Chemistry 1.1
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Chemistry 1.1

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Chemistry 1.1 Chemistry 1.1 Presentation Transcript

  • Chemistry Chapter 1 - Section 1 Why Do Atoms Combine??? Monday, July 9, 2012
  • First, we need to know what an atom is?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure 3Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic StructureMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure  All matter, even solids, contain mostly e m p t y space.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure  All matter, even solids, contain mostly e m p t y space.  How can this be?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure  All matter, even solids, contain mostly e m p t y space.  How can this be?  Although there might be little or no space between atoms, a lot of empty space lies within each atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic StructureMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.  The nucleus makes up most of the mass of an atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.  The nucleus makes up most of the mass of an atom.  The rest of the atom is empty except for the atom’s electrons, which are extremely small compared with the nucleus.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.  The nucleus makes up most of the mass of an atom.  The rest of the atom is empty except for the atom’s electrons, which are extremely small compared with the nucleus.  The exact location of an electron cannot be determined, the electrons travel in an area around the nucleus called the electron cloud.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Atomic StructureMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Are you ready to be amazed??Monday, July 9, 2012
  • WOWMonday, July 9, 2012
  • WOWAtoms are extremely small.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • WOWAtoms are extremely small.One hydrogen atom is approximately 5x10-8mm in diameter.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • WOWAtoms are extremely small.One hydrogen atom is approximately 5x10-8mm in diameter.Think about a 1 mm line. It would take _______ hydrogen atoms lined up beside each other to make a line as long as the mark.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • WOWAtoms are extremely small.One hydrogen atom is approximately 5x10-8mm in diameter.Think about a 1 mm line. It would take _______ hydrogen atoms lined up beside each other to make a line as long as the mark.20 million!!!!Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electrons and Our Solar SystemMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electrons and Our Solar SystemMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.  Some differences between electrons and plants are:Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.  Some differences between electrons and plants are:  Planets do not have a charge, electrons are negatively chargedMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.  Some differences between electrons and plants are:  Planets do not have a charge, electrons are negatively charged  Planets orbits are predictable, electron orbits are not as predictable.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Element Structure 11Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Element Structure  Each element has a different atomic structure and a different number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 11Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Element Structure  Each element has a different atomic structure and a different number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.  The number of protons and electrons is always the same for a neutral atom. 11Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron EnergyMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.  The different areas for an electron in an atom are called energy levels.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.  The different areas for an electron in an atom are called energy levels.  Each level represents a different amount of energy and can hold a certain number of electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.  The different areas for an electron in an atom are called energy levels.  Each level represents a different amount of energy and can hold a certain number of electrons.  The farther an energy level is from the nucleus, the more electrons it can hold.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy StepsMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy Steps TextMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy Steps Text Level Max. number of electrons 1st 2 2nd 8 3rd 18 4th 32Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy StepsMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.  Electrons furthest away are the easiest to remove.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.  Electrons furthest away are the easiest to remove.  How many electrons can occupy an energy level?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.  Electrons furthest away are the easiest to remove.  How many electrons can occupy an energy level?  Use 2n2 (n represents the energy level).Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Magnets & Paper ClipsMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Magnets & Paper Clips Removing electrons that are closer to the nucleus takes more energy than removing ones that are further away.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Removing Part of the BalloonMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Removing Part of the BalloonMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms? ElectronsMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms? Electrons From what energy level?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms? Electrons From what energy level? Highest energy levelMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Removing Part of the BalloonMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods Period 1 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods Period 1 Period 2 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group 1 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group 1 2 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group 1 2 3 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Remember that the number of protons and electrons are the same in a neutral atom (which is what is represented on the periodic table).Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Remember that the number of protons and electrons are the same in a neutral atom (which is what is represented on the periodic table).  The number of electrons increases by one as you move across the period.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  A few things to notice....Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  A few things to notice....  Groups 3-12 are not pictured.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  A few things to notice....  Groups 3-12 are not pictured.  Group 18 is complete, it is full. It has _____ electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Hydrogen is usually considered separately, so the first element family begins with lithium and sodium in the first column. 26Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Human family members often have similar looks and traits.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Human family members often have similar looks and traits.  Also, members of element families have similar properties, chemical properties, because they have the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  It was the repeating pattern of properties that gave Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev the idea for his first periodic table in 1869.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Why so Noble, Group 18?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Why so Noble, Group 18?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.  Do not combine well with other elements – originally thought they would not combine at all, but they will on rare occasion.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.  Do not combine well with other elements – originally thought they would not combine at all, but they will on rare occasion.  Because they are so stable they are used to protect filaments in light bulbs.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.  Do not combine well with other elements – originally thought they would not combine at all, but they will on rare occasion.  Because they are so stable they are used to protect filaments in light bulbs.  Also used as to produce coloured lights in signs…electricity causes the noble gases to emit a certain colour light. Neon – orange/red; Argon – lavender; Helium – yellowish whiteMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  Halogens only need one more electron, so they are ver y reactive.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  Halogens only need one more electron, so they are ver y reactive.  Fluorine is the most reactive because the electrons are so close to nucleus.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  Halogens only need one more electron, so they are ver y reactive.  Fluorine is the most reactive because the electrons are so close to nucleus.  Remember that when electrons are close to the nucleus, there is a stronger pull from the protons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  The further you go down group 17, the reactivities decrease.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  The further you go down group 17, the reactivities decrease.  This is because there is more energy levels, and so the electrons are further away from the pull of the protons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Alkali Metals have one electron in outer most energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Alkali Metals have one electron in outer most energy level.  This electron will be removed when alkali metals reacts.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Alkali Metals have one electron in outer most energy level.  This electron will be removed when alkali metals reacts.  The easier it is to remove an electron, the more reactive the atom is.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Reactivities increase as you go down the group. Why?Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Reactivities increase as you go down the group. Why?  Alkali metals want to give away one of their electrons. That electron is further away from the pull of the proton as you move down group 1 in the periodic table.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • 38Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot DiagramsMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot Diagrams  An electron dot diagram is the symbol for the element surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot Diagrams  An electron dot diagram is the symbol for the element surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level.  Only the outer energy level electrons are shown because these are what determine how an element can react.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot DiagramsMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbolMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbol  Then work your way around, adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbol  Then work your way around, adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.  Add a fifth dot to the top to make a pair.Monday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbol  Then work your way around, adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.  Add a fifth dot to the top to make a pair.  Continue in this manner until you reach eight dots to complete the levelMonday, July 9, 2012
  • Electron Dot DiagramsMonday, July 9, 2012