4.1 Respiratory System
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4.1 Respiratory System Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The  Respiratory  System  
  • 2. FunctionsTake  in  oxygen  and  expel  carbon  dioxide
  • 3. Our  Air
  • 4. Breathing  –  movement  of  the  chest  that  brings  air  into  the  lungs  and  removes  wastesAir  passes  from  the  lungs  into  the  circulatory  systemBlood  carries  oxygen  to  individual  cells.  The  oxygen  delivered  to  the  cells  is  used  to  release  energy  from  glucose.  This  chemical  reaction  is  called  cellular  respiration.Breathing  vs.  Respiration
  • 5. Carbon  dioxide  and  water  molecules  are  waste  products  of  cellular  respiration.They  are  carried  back  to  the  lungs  in  the  blood.Exhaling,  or  breathing  out,  eliminates  waste  carbon  dioxide  and  some  water  molecules.Breathing  vs.  Cellular  Respiration
  • 6. The  respiratory  system  is  made  up  of  structures  and  organs  that  help  move  oxygen  into  the  body  and  waste  gases  out  of  the  body.
  • 7. Air  enters  body  through  mouth  or  nostrilsOrgans
  • 8. Fine hair inside  the  nostrils  trap  dust  from  the  air.Air  then  passes  through  the  nasal cavity,  where  it  gets  moistened  and  warmed  by  the  body’s  heat.Mucus  traps  dust,  pollen,  and  other  materials  that  were  not  trapped  by  nasal  hairs.  Tiny,  hairlike  structures,  called  cilia,  sweep  mucus  and  trapped  material  to  the  back  of  the  throat  where  it  can  be  swallowed.Warmed,  moist  air  then  enters  a  tubelike  passageway  used  for  food,  liquid,  and  air  called  the  pharynx.Organs
  • 9. At  the  lower  end  of  the  pharynx is  a  flap  of  tissue  called  the  epiglottis.Organs
  • 10. The  larynx is  the  airway  to  which  two  pairs  of  horizontal  folds  of  tissue,  called  vocal  cords,  are  attachedForcing  air  between  the  cords  causes  them  to  vibrate  and  produce  sounds.  Organs
  • 11. From  the  larynx  air  moves  into  the  trachea,  which  is  a  tube  about  12  cm  in  lengthStrong,  C-­‐shaped  rings  of  cartilage  prevent  the  trachea  from  collapsing.  The  trachea  is  lined  with  mucous  membranes  and  cilia  that  traps  dust,  bacteria,  and  pollen.Organs
  • 12. Air  is  carried  into  your  lungs  by  two  short  tubes  called  bronchi at  the  lower  end  of  the  trachea.  Within  the  lungs,  the  bronchi  branch  into  smaller  and  smaller  tubes.    The  smallest  tubes  are  called  bronchiole.At  the  end  of  each  bronchiole  are  clusters  of  tiny,  thin-­‐walled  sacs  called  alveoliOrgans
  • 13. Lungs are  masses  of  alveoli  arranged  in  grapelike  clusters.Organs
  • 14. The  exchange  of  oxygen  and  carbon  dioxide  takes  place  between  the  alveoli and  capillaries.  Organs
  • 15. Oxygen  moves  through  the  cell  membranes  of  the  alveoli  and  then  through  the  cell  membranes  of  the  capillaries  into  the  blood.There  the  oxygen  is  picked  up  by  hemoglobin.At  the  same  time,  carbon  dioxide  and  other  cellular  wastes  leave  the  body  cells.Organs
  • 16. Your  brain  can  change  your  breathing  rate  depending  on  the  amount  of  carbon  dioxide  present  in  your  blood.As  carbon  dioxide  increases,  your  breathing  rate  increases.Why  does  carbon  dioxide  build  up?  Cellular  Respirations!!C6H12O6  +  6O2                        6CO2 +  6H2O  +  ENERGYWhy  do  you  breathe?
  • 17. Your  diaphragm is  a  muscle  beneath  your  lungs  that  contracts  and  relaxes  to  help  move  gases  into  and  out  of  your  lungs.  Inhale  and  Exhale
  • 18. 24
  • 19. Many  serious  diseases  are  related  to  smoking.  The  chemical  substances  in  tobacco—nicotine  and  tars—are  poisons  and  can  destroy  cells.  Bacteria,  viruses,  and  other  microorganisms  can  cause  infections  that  affect  any  of  the  organs  of  the  respiratory  system.  The  common  cold  usually  affects  the  upper  part  of  the  respiratory  system—from  the  nose  to  the  pharynx.Diseases  and  Disorders
  • 20. The  cold  virus  also  can  cause  irritation  and  swelling  in  the  larynx,  trachea,  and  bronchi.A  virus  that  causes  influenza  can  affect  many  of  the  body’s  systems.  The  virus  multiples  in  the  cells  lining  the  alveoli  and  damages  themWhen  bronchial  tubes  are  irritated  and  swell,  and  too  much  mucus  is  produced,  a  disease  called  bronchitis  develops.Diseases  and  Disorders
  • 21. A  disease  in  which  the  alveoli  in  the  lungs  enlarge  is  called  emphysema.Alveoli  can’t  push  air  out  of  the  lungs,  so  less  oxygen  moves  into  the  bloodstream  from  the  alveoli.Shortness  of  breath,  wheezing,  or  coughing  can  occur  in  a  lung  disorder  called  asthma.Diseases  and  Disorders