputs.Research, Development and Extension (RDE) – The Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR), as thelead agency shall coordinate with other agencies of the DA, DAR, DOST, DepEd, DILG, SUCs andprivate organizations to develop, enhance, support and consolidate activities and related technologiesfor the formulation and implementation of a unified and integrated organic agriculture RDE Plans whichinclude: (a) Research, Development and Commercialization of appropriate, innovative organicagricultural technologies; (b) Nationwide promotion of developed and commercially viable farm wastesand by-products through various extension strategies to accelerate production and distribution oforganic fertilizers; and (c) Conduct research for market development, policy formulation, regulationand certification.Organic Agriculture RDE Network – organized by the BAR and composed of SUCs, LGUs, NGOs,reorganized association of organic input manufacturers and distributors, agricultural engineers,agriculturists, soil technologists and farmer’s groups/associations. Table 6.1 Major Farming Systems of East Asia and Pacific Farming Land Area Agric. Popn. Principal Livelihoods Systems (% of region) (% of region) Lowland Rice 12 42 Rice, maize, pulses, sugarcane, oil seeds, vegetables, livestock, aquaculture Tree Crop 5 3 Rubber, oil palm, coconuts, coffee, Mixed tea, cocoa, spices, rice, livestock Root-Tuber 2 <1 Root crops (yam, taro, sweet potato), vegetables, fruits, livestock (pigs and cattle) Upland 19 27 Rice, pulses, maize, sugarcane, oil Intensive Mixed seeds, fruits, vegetables, livestock Highland 5 4 Upland rice, pulses, maize, oil Extensive seeds, fruits, forest products, Mixed livestock Temperate 6 14 Wheat, maize, pulses, oil crops, Mixed livestock Pastoral 20 4 Livestock with irrigated crops in local suitable areas Sparse (Forest) 10 1 Hunting, gathering Sparse (Arid) 20 2 Local grazing where water available Coastal 1 2 Fishing, coconut, mixed cropping
Artisanal Fishing Urban Based <1 1 Horticulture, livestock, off-farm income RDE Centers – National, Regional and Provincial Organic R&D centers will be established and integrated as a major component of the existing RDE centers of the DA, DOST, DENR, SUCs and LGUs. Appropriations – Php 50 Million and the existing budget for the promotion of organic farming of the DA is appropriated for the initial years of implementation of the Act and for the continuous operation of the NOAB. The NOAB is also authorized to solicit and accept assistance or facilities in forms of grants from individuals/entities local or foreign. Components of Farming Systems In the integrated farming system, it is always emphasized to combine cropping with other enterprises/ activities, many enterprises are available and these includes cattle maintenance sheep or goat rearing, poultry, piggery, rabbit rearing, bee keeping etc.Any one or more can be combined with the cropping.Integrated Farm System ModelWhat is the Integrated Farm System Model?With tighter profit margins and increasing environmental constraints, strategic planning of farm productionsystems is becoming both more important and more difficult. This is especially true for dairy and beefproduction. Livestock production is complex with a number of interacting processes that include crop andpasture production, crop harvest, feed storage, grazing, feeding, and manure handling. Computersimulation provides a useful procedure for integrating these processes to predict the long-termperformance, environmental impact, and economics of production systems.Components of Organic FarmingDifferent components of organic farming are as follows:Crop and Soil ManagementOrganic farming system encourages the use of rotations and measures to maintain soil fertility. Carefullymanaged soil with a high production of humus offer essential advantages with respect to water retentionion exchange, soil erosion and animal life in the soil. Green manuring and inter-cropping of legumes isanother important aspect for biological farming systems not only in regard to weed control but also inreducing the leaching of nutrients and in reducing soil erosion
On-farm Waste RecyclingIncrease price of chemical fertilizers have enables organic wastes to regain an important role in thefertilizer practices on the farm. Good manure management means improved fertilizers value of manureand slurry and less nutrient losses. Composting of all organic wastes in general and of Farm Yard Manure(FYM) or feedlot manure in particular is important in organic farming.Non-chemical Weed ManagementWeed management is one of the main concernin organic agriculture. Generally, allaspects of arable cropproduction play an important role in a system approach to problems. The elements to consider inpreventing weed problems are crop rotation, greenmanuring, manure management and tillage. Mulchingon a large scale by using manurespreaders may also be useful in weed controlDomestic and Industrial Waste RecyclingSewage and sludge use for crop production can form an important component of organicfarming iftreatment and application methods are improved furtherEnergy UseIn the energy requirement for production measured per rupees of produce for organicfarms is only onethird of what it is for their conventional counterparts. Because N-fertilizer andpesticides are not used bybiological farmers, the comparison of total energyinput/ha. with total energy output favors biologicalfarming systems.Food QualityFood quality is one of the main issues, which concerns both scientists and consumers. Nitrates in waterand farm produce, desirable components, pesticides residues, keeping quality andEcological AgricultureThe growing concern about environmental degradation, dwindling natural resources andurgency to meetthe food needs of the increasing population are nompelling farm scientistand policy makers to seriouslyexamine alternative to chemical agriculture. As reported by Vankataramani (1995) case studies showsthat when chemical farm incurred about11.250 towards the cost of cultivation of rice. An organic farmspend rupees 10,590 to produce 5625 kg paddy and 8 tones of straw/ha. The net returns from theecologicalfarming system at the current cost of rupees 3.34/kg paddy is rupees 8,197.50. Inchemicalfarming, the net profit is rupees 7500. If one gets a premium price for the poison force, organically grownrice, the economic returns from the ecological farmingsystem will highly encouraging______________________________________________________________________An Outline of Sample Dissertation, which Leads You to Select an Exclusive DissertationSampleTopic Selection - We will guide you how to create substantial and significant topic interests basedon your order instructions.Thesis Statement Structuring - Our writers are well versed with the creation of a thesis statementthat is goal driven, something that asks questions, significant and feasible.Introduction - Your dissertation will have a coherent background presentation and overview of theentire study.Literature Review - The chapter is written by making sure that external documents and referencescome from reliable and reputable resources.Methodology - This segment will have sufficient information about data gathering and data analysisprocedures used in the entire dissertation.Data, Analysis, Results - Our writers always make it a point to include all pertinent numerical datauseful in statistical analyses to support hypothesis testing.Conclusion - Your dissertation will have a substantial conclusion chapter reflecting all the importantdetails of the entire research process.Formatting - Ma-Dissertations writers are trained to produce correctly formatted dissertationscharacterized by right sequencing of chapters and the inclusion of other page materials like Tables,Illustrations and miscellaneous pages like Recommendations, Title Page and Abstract.
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Dissertation sample is a written work of whom?Was the dissertation written by a person who does not speak English as very first language? What wasclass or course the dissertation was written for? When it was written?Was It Approved & What Grade Did It Get?This is the most essential thing to know before you mock-up a dissertation example. If the examples youare following failed to get the approval, then chances are your dissertation could end up with the verysame result…What are the essentialities a sample Dissertation need to contain?Does the dissertation sample flow correctly?Dissertations that sound choppy or stuttered are for the most portion ineffectual and will most likely fail toimpress.Is the dissertation sample appropriately formatted?The last thing you want is to have your professor concentrate on your improper dissertation formatting asopposed to your great suggestions.Does the sample contain strong sufficient thesis hypothesis?Let us function with you on creating a powerful argument to point you in the proper direction.Is the sample is gathered with supporting study?Backing up your facts is paramount to any dissertation. Expert researchers are ableto offer you with the necessary information to make your dissertation standAGRICULTURE DISSERTATION WRITING HELPAgriculture Writing Tip 1 – Topic SelectionFirstly, pick a topic on which you are supposed to write your agriculture assignment. Your agriculture topicshould be selected under the light of these two points. Ø Your interest Ø Enough data, so that you may not get stuckThe agriculture topic is supposed to be selected in which you are interested so that you may not get boredwhile writing your papers and it should not be too narrow. It should be general so that you can easilycomplete your agriculture without getting stuck.Agriculture Writing Tip 2 - Research SourcesBe careful that you employ the latest research sources. You can use diverse research techniques. You canconduct research online and offline and you should use up-to-date research resources.Some sources for research from which you can get adequate data are: ü Surveys ü Online and off-line libraries ü Newspaper ü Past research papers ü Latest debatesAgriculture Writing Tip 3 – Agriculture Dissertation FormatAfter collecting all the data, now you have to write your agriculture agriculture dissertation in thefollowing format. ü Introduction ü List all the Problem ü Review of Literature ü Finding ü Discussion ü Solution ü Ending ü ReferencesThis is an exact format of agriculture dissertation writing. You must pursue this format to finishyour dissertation right on time, but the real fact is this that many students are not capable to manage itbecause of many reasons. They face grave problems, for they are not able to write their dissertation.
Problems Of Students• Confused in starting agriculture dissertation because they dont have clear enough ideas aboutstarting dissertation• Puzzled in deciding a top quality dissertation title• Not up to the mark sources of research• Not capable to complete dissertation because of small amount of collected data available.• Mingle in selecting a right data to utilize in papers• Not confident to complete academic papers on time• Lack of writing skillsThese are the problems which hinder in the way of students to finish their papers on time
THE AIM OF EDUCATION IS TO CULTIVATE PERSONALITY INTEGRATION ANDCREATIVE INTELLIGENCE: Education as the fostering of natural humandevelopment.GROWTH IN FREEDOM theme: Discussion of aim of education is a function of the philosophy ofeducation or educational theory. The aim of education - in the fullest anddeepest sense of the word - is in keeping with the nature of the humanpersonality or human nature. Human nature is defined in terms of thecultivation and development ofperceptive intelligence basedon experience i.e. creative intelligence. Creative intelligenceor intuition combines reason of understanding with wisdom of compassion...depends on human awakening or enlightenment.... aim of education is tocultivate creative intelligence required for adaptation to changesin thesocial environment i.e. adaptability. .Basic aim of education for the child is maturity and integration ofpersonality required for personal freedom and adaptabilityThe purpose of education is to cultivate the mind so that the individual can accomplish all his/heraims in life. Education should enable the individual to use the full potential of the body, mind andspirit... should develop the ability to make the best use of his personality, surroundings andcircumstances in order to accomplish the maximum in life for himself and for others. The purposeof education would be met if the schools provided educational methods of self-development bywhich the individual can gain complete possession of of all his powers. Broadly speakly, educationhas two goals which are mutually dependent: cultivation and development of the individual and theimprovement of society... individuals make up the society... the society improves with theimprovement of the individuals who make it up... the individual is the heart of society....only bybeing true to the full growth of individuals who make it up, can by any chance society be true toitself. The aims of education are to foster the individuals inner freedom and development towardsthe following: self-initiated action and acceptance of responsibility for ones own actions, self-direction and intelligent decision making, critical learning and evaluation of others, acquisition ofknowledge for resolution of problems, intelligent and flexible adaptation to new situations, creativeutilization of experiential learning in adaptation to new situations, effective cooperation withothers, self-motivation and a desire to work for ones own purposes i.e. intrinsic motivation.The aim of education is for the integration of the human mind which is intelligent and free.Education in the true sense is helping the individual to be mature and free… to flower, to bloom,to blossom… in love and goodness… to become fully ‘human’.The ultimate goals of educationEducation is an investment. It takes a number of years for us to attend the formal form ofeducation, which is schooling. It takes us the lifetime to be educated.So, what should be the ultimate goals of education? Well, in my opinion, there are 3 of them.They are:1) To make the learners know and aware what his or her true potentials are. We havewitnessed so many times, how high school gradutes or even univeristy graduates do not haveany clues about what they want to do with their life, because they dont know what theirpotentials are. Its quite common to find university students who have chosen to study in theirdepartment just because their friends are studying there as well, or their parents advise themto study in that department. But do they want to study there? More crucially, do they knowwhat they want to study? Do they know what their potentials are? I doubt it. Even the
university graduates can have very few ideas on what they want to do with all the highereducation they have mastered. The common answer is that they want to find a job, whichpays a lot of money, then get rich. It is such a waste that they dont utilize their true potentials,which can make them a lot happier. Education should help learners to find their true potentialsand make them confident about having and utilizing them, otherwise it is a big failure.2) To make the learners know and aware of the potentials of their surrounding environment. Alot of students in Indonesia study things that are so distant from their environment. Theybecome alienated from their own surrounding. Thus, the education process is not ameaningful one. In a bigger picture it is sad to see that we, Indonesians, do not have clearand comprehensive knowledge of what potentials Indonesia has. It is sad to know that theforeigners, the foreign countries, the institutions outside Indonesia are better informed of whatwe have and what potentials that we have. It is ironic. But we can change this, througheducation, by creating a meaningful education process, by making learners literate about thetrue potentials of our country. But first we need to engage them with their immediatesurroundings, so than they become experts of their region.3) To enable learners to combine the previous two points, the awareness of themselves andtheir environment, and then use this as the tools for them to solve problems of the real world,to create products and/or services that are valued within a cultural setting (This point isinspired by Howard Gardners definition of intelligence). I believe that when we can make thishappen, then education will become our important asset to deal with all the problems that thecountry is currently facing. Education will be part of the solution.Most importantly, education will not be a false investment. Can anyone imagine how the 12-year or maybe 16-year of formal education can become a false investment, if we dont knowwhat and why we are doing what we are doing? It will be a waste of time, money andresources. We dont want that, do we?Same-sex marriageFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaSame-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is marriage between two persons of the same biological sex or genderidentity. Supporters of legal recognition for same-sex marriage typically refer to such recognition as marriage equality.Historical mention of the performance of same-sex marriages date back to the Roman Empire and the Ming Dynasty. In1989, Denmark became the worlds first country to recognise same-sex unions, and in 2000 the Netherlands became the firstcountry to sign into law a same-sex marriage bill.Since 2001, eleven countries have begun allowing same-sex couples to marrynationwide: Argentina, Belgium, Denmark, Canada, Iceland, the Netherlands,Norway, Portugal, Spain, South Africa,and Sweden. Same-sex marriages are also performed and recognized in Mexico City, Quintana Roo, and parts of theUnitedStates. Some jurisdictions that do not perform same-sex marriages recognize same-sex marriages performedelsewhere: Israel, the Caribbean countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, parts of the United States, and all statesof Mexico. Australia recognizes same-sex marriages only if one partner changes their sex after marriage. The introduction ofsame-sex marriage has varied by jurisdiction, resulting from legislative changes to marriage laws, court challenges based onconstitutional guarantees of equality, or a combination of the two.Studies conducted in several countries indicate that more-educated people are more likely to support same-sex marriage thanthe less-educated, and younger people are more likely to support same-sex marriage than older generations. Additionally,polls show that people who personally know a gay person are more likely to support it than people who dont know any gaypeople. The recognition of such marriages is a civil rights, political, social, moral, and religious issue in manynations. Conflicts arise over whether same-sex couples should be allowed to enter into marriage, be required
to use a different status (such as a civil union, which either grant equal rights as marriage or limited rights incomparison to marriage), or not have any such rights. A related issue is whether the term marriage should beapplied.Some analysts state that financial, psychological and physical well-being are enhanced by marriage, and thatchildren of same-sex couples benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally recognized unionsupported by societys institutions. Court documents filed by American scientific associationsalso state that singling out gay men and women as ineligible for marriage both stigmatizes and invites publicdiscrimination against them. The American Anthropological Association avers that social science researchdoes not support the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon not recognizing same-sexmarriage.Some organizations have described gay marriage as a universal human rights issue, equality before thelaw, and of normalizing LGBT relationships. Several authors attribute opposition to same-sexmarriage as coming from homophobia or heterosexism and likens prohibitions on same-sex marriageto past prohibitions on interracial marriage between blacks and whites. On 9 May 2012, USPresident Barack Obama announced his support for same sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S.president to do so. Polls show the most right-wing religious people are more likely to oppose it. Variouspolls show that a majority of Americans support same-sex marriage.[30ControversiesSee also: LGBT rights oppositionWhile few societies have recognized same-sex unions as marriages, the historical and anthropologicalrecord reveals a large range of attitudes towards same-sex unions ranging from praise, to sympathetictoleration, to indifference, to prohibition. Opponents of same-sex marriages have argued that recognition ofsame-sex marriages would erode religious freedoms, and that same-sex marriage, while doing good for thecouples that participate in them and the children they are raising, undermines a right of children to be raised bytheir biological mother and father. Some supporters of same-sex marriages take the view that thegovernment should have no role in regulating personal relationships, while others argue that same-sexmarriages would provide social benefits to same-sex couples. The debate regarding same-sex marriagesincludes debate based upon social viewpoints as well as debate based on majority rules, religious convictions,economic arguments, health-related concerns, and a variety of other issues.Philippine Ethnic and Muslim Minorities: Educating Children theTraditional WayMucha-Shim Quiling Arquiza Mucha-Shim Quiling Arquiza Lot 7 Block 7, Sto Nino Village, Barangay Putik, 7000 Zamboanga City, Philippines. email@example.comMucha Arquiza is a member of the council of the Alliance of Indigenous Lumad and Moro Peoples forAppropriate and Liberating Education (Katutubong Alyansang Lumad Moro Para sa Angkop atMapagpalayang Edukasyon) or KAALAM. She is director of the Lumah Ma Dilaut Center for Living Traditions,a development institution working with the Sama Dilaut sea nomads of Sulu in their struggle for rights to theirancestral seas and a sustainable livelihood, and the right to human security and cultural integrity.AbstractThe Philippine government has committed itself to the Millennium Development Goal of achieving100% primary education in 10 years. At the national level and within the context of formal education,Education for All (EFA) has been adopted as the flagship program and the Department of Education(DepEd) has a mandate to be aggressive in pursuing reforms to boost performance, eg through theBasic Education Reform Agenda (BESRA). BESRA propels the “School First Policy” that aims to givelocal governments more leeway in planning their education reform agenda. A policy of devolution
ensures freedom to local DepEd units in implementing EFA goals, especially in funding. This iscomplemented by basic reforms within the DepEd bureaucracy, including the transformation of theNon-Formal Education (NFE) Bureau into the Bureau of Alternative Learning Systems (BALS).Particularly on mountainous Mindanao—home to at least 2 major groups of indigenous and minoritypopulations, the Moro and the Lumad—the Arroyo administration has taken a cue from the RepublicAct 9054, otherwise known as the Organic Act on Autonomous Muslim Mindanao—a by-product ofthe 1996 Peace Accord—to be cognizant of plurality and cultural diversity on Mindanao. Thus, theDepEd is charged with spearheading the cultural integration agenda by including Islamic values andbasic Arabic grammar into the curriculum in areas where Muslims are a majority. Meanwhile, cateringto the non-Muslim indigenous Lumad, the DepEd passed a memorandum in June 2004 accreditingIndigenous Peoples (IP) schools. Yet it is apparent that the reforms have so far been national in focusand integrationist, rather than substantial moves towards the full recognition and empowerment oftraditional systems and indigenous ways of educating the IP and minority children. Policy is one thing,but implementation remains palliative and lukewarm.Parents as Advocates: The Philippine A Case StudyTeresita G. De MesaPhilippine< ABSTRACT >This case study documents the collaborative partnership of parents and professionals to effect a qualityprogram for children with mental handicap. It also describes how the community and its resources canalso be harnessed toward providing full participation and quality of opportunity to these children.The Parent Council of St. John Maria Vianney has launched a pilot project called Parents as Advocates: ACase Study. The study dealt on the multifarious roles the parents take on as advocates resulting increating a awareness among other parents and the community. Thirty(30) parents were organized as ateam and merged themselves in various projects of the schools and the city. They assumed variousroles such as home teachers, teacher aides, facilitators, peer tutors, mentors, resource person, lobbygroups, organizers and other similar activities. The project resulted in improved relations of parents andchildren, parent to parent, and parent to professionals. Another gain of the project is theorganization of community programs completing the school curricular offering.The parents of children with special needs have played an important role in initiating and developingquality programs. They have supported every major efforts to develop appropriate and adequate servicesfor their children. In fact the parent organizations have became a cogent group that greatly influence theeducative and rehabilitative efforts of professionals. The families have become very effective in influencingpolicies and establishing priorities for children with disabilities.In spite of the vast contribution of parentshowever, they have frequently been excluded from current aspects of their childrens program. For themost part, education has been left to the professionals. Some educators have been initiallyreluctant to include parents in educational programs for a number of reasons. They claimed thateducational process is too complex for parents to understand, and that the contact between the twogroups should be limited to parents have very limited knowledge on child-rearing and that they would addlittle if at all to educational programs if they became involved. Fortunately, during the past years, there isa tremendous shift in the relations of professional and the parents. Attitudes are changing and morepositive approaches to working with parents are emerging, largely because of the enactment of laws,which increasingly mandate family involvement. As a result parents. assume a broader role in theeducational process. Educators realize that parents must participate in programs if these programs are tobe effective as possible. Parents and other professional organizations are also working together moreclosely recently.Several studies and researches have also revealed on the needs of parents and sibling tobetter respond to the child, which educators can very well provide for as a matter of policy. Amongthose identified are legal issues, curriculum and instruction, working knowledge about disability, behaviormanagement, effective adjustment, family roles and interactions and health concern. Although parentsshowed common concerns whether the child is disabled or not, there are unique needs that will vary withthe extent and nature of the childs problem.
The Philippines: Evolution of a Regional Knowledge HubThe evolution of agricultural higher education in the Philippines is primarily the story of the developmentof the University of the Philippines at Los Banos (UPLB). The College of Agriculture was started almost 100years ago in 1910. But after the first decade, the college went through a crisis because of a lack of facultymembers.During the 1970s and 1980s, UPLB’s graduate program was under stress and in competition with theimproved graduate programs of other universities in the region. At that time, Roger Montgomery,Agricultural Development Council (ADC) Representative, visited universities in five countries of southeastAsia and reported that the colleges of agriculture in the region faced a common set of problems(Montgomery 1978). He concluded: ―The problem areas boil down to three: the retention of trained staff, the development of themaster’s program, and a lack of study of the supply and demand for the output of a master’s program ineconomics or agricultural economics.‖The UPLB has experienced a loss of academic staff because of more favorable financial incentives in theprivate sector, NGOs and overseas. Women staff played an important role in this international migrationand they have worked hard to climb the ladder in overseas agricultural research agencies. In their reporton women scientists and managers in agricultural research in the Philippines, Brush, et al. 1995 pointed toa possible motivation for emigration: ―Women occupy lower positions than men, more women occupy junior-level positions than men,and men are twice as likely as women to hold senior-level positions. While more than three-quarters ofthe women with B.Sc. degrees are in junior positions, fewer than 60% of the men with B.Sc. degrees arein junior positions.‖ After nearly a century of operation, UPLB has served the nation and the regionthrough its graduate program and the development of a regional knowledge hub.Looking to the future, UPLB recently signed a cooperative agreement with Cornell University to carry outresearch in plant-breeding and bio-technology. The Cornell/UPLB partnership from 1952 to 2006 is anexample of an emerging trend for developing country universities to maintain academic partnerships withuniversities in industrial countries for 50 years or more. UPLB currently has an enrollment of 8,000undergraduates and it offers 44 M.Sc. and 19 Ph.D. programs.Changing paradigms for farmer-researcher-extensionist relationships: exploring methods andtheories of farmer participation in researchAbstractIt is argued that the transfer-of-technology model of research and development is not sufficient to bringabout the most effective relationship between stakeholders in agricultural and environmental matters inAustralia. An alternative approach is described and trialed which involves changing the process ofextension and research by introducing new thinking and a qualitative methodology called Rapid RuralAppraisal (RRA). The paper describes the process of training a multi-disciplinary team to conduct an RRAwith irrigated horticulture farmers. Some results of both the RRA survey and an evaluation exerciseconducted on the research teams experience and learning outcomes are presented.Conceptualizing integrative, farmer participatory research for sustainable agriculture:From opportunities to impactAbstractThis paper offers a conceptualmodel for participatory research projects thataim to improve thesustainability ofagriculture and natural resource management.The purpose of the model is to provideasystematic framework that can guide the designof participatory research projects, theiranalysis, and thedocumentation of results. Inthe model, conceptual boundaries are drawnbetween research anddevelopment, developmentand extension and between extension andimplementation. Objectives, activities,andactors associated with each of these realmsneed to be carefully selected, monitored, andevaluated
throughout the course of a projectusing well-designed indicators. The depth ofdisciplinary andmethodological integration,and quality of participation needed to reachthe desired impact effectively andefficiently,however, needs to be determined on acase-by-case basis depending on the context andissuessurrounding each particular project.Integrative research - Natural resource management - Participatory research and development - Program evaluation - Program planning - Sustainable agriculture Trends and challenges of eLearning in national and international agricultural development John Leary and Zane L. Berge> UMBC, USAABSTRACTCompared to other business and management fields, elearning in agriculture-related fields is still inthe early phases of adoption. Early pioneers, primarily American and Australian agribusinesses andcolleges of agriculture, are now utilizing elearning methods as a major part of both their educationand strategic management programs. There are plenty of challenges, involving the faculty andtrainers, students and farmers, technology, finances, and other complications, but agriculturalinstructors absolutely must find ways to overcome these hindrances and aspire toward the plethoraof opportunities that elearning presents for the field of agriculture. eLearning is dramaticallyimproving how agricultural education is done. It is allowing greater access to more students andfarmers, more efficiently, with better information. The evaluation results of the first internationalelearning projects in agriculture show that much good can be done toward ensuring food security inthe world if developed countries assist developing countries to implement elearning methods. Thispaper explains the major trends in elearning in agriculture and the challenges of elearning inagriculture. It describes the major developments and uses of elearning in the field of agriculture andinvestigates the international opportunities with elearning in agriculture.Keywords: elearning; classrooms applications of technology; agricultural education; .INTRODUCTIONThe need for improved agricultural education throughout the world has never been greater.Agricultural technologies that can increase food security in the developing world while developingincome-generating activities and conserving environmental resources do exist. Many of thesetechnologies have existed for decades, yet famine, hunger, desertification, deforestation anddroughts continue to plague the worlds developing countries, which are least prepared to deal withthese devastating problems. In developed countries, farmers are facing a changing atmosphere inwhich organic foods, new methods in raising animals, disease outbreaks, agribusiness, cropinsurance, and banking all continually present new challenges. Hundreds of thousands of small farmsthroughout North America, Europe and Australia have been forced to close in recent years. All ofthese problems do have workable solutions, yet the global difficulty is getting the appropriateinformation to farmers. eLearning can benefit every agricultural community around the world, fromresearch scientists in American universities to the poor subsistence farmers of developing countries.It can benefit persons of all ages, all locations, and bridge the gaps created by mountains, deserts,oceans, wars, and political boundaries. eLearning in agriculture can assemble resources andknowledge from distant places that may otherwise be unobtainable. It can connect farmers with faraway researchers and experts. It can also dramatically increase the numbers of farmers who can bereached by single training programs. Despite its potential omnipresence, there is a significant riftbetween high-quality and low-quality agricultural elearning programs.Most elearning programs in agriculture currently being undertaken in the world are in the pioneeringphase. These efforts are attempting to use low-risk, low-cost elearning technologies. Services tend tobe free and are studies, pilot projects, and other initiatives supported by grants. Many of these
projects are not sustainable; after a limited number of training sessions they end when the fundingends, perhaps with a research report published on the Internet and an expectation that individualscan find it, fully accept it, and integrate the findings into training curricula. At the same time,universities, businesses, and some well-funded international development organizations areproducing and utilizing high-quality elearning programs backed by trained personnel and resources.MAJOR CHALLENGES The major challenges identified by researchers inhibiting the expansion of elearning in agricultureare very similar to the barriers that keep other fields from developing strong elearning programs: 1. Gaps between Trainers and Designers 2. Challenges Faced by Trainers/Instructors 3. Challenges Faced by Students/FarmersGaps between Trainers and DesignersMajor problems lie in educators inability to bridge the technical divide. Not only must they identifythe knowledge and skills needed by the students and farmers, but they must figure out how topresent the material in an appropriate, user-friendly design so that elearners can translate thatinformation into applicable solutions on the farm. "Many extension agents and faculty lack theinstructional design competencies to develop courses and programs using distance education deliverystrategies" (Raulerson et al. 2004, p. 1005). Teachers and trainers are forced to learn on-the-jobhow to present their material using elearning. They need on-going support, as well as training,administrative support, and incentives, with few of these currently available to the averageagricultural trainer or extension agent.Challenges Faced by Trainers/InstructorsInstructors in agriculture are faced with similar challenges as those experienced by persons workingin other fields. These issues include: 1. lack of time and skills needed in adopting new technologies 2. lack of both formalized reward system and technical support 3. a concern about the loss of the teacher-student relationship 4. marketing for programs 5. financial rewards 6. maximizing returns on their investment in time and money 7. major increases in administrative work