Chapter 5 - Section 1Nervous System
2
Ner vous System
Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus
Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus!Noise, light, the smell ...
Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus!Noise, light, the smell ...
Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus!Noise, light, the smell ...
Keeping ever y thing in order
Keeping ever y thing in order!The   regulation of steady, life-maintaining conditions inside an organism, despite changes ...
Keeping ever y thing in order!The   regulation of steady, life-maintaining conditions inside an organism, despite changes ...
Ner ve Cells
Neurons are made up of a cell body and branchescelled dendrites and axons.
Axons carry impulses away from the cell body. The axonbranches at the end to send the signal to many othermuscles, neurons...
Types of Ner ve Cells
Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor   Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons
Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor   Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons
Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor   Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons!Sensory    neurons – receive information and send i...
Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor   Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons!Sensory    neurons – receive information and send i...
Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor   Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons!Sensory    neurons – receive information and send i...
Synapses Tomove from one neuron to the next, an impulse crosses a small space called a synapse.
Synapses
Synapses
Synapses
Synapses!When  an impulse reaches the end of an axon,the axon releases a chemical.
Synapses!When   an impulse reaches the end of an axon, the axon releases a chemical.!This chemical flows across the synaps...
Synapses!When   an impulse reaches the end of an axon, the axon releases a chemical.!This chemical flows across the synaps...
Synapses
Synapses
The Central Ner vous System!The  central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
The Central Ner vous System!The  central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
CNS – The Brain
CNS – The Brain!The   brain coordinates all of your body activities.
CNS – The Brain!The   brain coordinates all of your body activities.
CNS – The Brain!The   brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made    of 100 billion neurons
CNS – The Brain!The   brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made    of 100 billion neurons!WHAT?!?!    100 billio...
CNS – The Brain!The   brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made    of 100 billion neurons!WHAT?!?!    100 billio...
CNS – The Brain!The   brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made    of 100 billion neurons!WHAT?!?!    100 billio...
CNS – The Brain
CNS – The Cerebrum
CNS – The Cerebrum!The   cerebrum is the largest part of brain
CNS – The Cerebrum!The   cerebrum is the largest part of brain
CNS – The Cerebrum!The   cerebrum is the largest part of brain!This is where… !thinking takes place !impulses from the sen...
CNS – The Cerebrum!The   cerebrum is the largest part of brain!This is where… !thinking takes place !impulses from the sen...
CNS – The Cerebrum!The   cerebrum is the largest part of brain!This is where… !thinking takes place !impulses from the sen...
CNS – The Cerebrum
CNS - Cerebellum
CNS - Cerebellum!What   is interpreted in the cerebellum? !Stimuli from the eyes and ears !Stimuli from muscles and tendons
CNS - Cerebellum!What   is interpreted in the cerebellum? !Stimuli from the eyes and ears !Stimuli from muscles and tendon...
CNS – The Cerebellum
CNS – The Brain Stem
CNS – The Brain Stem!The  brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the br...
CNS – The Brain Stem!The  brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the br...
CNS – The Brain Stem!The  brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the br...
CNS – The Brain Stem!The  brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the br...
CNS – The Brain Stem!The  brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the br...
CNS – The Brain Stem!The  brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the br...
CNS – The Brain Stem!The  brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the br...
CNS - The Brain Stem
CNS – The Spinal Cord
CNS – The Spinal Cord!The   spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.
CNS – The Spinal Cord!The   spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.
CNS – The Spinal Cord!The   spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.!It contains bundles of neurons that carry impul...
CNS – The Spinal Cord!The   spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.!It contains bundles of neurons that carry impul...
CNS – The Spinal Cord!The   spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.!It contains bundles of neurons that carry impul...
CNS – The Spinal Cord
CNS – The Spinal Cord
CNS – The Spinal Cord
The Peripheral Ner vous System
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Yourbrain and spinal cord are connected to the body by the peripheral nervous system.
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Yourbrain and spinal cord are connected to the body by the peripheral nervous system.
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Yourbrain and spinal cord are connected to the body by the peripheral nervous system.!The  ...
The Peripheral Ner vous System
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.!In this way a...
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.!In this way a...
The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.!In this way a...
The Peripheral Ner vous System
PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems
PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems!Somatic    System controls voluntary actions
PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems!Somatic    System controls voluntary actions!It is made up of cranial and spinal nerves...
PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems!Somatic    System             Autonomic    System controls voluntary actions    contro...
PNS
Safety and the Ner vous System
Safety and the Ner vous System!Any  injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.
Safety and the Ner vous System!Any  injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.
Safety and the Ner vous System!Any  injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.!A severe blow to the head can b...
Safety and the Ner vous System!Any  injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.!A severe blow to the head can b...
Safety and the Ner vous System!Any  injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.!A severe blow to the head can b...
Safety and the Ner vous System Injury       to the spine can bring about damage to nerve pathways and result in paralysis...
Safety and the Ner vous System
Safety and the Ner vous System
Safety - Reflexes
Safety - Reflexes!You   experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.
Safety - Reflexes!You   experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.
Safety - Reflexes!You   experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex      – an inv...
Safety - Reflexes!You   experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex      – an inv...
Safety - Reflexes!You   experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex      – an inv...
Safety - Reflexes!You   experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex      – an inv...
Safety - Reflexes!You   experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex      – an inv...
Safety - Reflexes
Safety - Reflexes
Safety - Reflexes
Safety - Reflexes
Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes  allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.
Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes  allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.
Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes  allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.!Reflex  response...
Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes  allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.!Reflex  response...
Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes  allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.!Reflex  response...
Drugs and the Ner vous System
Drugs and the Ner vous System !Many   drugs, such as alcohol and caffeine, directly affect your nervous system.
Drugs and the Ner vous System !Many   drugs, such as alcohol and caffeine, directly affect your nervous system.
Drugs and the Ner vous System !Many   drugs, such as alcohol and caffeine, directly affect your nervous system. !When    s...
Drugs and the Ner vous System
Drugs and the Ner vous System !This drug slows the activities of the central  nervous system and is classified as a  depre...
Drugs and the Ner vous System !This drug slows the activities of the central  nervous system and is classified as a  depre...
Drugs and the Ner vous System !This drug slows the activities of the central  nervous system and is classified as a  depre...
Drugs and the Ner vous System
Drugs and the Ner vous System•Caffeine is another drugthat can affect yournervous system.
Drugs and the Ner vous System•Caffeine is another drugthat can affect yournervous system.•Too much caffeine canincrease he...
Science 5.1 knp pdf
Science 5.1 knp pdf
Science 5.1 knp pdf
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Science 5.1 knp pdf

  1. 1. Chapter 5 - Section 1Nervous System
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. Ner vous System
  4. 4. Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus
  5. 5. Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus!Noise, light, the smell of food, and the temperature of the air are all stimuli from outside your body.
  6. 6. Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus!Noise, light, the smell of food, and the temperature of the air are all stimuli from outside your body.
  7. 7. Ner vous System!Any internal or external change that brings about a response is called a stimulus!Noise, light, the smell of food, and the temperature of the air are all stimuli from outside your body.!Chemical substances such as hormones are examples of stimuli from inside your body.
  8. 8. Keeping ever y thing in order
  9. 9. Keeping ever y thing in order!The regulation of steady, life-maintaining conditions inside an organism, despite changes in its environment, is called homeostasis.
  10. 10. Keeping ever y thing in order!The regulation of steady, life-maintaining conditions inside an organism, despite changes in its environment, is called homeostasis.!Examples: !Regulating breathing !Regulating heartbeat !Regulating digestions
  11. 11. Ner ve Cells
  12. 12. Neurons are made up of a cell body and branchescelled dendrites and axons.
  13. 13. Axons carry impulses away from the cell body. The axonbranches at the end to send the signal to many othermuscles, neurons, or glands.
  14. 14. Types of Ner ve Cells
  15. 15. Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons
  16. 16. Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons
  17. 17. Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons!Sensory neurons – receive information and send impulses to the brian or spinal cord, where…
  18. 18. Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons!Sensory neurons – receive information and send impulses to the brian or spinal cord, where…!Interneurons – relay these impulses to…
  19. 19. Types of Ner ve Cells!Motor Neurons ~ Sensory Neurons ~ Interneurons!Sensory neurons – receive information and send impulses to the brian or spinal cord, where…!Interneurons – relay these impulses to…!Motor neurons – conduct impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands throughout the body.
  20. 20. Synapses Tomove from one neuron to the next, an impulse crosses a small space called a synapse.
  21. 21. Synapses
  22. 22. Synapses
  23. 23. Synapses
  24. 24. Synapses!When an impulse reaches the end of an axon,the axon releases a chemical.
  25. 25. Synapses!When an impulse reaches the end of an axon, the axon releases a chemical.!This chemical flows across the synapse and stimulates the impulse in the dendrite of the next neuron.
  26. 26. Synapses!When an impulse reaches the end of an axon, the axon releases a chemical.!This chemical flows across the synapse and stimulates the impulse in the dendrite of the next neuron.!Your neurons are adapted in such a way that impulses move in only one direction.
  27. 27. Synapses
  28. 28. Synapses
  29. 29. The Central Ner vous System!The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
  30. 30. The Central Ner vous System!The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
  31. 31. CNS – The Brain
  32. 32. CNS – The Brain!The brain coordinates all of your body activities.
  33. 33. CNS – The Brain!The brain coordinates all of your body activities.
  34. 34. CNS – The Brain!The brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made of 100 billion neurons
  35. 35. CNS – The Brain!The brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made of 100 billion neurons!WHAT?!?! 100 billion..... ▪That is absolutely.....
  36. 36. CNS – The Brain!The brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made of 100 billion neurons!WHAT?!?! 100 billion..... ▪That is absolutely.....!And that is only 10% of all the neurons in the human body.
  37. 37. CNS – The Brain!The brain coordinates all of your body activities.!Made of 100 billion neurons!WHAT?!?! 100 billion..... ▪That is absolutely.....!And that is only 10% of all the neurons in the human body.!The brain is surrounded by a bony skull and 3 membranes and a layer of fluid.
  38. 38. CNS – The Brain
  39. 39. CNS – The Cerebrum
  40. 40. CNS – The Cerebrum!The cerebrum is the largest part of brain
  41. 41. CNS – The Cerebrum!The cerebrum is the largest part of brain
  42. 42. CNS – The Cerebrum!The cerebrum is the largest part of brain!This is where… !thinking takes place !impulses from the senses are interpreted !memory is stored !movements are controlled
  43. 43. CNS – The Cerebrum!The cerebrum is the largest part of brain!This is where… !thinking takes place !impulses from the senses are interpreted !memory is stored !movements are controlled
  44. 44. CNS – The Cerebrum!The cerebrum is the largest part of brain!This is where… !thinking takes place !impulses from the senses are interpreted !memory is stored !movements are controlled!The outer layer, called the cortex, is marked by many ridges and grooves (increasing the surface area).
  45. 45. CNS – The Cerebrum
  46. 46. CNS - Cerebellum
  47. 47. CNS - Cerebellum!What is interpreted in the cerebellum? !Stimuli from the eyes and ears !Stimuli from muscles and tendons
  48. 48. CNS - Cerebellum!What is interpreted in the cerebellum? !Stimuli from the eyes and ears !Stimuli from muscles and tendons!The cerebellum interprets this information and uses it to coordinate voluntary muscle movement, maintain muscle tone, and helps maintain balance.
  49. 49. CNS – The Cerebellum
  50. 50. CNS – The Brain Stem
  51. 51. CNS – The Brain Stem!The brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the brain and the spinal cord
  52. 52. CNS – The Brain Stem!The brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the brain and the spinal cord
  53. 53. CNS – The Brain Stem!The brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the brain and the spinal cord!Ismade up of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla
  54. 54. CNS – The Brain Stem!The brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the brain and the spinal cord!Ismade up of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla
  55. 55. CNS – The Brain Stem!The brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the brain and the spinal cord!Ismade up of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla!The midbrain and pons act as pathways to connect different parts of the brain with each other.
  56. 56. CNS – The Brain Stem!The brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the brain and the spinal cord!Ismade up of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla!The midbrain and pons act as pathways to connect different parts of the brain with each other.
  57. 57. CNS – The Brain Stem!The brain stem is located at the base of the brain and extends from the cerebrum and connects the brain and the spinal cord!Ismade up of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla!The midbrain and pons act as pathways to connect different parts of the brain with each other.!The medulla controls involuntary actions (heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure). It is also involved in actions such as coughing, sneezing, vomiting.
  58. 58. CNS - The Brain Stem
  59. 59. CNS – The Spinal Cord
  60. 60. CNS – The Spinal Cord!The spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.
  61. 61. CNS – The Spinal Cord!The spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.
  62. 62. CNS – The Spinal Cord!The spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.!It contains bundles of neurons that carry impulses between all parts of the body and the brain.
  63. 63. CNS – The Spinal Cord!The spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.!It contains bundles of neurons that carry impulses between all parts of the body and the brain.
  64. 64. CNS – The Spinal Cord!The spinal cord is an extension of the brain stem.!It contains bundles of neurons that carry impulses between all parts of the body and the brain.!An adult spinal cord is about the width of an adult thumb and is about 43 cm long.
  65. 65. CNS – The Spinal Cord
  66. 66. CNS – The Spinal Cord
  67. 67. CNS – The Spinal Cord
  68. 68. The Peripheral Ner vous System
  69. 69. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Yourbrain and spinal cord are connected to the body by the peripheral nervous system.
  70. 70. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Yourbrain and spinal cord are connected to the body by the peripheral nervous system.
  71. 71. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Yourbrain and spinal cord are connected to the body by the peripheral nervous system.!The PNS is made up of 1 pairs of nerves from 2 your brain called cranial nerves and 31 pairs from your spinal cord called spinal nerves.
  72. 72. The Peripheral Ner vous System
  73. 73. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.
  74. 74. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.
  75. 75. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.!In this way a single spinal nerve can have senses going to and from the brain.
  76. 76. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.!In this way a single spinal nerve can have senses going to and from the brain.
  77. 77. The Peripheral Ner vous System!Spinalnerves are made of bundles of sensory and motor neurons bound together.!In this way a single spinal nerve can have senses going to and from the brain.!Some nerves contain only sensory neurons, and some contain only motor neurons, but most nerves contain both types of neurons.
  78. 78. The Peripheral Ner vous System
  79. 79. PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems
  80. 80. PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems!Somatic System controls voluntary actions
  81. 81. PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems!Somatic System controls voluntary actions!It is made up of cranial and spinal nerves that go from the CNS to your skeletal muscles.
  82. 82. PNS – Somatic and AutonomicSystems!Somatic System  Autonomic System controls voluntary actions controls involuntary actions!It is made up of cranial (such as heart rate, and spinal nerves that go breathing, digestion, from the CNS to your glandular functions) skeletal muscles.
  83. 83. PNS
  84. 84. Safety and the Ner vous System
  85. 85. Safety and the Ner vous System!Any injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.
  86. 86. Safety and the Ner vous System!Any injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.
  87. 87. Safety and the Ner vous System!Any injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.!A severe blow to the head can bruise the brain and cause temporary or permanent loss of mental and physical abilities.
  88. 88. Safety and the Ner vous System!Any injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.!A severe blow to the head can bruise the brain and cause temporary or permanent loss of mental and physical abilities.
  89. 89. Safety and the Ner vous System!Any injury to the brain or the spinal cord can be serious.!A severe blow to the head can bruise the brain and cause temporary or permanent loss of mental and physical abilities.!Spinal cord injuries can be just as dangerous as a brain injury.
  90. 90. Safety and the Ner vous System Injury to the spine can bring about damage to nerve pathways and result in paralysis, which is the loss of muscle movement.
  91. 91. Safety and the Ner vous System
  92. 92. Safety and the Ner vous System
  93. 93. Safety - Reflexes
  94. 94. Safety - Reflexes!You experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.
  95. 95. Safety - Reflexes!You experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.
  96. 96. Safety - Reflexes!You experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex – an involuntary automatic response to a stimulus.
  97. 97. Safety - Reflexes!You experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex – an involuntary automatic response to a stimulus.
  98. 98. Safety - Reflexes!You experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex – an involuntary automatic response to a stimulus.!You cannot control them because they occur before you are aware of them.
  99. 99. Safety - Reflexes!You experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex – an involuntary automatic response to a stimulus.!You cannot control them because they occur before you are aware of them.
  100. 100. Safety - Reflexes!You experience a reflex when you touch something hot, or when you cough or vomit.!Reflex – an involuntary automatic response to a stimulus.!You cannot control them because they occur before you are aware of them.!They involve a simple nerve pathway called a reflex arc.
  101. 101. Safety - Reflexes
  102. 102. Safety - Reflexes
  103. 103. Safety - Reflexes
  104. 104. Safety - Reflexes
  105. 105. Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.
  106. 106. Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.
  107. 107. Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.!Reflex responses are controlled in your spinal cord, not your brain.
  108. 108. Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.!Reflex responses are controlled in your spinal cord, not your brain.
  109. 109. Safety - Reflexes!Reflexes allow your body to respond without having to think about what action to take.!Reflex responses are controlled in your spinal cord, not your brain.!Yourbrain acts after the reflex to help figure out what to do next to stop the pain.
  110. 110. Drugs and the Ner vous System
  111. 111. Drugs and the Ner vous System !Many drugs, such as alcohol and caffeine, directly affect your nervous system.
  112. 112. Drugs and the Ner vous System !Many drugs, such as alcohol and caffeine, directly affect your nervous system.
  113. 113. Drugs and the Ner vous System !Many drugs, such as alcohol and caffeine, directly affect your nervous system. !When swallowed, alcohol passes directly through the walls of the stomach and small intestine into the circulatory system.
  114. 114. Drugs and the Ner vous System
  115. 115. Drugs and the Ner vous System !This drug slows the activities of the central nervous system and is classified as a depressant.
  116. 116. Drugs and the Ner vous System !This drug slows the activities of the central nervous system and is classified as a depressant.
  117. 117. Drugs and the Ner vous System !This drug slows the activities of the central nervous system and is classified as a depressant. !Heavy alcohol use destroys brain and liver cells.
  118. 118. Drugs and the Ner vous System
  119. 119. Drugs and the Ner vous System•Caffeine is another drugthat can affect yournervous system.
  120. 120. Drugs and the Ner vous System•Caffeine is another drugthat can affect yournervous system.•Too much caffeine canincrease heart rate andaggravates restlessness,tremors, and insomnia insome people.
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