How is your circulatory system like theplumbing in a house?
Materials move through yourbody via the….heart, blood vessels, andbloodCIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Moving…Blood moves oxygen andnutrients to cells.Blood carries carbon dioxide andother wastes away from the cells.Movement of materials into andout of your cells occurs bydiffusion and active transport.
Diffusion and Active Transport
The flow of blood through the heartto the lungs and back to the heart.Pulmonary Circulation
1. Blood, high inCO2 and low in O2returns from thebody and travelsto the heart.It enters the rightatrium through thesuperior andinferior vena cava.Pulmonary Circulation
2. The right atriumcontracts andblood enters theright ventricle. Theventricle thencontracts andsends blood to thelungs through thepulmonary artery.Pulmonary Circulation
Why are thepulmonary arteriesspecial?They are the onlyartery that carriesblood that is low inoxygen.Pulmonary Circulation
3. Oxygen richblood, from thelungs, enters theheart through thepulmonary veinand into the leftatrium.Pulmonary Circulation
What makespulmonary veinsspecial?They are the onlyvein that carriesoxygen rich blood.Pulmonary Circulation
4. The left atriumcontracts andforces the bloodinto the leftventricle. Oncethat contracts,blood flows out ofthe heart and intothe aorta.Pulmonary Circulation
Pulmonary Circulation1. Blood, high in CO2 and low inO2 returns from the body andtravels to the heart.It enters the right atrium throughthe superior and inferior venacava.3. Oxygen rich blood, from thelungs, enters the heart throughthe pulmonary vein and intothe left atrium. What makespulmonary veins special? Theyare the only vein that carriesoxygen rich blood.2. The right atrium contracts andblood enters the right ventricle.The ventricle then contractsand sends blood to the lungsthrough the pulmonary artery.Why are the pulmonary arteriesspecial?They are the only artery thatcarries blood that is low inoxygen.4. The left atrium contracts andforces the blood into the leftventricle. Once that contracts,blood flows out of the heartand into the aorta.
Blood moves through your body (exceptyour heart and lungs) by systemiccirculation.Oxygen-rich blood flows from your heartthrough arteries. They carry nutrients andoxygen to your body cells.Carbon dioxide and wastes are picked upby the blood and return, through your veins.Systemic Circulation
Are you ready for a mindboggling fact??If you were to take all of your bloodvessels and lay them out, they wouldcover a distance of...97,000 kilometerThat’s more than 2 timesaround the earth!21
ArteriesBlood vessels that carryblood away from the heart.Have thick, elastic wallsmade of connective tissue,smooth muscleEach ventricle of the heart isattached to an artery.The right ventricle isattached to the pulmonaryartery.The left ventricle is attachedto the aorta.
VeinsBlood vessels that carry blood back to the heartVeins have one way valves that keep bloodmoving towards the heartBlood flow is helped by your skeletal muscles.When they contract, the veins are squeezed andmove blood toward the heart
VeinsTwo major veins return bloodto the heart.Superior vena cava returnsblood from your head andneck.Inferior vena cava returnsblood from your abdomenand lower body.
CapillariesArteries and veins are connected bycapillaries.The walls of capillaries are only one cellthickNutrient and oxygen diffuse into body cellsthrough the thin capillary walls.Wastes materials and carbon dioxidediffuse from body cells into the capillaries.
Arteries Veins CapillariesCarries blood away from heart Carries blood to the heart Connects arteries to veinsHave thick, elastic wallsmade of connective tissue,smooth muscleWalls consist of three layers oftissues that are thinner and lesselastic than arteries.The walls of capillariesare only one cell thickHave relatively narrowlumens compared to veinshave relatively wide lumensHave relatively moremuscle/elastic tissueHave relatively less muscle/elastic tissueTransports blood underhigher pressure (than veins)Transports blood under lowerpressure (than arteries)Do not have valvesHave valves to prevent bloodflowing in the wrong direction0.1-10mm 5mm 0.02mm
Blood PressureBlood Pressure - the force of blood on the wall of theblood vesselsIs blood pressure highest in arteries or veins?ArteriesSystolic pressure - pressure caused when the ventriclescontract and blood is pushed out of the heartDiastolic pressure - pressure that occurs when theventricles fill with blood just before they contract again.
AtherosclerosisFatty deposits build up onarterial walls and causethe arteries to harden andnarrow.Atherosclerosis is the usualcause of heart attacks andstrokes.What can lead to thisdisease?High Blood PressureHigh levels of cholesterolSmokingHigh levels of sugar inthe bloodCardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular DiseaseHypertension or High Blood PressureThe higher the pressure the harder the heart hasto pump. Hypertension can lead to damagedorgans, kidney failure, aneurysm, heart failure,stroke, or heart attack.The causes of hypertension are:SmokingObesityDiabetesSedentary lifestyleLack of physical activity
Cardiovascular DiseaseHeart FailureThe heart cannot pump blood efficiently.It might be cause by a weakened heart muscleor heart valves not working properly.
Preventing CardiovascularDiseaseWays to prevent cardiovascular diseaseRegular check upsA healthy diet – choosing foods low in salt, sugar,cholesterol and saturated fatsExerciseNot smoking