Chemistry 1.1

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Chemistry 1.1

  1. 1. Chemistry Chapter 1 - Section 1 Why Do Atoms Combine??? Monday, July 9, 2012
  2. 2. First, we need to know what an atom is?Monday, July 9, 2012
  3. 3. Atomic Structure 3Monday, July 9, 2012
  4. 4. Atomic StructureMonday, July 9, 2012
  5. 5. Atomic Structure  All matter, even solids, contain mostly e m p t y space.Monday, July 9, 2012
  6. 6. Atomic Structure  All matter, even solids, contain mostly e m p t y space.  How can this be?Monday, July 9, 2012
  7. 7. Atomic Structure  All matter, even solids, contain mostly e m p t y space.  How can this be?  Although there might be little or no space between atoms, a lot of empty space lies within each atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  8. 8. Atomic StructureMonday, July 9, 2012
  9. 9. Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  10. 10. Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.  The nucleus makes up most of the mass of an atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  11. 11. Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.  The nucleus makes up most of the mass of an atom.  The rest of the atom is empty except for the atom’s electrons, which are extremely small compared with the nucleus.Monday, July 9, 2012
  12. 12. Atomic Structure  At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons.  The nucleus makes up most of the mass of an atom.  The rest of the atom is empty except for the atom’s electrons, which are extremely small compared with the nucleus.  The exact location of an electron cannot be determined, the electrons travel in an area around the nucleus called the electron cloud.Monday, July 9, 2012
  13. 13. Atomic StructureMonday, July 9, 2012
  14. 14. Are you ready to be amazed??Monday, July 9, 2012
  15. 15. WOWMonday, July 9, 2012
  16. 16. WOWAtoms are extremely small.Monday, July 9, 2012
  17. 17. WOWAtoms are extremely small.One hydrogen atom is approximately 5x10-8mm in diameter.Monday, July 9, 2012
  18. 18. WOWAtoms are extremely small.One hydrogen atom is approximately 5x10-8mm in diameter.Think about a 1 mm line. It would take _______ hydrogen atoms lined up beside each other to make a line as long as the mark.Monday, July 9, 2012
  19. 19. WOWAtoms are extremely small.One hydrogen atom is approximately 5x10-8mm in diameter.Think about a 1 mm line. It would take _______ hydrogen atoms lined up beside each other to make a line as long as the mark.20 million!!!!Monday, July 9, 2012
  20. 20. Electrons and Our Solar SystemMonday, July 9, 2012
  21. 21. Electrons and Our Solar SystemMonday, July 9, 2012
  22. 22. Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.Monday, July 9, 2012
  23. 23. Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.  Some differences between electrons and plants are:Monday, July 9, 2012
  24. 24. Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.  Some differences between electrons and plants are:  Planets do not have a charge, electrons are negatively chargedMonday, July 9, 2012
  25. 25. Electrons and Our Solar System  Planets orbit the sun, just as electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.  Some differences between electrons and plants are:  Planets do not have a charge, electrons are negatively charged  Planets orbits are predictable, electron orbits are not as predictable.Monday, July 9, 2012
  26. 26. Element Structure 11Monday, July 9, 2012
  27. 27. Element Structure  Each element has a different atomic structure and a different number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. 11Monday, July 9, 2012
  28. 28. Element Structure  Each element has a different atomic structure and a different number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.  The number of protons and electrons is always the same for a neutral atom. 11Monday, July 9, 2012
  29. 29. Electron EnergyMonday, July 9, 2012
  30. 30. Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.Monday, July 9, 2012
  31. 31. Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.Monday, July 9, 2012
  32. 32. Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.  The different areas for an electron in an atom are called energy levels.Monday, July 9, 2012
  33. 33. Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.  The different areas for an electron in an atom are called energy levels.  Each level represents a different amount of energy and can hold a certain number of electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  34. 34. Electron Energy  All electrons in an atom are somewhere in the electron cloud.  Some electrons are closer to the nucleus than others.  The different areas for an electron in an atom are called energy levels.  Each level represents a different amount of energy and can hold a certain number of electrons.  The farther an energy level is from the nucleus, the more electrons it can hold.Monday, July 9, 2012
  35. 35. Energy StepsMonday, July 9, 2012
  36. 36. Energy Steps TextMonday, July 9, 2012
  37. 37. Energy Steps Text Level Max. number of electrons 1st 2 2nd 8 3rd 18 4th 32Monday, July 9, 2012
  38. 38. Energy StepsMonday, July 9, 2012
  39. 39. Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.Monday, July 9, 2012
  40. 40. Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.Monday, July 9, 2012
  41. 41. Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.  Electrons furthest away are the easiest to remove.Monday, July 9, 2012
  42. 42. Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.  Electrons furthest away are the easiest to remove.  How many electrons can occupy an energy level?Monday, July 9, 2012
  43. 43. Energy Steps  Energy Level 1 has the lowest amount of energy.  Electrons furthest away have the most energy.  Electrons furthest away are the easiest to remove.  How many electrons can occupy an energy level?  Use 2n2 (n represents the energy level).Monday, July 9, 2012
  44. 44. Magnets & Paper ClipsMonday, July 9, 2012
  45. 45. Magnets & Paper Clips Removing electrons that are closer to the nucleus takes more energy than removing ones that are further away.Monday, July 9, 2012
  46. 46. Removing Part of the BalloonMonday, July 9, 2012
  47. 47. Removing Part of the BalloonMonday, July 9, 2012
  48. 48. Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms?Monday, July 9, 2012
  49. 49. Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms? ElectronsMonday, July 9, 2012
  50. 50. Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms? Electrons From what energy level?Monday, July 9, 2012
  51. 51. Removing Part of the Balloon What is being removed from the balloons atoms? Electrons From what energy level? Highest energy levelMonday, July 9, 2012
  52. 52. Removing Part of the BalloonMonday, July 9, 2012
  53. 53. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  54. 54. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  55. 55. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods Period 1 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  56. 56. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods Period 1 Period 2 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  57. 57. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Horizontal Rows are called periods Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 21Monday, July 9, 2012
  58. 58. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  59. 59. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group 1 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  60. 60. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group 1 2 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  61. 61. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group 1 2 3 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  62. 62. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  63. 63. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  64. 64. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  65. 65. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  66. 66. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Vertical Rows are called Groups or Families Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 22Monday, July 9, 2012
  67. 67. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  68. 68. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Remember that the number of protons and electrons are the same in a neutral atom (which is what is represented on the periodic table).Monday, July 9, 2012
  69. 69. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Remember that the number of protons and electrons are the same in a neutral atom (which is what is represented on the periodic table).  The number of electrons increases by one as you move across the period.Monday, July 9, 2012
  70. 70. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  71. 71. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  72. 72. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  A few things to notice....Monday, July 9, 2012
  73. 73. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  A few things to notice....  Groups 3-12 are not pictured.Monday, July 9, 2012
  74. 74. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  A few things to notice....  Groups 3-12 are not pictured.  Group 18 is complete, it is full. It has _____ electrons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  75. 75. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Hydrogen is usually considered separately, so the first element family begins with lithium and sodium in the first column. 26Monday, July 9, 2012
  76. 76. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic TableMonday, July 9, 2012
  77. 77. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Human family members often have similar looks and traits.Monday, July 9, 2012
  78. 78. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  Human family members often have similar looks and traits.  Also, members of element families have similar properties, chemical properties, because they have the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels.Monday, July 9, 2012
  79. 79. Our Wonderful and Perfect Periodic Table  It was the repeating pattern of properties that gave Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev the idea for his first periodic table in 1869.Monday, July 9, 2012
  80. 80. Why so Noble, Group 18?Monday, July 9, 2012
  81. 81. Why so Noble, Group 18?Monday, July 9, 2012
  82. 82. Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.Monday, July 9, 2012
  83. 83. Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.  Do not combine well with other elements – originally thought they would not combine at all, but they will on rare occasion.Monday, July 9, 2012
  84. 84. Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.  Do not combine well with other elements – originally thought they would not combine at all, but they will on rare occasion.  Because they are so stable they are used to protect filaments in light bulbs.Monday, July 9, 2012
  85. 85. Why so Noble, Group 18?  Noble Gases have energy levels that are complete. They have 8 electrons in their outer energy levels.  Do not combine well with other elements – originally thought they would not combine at all, but they will on rare occasion.  Because they are so stable they are used to protect filaments in light bulbs.  Also used as to produce coloured lights in signs…electricity causes the noble gases to emit a certain colour light. Neon – orange/red; Argon – lavender; Helium – yellowish whiteMonday, July 9, 2012
  86. 86. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  87. 87. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  88. 88. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  Halogens only need one more electron, so they are ver y reactive.Monday, July 9, 2012
  89. 89. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  Halogens only need one more electron, so they are ver y reactive.  Fluorine is the most reactive because the electrons are so close to nucleus.Monday, July 9, 2012
  90. 90. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  Halogens only need one more electron, so they are ver y reactive.  Fluorine is the most reactive because the electrons are so close to nucleus.  Remember that when electrons are close to the nucleus, there is a stronger pull from the protons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  91. 91. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  92. 92. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  93. 93. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  94. 94. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  The further you go down group 17, the reactivities decrease.Monday, July 9, 2012
  95. 95. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)  The further you go down group 17, the reactivities decrease.  This is because there is more energy levels, and so the electrons are further away from the pull of the protons.Monday, July 9, 2012
  96. 96. Halogens From Halifax (Group 17)Monday, July 9, 2012
  97. 97. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)Monday, July 9, 2012
  98. 98. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)Monday, July 9, 2012
  99. 99. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Alkali Metals have one electron in outer most energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  100. 100. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Alkali Metals have one electron in outer most energy level.  This electron will be removed when alkali metals reacts.Monday, July 9, 2012
  101. 101. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Alkali Metals have one electron in outer most energy level.  This electron will be removed when alkali metals reacts.  The easier it is to remove an electron, the more reactive the atom is.Monday, July 9, 2012
  102. 102. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)Monday, July 9, 2012
  103. 103. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Reactivities increase as you go down the group. Why?Monday, July 9, 2012
  104. 104. Alkali Metals Have One Extra Petal (Group 1)  Reactivities increase as you go down the group. Why?  Alkali metals want to give away one of their electrons. That electron is further away from the pull of the proton as you move down group 1 in the periodic table.Monday, July 9, 2012
  105. 105. 38Monday, July 9, 2012
  106. 106. Electron Dot DiagramsMonday, July 9, 2012
  107. 107. Electron Dot Diagrams  An electron dot diagram is the symbol for the element surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level.Monday, July 9, 2012
  108. 108. Electron Dot Diagrams  An electron dot diagram is the symbol for the element surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level.  Only the outer energy level electrons are shown because these are what determine how an element can react.Monday, July 9, 2012
  109. 109. Electron Dot DiagramsMonday, July 9, 2012
  110. 110. Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbolMonday, July 9, 2012
  111. 111. Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbol  Then work your way around, adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.Monday, July 9, 2012
  112. 112. Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbol  Then work your way around, adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.  Add a fifth dot to the top to make a pair.Monday, July 9, 2012
  113. 113. Electron Dot Diagrams  Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbol  Then work your way around, adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.  Add a fifth dot to the top to make a pair.  Continue in this manner until you reach eight dots to complete the levelMonday, July 9, 2012
  114. 114. Electron Dot DiagramsMonday, July 9, 2012

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