Blood

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  • Blood

    1. 1. BLOODSection 3.2
    2. 2. Function of Blood•Blood carries oxygen from your lungs to allyour body cells.•Blood also carries carbon dioxide from yourcells to your lungs to be exhaled.•Blood carries waste products from your cellsto your kidneys to be removed.
    3. 3. Function of Blood•Blood transports nutrients and othersubstances to your body cells.•Cells and molecules in blood fight infectionsand help heal wounds.
    4. 4. Colour of Blood•blood is always red - bright red when it isoxygenated and a darker red when its lackingoxygen.•Deoxygenated blood just “looks” blue becauseyoure seeing it through your skin.•oxygen poor blood is most definitely NOT blue.it is a sort of purplish/maroon color at best.
    5. 5. Colour of Blood•Realize that to see the vein at all, light has togo THROUGH the skin and hit the blood in thevein. The blood absorbs certain colours oflight, and reflects others back through theskin. For some reason, the combination of theseeffects gives a blue color.
    6. 6. How much blood do you have?•On average, about 8% of your body weight is blood.•Therefore….60kg *0.08 = 4.8kg•You have about 6.67 L of blood.
    7. 7. What’s in your blood•Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells
    8. 8. What’s in your blood
    9. 9. What’s in your blood•Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells•Liquid part of blood•Mostly water•Makes up more than half the volumeof blood (55%)•Nutrients, minerals, oxygen andwastes are dissolved in plasma
    10. 10. •Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells•Irregularly shaped cell fragments•Help clot blood▫They plug holes in small vessels.▫They release chemicals that help formfilaments of fibrin.•A cubic millimeter of blood has…..•400,000 platelets•Life span: 5-9 daysWhat’s in your blood
    11. 11. •Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells▫Red Blood Cells are disk-shaped bloodcells that have no nuclei and containhemoglobin.▫Hemoglobin carries oxygen and somecarbon dioxide (the rest of the CO2 iscarried in the cytoplasm of the red bloodcell)▫Hemoglobin is made of an iron compoundthat gives blood its red colour.What’s in your blood
    12. 12. •Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells•The life span of a red blood cell is 120days (4 months)•They are made at a rate of 2-3 millionper second. WOW!!!•Where are they made? Bone Marrow•RBC are also destroyed at about thesame rate, 2-3 million per second•1 cubic millimeter of blood has 5 millionred blood cells!!! WOW!!What’s in your blood
    13. 13. •Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells•We have approximately 25-30 trillionRBC in our bodies at any given time.•Each RBC has 250 million hemoglobinmolecules.•Every hemoglobin can hold 4 O2molecules.•How many O2 molecules can one RBCcarry?•One Billion!!!What’s in your blood
    14. 14. •Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells•1 cubic millimeter of blood hasonly 5,000 to 10,000 white bloodcells.•Function: fight bacteria, virusesand other invaders.•Your body produces more whiteblood cells when invaders enteryour body.What’s in your blood
    15. 15. •Plasma•Platelets•Red blood cells•White blood cells•WBC Leave blood through thecapillary walls and go into thetissues that have been invaded.•Here they fight the intruder.•Life span: few days to manymonths.•There are several types, sizes, andshapes of white blood cells.What’s in your blood
    16. 16. Blood Clotting•What stops the bleeding?•Platelets stick to the wound and release chemicals.•Then clotting factors carry out a series ofchemical reactions.
    17. 17. •The reactions causethreadlike fibers calledfibrin to form a stickynet.•The net traps escapingblood cells and plasmaand forms a clot.Blood Clotting
    18. 18. •The reactions causethreadlike fibers calledfibrin to form a stickynet.•The net traps escapingblood cells and plasmaand forms a clot.Blood Clotting
    19. 19. •Once the clot becomes hard, skin cells begin toreform under the scab.•Eventually the scab is lifted off, revealingfresh, new skin!Blood Clotting
    20. 20. •What if you can’t clot??•You have a genetic disorder called hemophilia.•You lack one of the clotting factors that beginthe clotting process.Blood Clotting
    21. 21. Blood Types
    22. 22. Blood Types•There are 4 different bloodtypes:•a, b, ab and o•Types a, b and ab havechemical identification tagscalled antigens on their redblood cells. Type O red bloodcells have no antigens.
    23. 23. Blood Types•Each blood type has specific antibodies in its plasma.They are proteins in your plasma that destroy orneutralize substances that do not belong to your body.•Because of this, certain blood types cannot mix. If typeA is mixed with type B blood, the type A antibodiesdetermine that the type B does not belong there. Theantibodies will cause the type B red blood cells toclump.
    24. 24. Blood Types•What would happen if type AB had antibodies?
    25. 25. Blood Types
    26. 26. Rh Factor•Another chemical id tag in blood is the Rh factor.•If the Rh factor is on red blood cells, the person has Rh-positive (Rh +) blood.•If the Rh factor is not on the red blood cells, the personhas Rh-negative (Rh - ) blood.•If an Rh- person receives a blood transfusion from an Rh+ person, he or she will produce antibodies against theRh+ factor. Clots will then form in the blood vessels andthe person will die.
    27. 27. Rh Factor•If an Rh- mother is pregnant with an Rh+ baby, themother might make antibodies to the child’s Rh factor.Close to the time of birth, Rh antibodies from the mothercan pass from her blood into the baby’s blood.•These antibodies can destroy the baby’s red blood cells.•If this occurs, the baby will have to receive a bloodtransfusion before or after the birth.
    28. 28. Rh Factor•But at 28 weeks, the mother can receive an injection thatblocks the production of antibodies to the Rh+ factor.•These injections prevent the life-threatening situation.
    29. 29. Diseases of Blood•Leukemia▫a disease in which one or more types of white blood cellsare made in excessive numbers.▫These cells are immature and do not fight infections well.▫they fill the bone marrow and crowd out the normalcells.▫Then not enough red & white blood cells and plateletscan be made.
    30. 30. Diseases of Blood•Leukemia▫Types of leukemia affect children or adults.▫medicines, blood transfusions, and bone marrowtransplants are used to treat this disease.
    31. 31. Diseases of Blood•Anemia▫Anemia is a disease of the Red Blood CElls, in which bodycells can’t get enough oxygen and are unable to carry ontheir usual activities.▫Causes:๏Loss of blood๏diet lacking iron or certain vitamins๏side effect of the treatment of another disease
    32. 32. Diseases of Blood•Anemia▫One type of anemia results from the disease Sickle CellAnemia, a recessive genetic disorder.▫In sickle cell anemia the red blood cells are abnormallyshaped and cannot carry oxygen properly.

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