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Chemistry 2.2
 

Chemistry 2.2

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    Chemistry 2.2 Chemistry 2.2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chemistry Chapter 2 - Section 2 Rates of Chemical Reactions Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • How Fast?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Some reactions need some help to get started, others do not.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • “What is that extra help called?”Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Activation EnergyTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • The minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Let’s look at an example: 2O2 + CH4 --> CO2 + 2H2OTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Activation Energy 9Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Activation Energy For a reaction to begin, the molecules must bump into each other or collide with enough force. 9Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Activation Energy For a reaction to begin, the molecules must bump into each other or collide with enough force. The reactants must smash into each other with a certain amount of energy. If they do not, the reaction will not occur. 9Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Activation Energy For a reaction to begin, the molecules must bump into each other or collide with enough force. The reactants must smash into each other with a certain amount of energy. If they do not, the reaction will not occur. This energy is called, activation energy. 9Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Activation Energy For a reaction to begin, the molecules must bump into each other or collide with enough force. The reactants must smash into each other with a certain amount of energy. If they do not, the reaction will not occur. This energy is called, activation energy. This is also true for reactions that release energy when they react. An example is gasoline burning. 9Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • When gasoline is spilled it does not burst into flames.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • A highly flammable material, which cannot be extinguished by wind or rain needs to be lit in order to burn.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Rate of Reaction?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • How fast a reaction occurs after it has started.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • You can measure Reaction Rate by: - how quickly one of the reactants is consumed, or - how quickly one of the products is createdTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Rate of Reaction - The faster the betterTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Rate of Reaction - Fast is not good hereTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • What controls reaction rate? 1. temperature 2. concentration 3. surface area 4. inhibitorsTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Changes RateTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Changes RateTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Changes Rate Slow the ripening of fruit by putting them in the refrigerator.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Changes Rate Slow the ripening of fruit by putting them in the refrigerator. Meat and fish decompose faster at higher temperatures, producing toxins that can make you sick. Keep them chilled helps slow the decomposition rate.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Changes Rate Slow the ripening of fruit by putting them in the refrigerator. Meat and fish decompose faster at higher temperatures, producing toxins that can make you sick. Keep them chilled helps slow the decomposition rate. Bacteria grow faster at higher temperature.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Affects RateTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Affects RateTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Affects Rate Most chemical reaction speed up when temperature increase.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Affects Rate Most chemical reaction speed up when temperature increase. The atoms and molecules are always moving, and they move faster at higher temperatures.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Temperature Affects Rate Most chemical reaction speed up when temperature increase. The atoms and molecules are always moving, and they move faster at higher temperatures. Faster molecules collide with each other more often and with greater force, which may be enough to break the old bond. This is activation energy.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Concentration Affects RateTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Concentration?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Amount of substance in a certain volume.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate 10 cm 10 cm 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate Surface Area = 600 cm 2 10 cm 10 cm 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate Surface Area = 600 cm 2 10 cm That is the amount of 10 cm surface that 10 cm would be touching the other reactant.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What if we cut out little cubes? 1cm x 1cm 10 cm 10 cm 1 cm 1 cm 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What if we cut out little cubes? 1cm x 1cm 10 cm How many cubes 10 cm would we have? 1 cm 1 cm 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What if we cut out little cubes? 1cm x 1cm 10 cm How many cubes 10 cm would we have? 1 cm 1 cm 1000 cubes 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What if we cut out little cubes? 1cm x 1cm 10 cm How many cubes 10 cm would we have? 1 cm 1 cm 1000 cubes 10 cm What would be the SA of one of the cubes?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What if we cut out little cubes? 1cm x 1cm 10 cm How many cubes 10 cm would we have? 1 cm 1 cm 1000 cubes 10 cm 6cm2 What would be the SA of one of the cubes?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What is the total SA of all the cubes? 10 cm 10 cm 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What is the total SA of all the cubes? 10 cm 6cm 2 x 1000 = 10 cm 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What is the total SA of all the cubes? 10 cm 6cm 2 x 1000 = 10 cm 6000 cm 2 10 cmTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate What is the total SA of all the cubes? 10 cm 6cm 2 x 1000 = 10 cm 6000 cm 2 10 cm SA of Whole cube = 600 cm 2 SA of cut up cube = 6000 cm 2Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate 10 cm That’s a BIG difference!Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Surface Area Affects Rate SA of Whole cube = 600 cm 2 SA of cut up cube = 6000 cm 2 10 cm That’s a BIG difference!Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Slowing Down ReactionsTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Inhibitor?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • A substance that slows down a chemical reaction. An inhibitor makes the formation of a certain amount of product take longer.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Inhibitor Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Speed Up ReactionsTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalyst?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction. Catalyst’s do not appear in a chemical equation because they are not changed permanently or used up.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalysts - provide a surface for the reaction to take place, or - reduce the activation energy needed to start the reactionTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • 37Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalytic ConverterTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalytic ConverterTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalytic Converter In vehicles, the exhaust passes through the catalyst.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalytic Converter In vehicles, the exhaust passes through the catalyst. Catalysts will speed up the reactions that change incompletely burned substances that are harmful, such as carbon monoxide, into less harmful substances like CO2 and H2O.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalytic Converter In vehicles, the exhaust passes through the catalyst. Catalysts will speed up the reactions that change incompletely burned substances that are harmful, such as carbon monoxide, into less harmful substances like CO2 and H2O. This results in cleaner air.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalytic ConverterTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Catalytic ConverterTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Enzymes are Specialists!Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Enzyme?Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Large protein molecules that speed up reactions needed for your cells to work properly. - convert food to fuel - build bone and muscle tissue - convert extra energy to fat - produce other enzymesTuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Other Uses of Enzymes One example is Proteases - a class of enzymes that work within cells to break down proteins. Meat tenderizer is one example of a protease. Contact lens cleaning solutions also contain proteases that break down proteins formed by your eyes that can collect on your lenses and cloud your view.Tuesday, July 10, 2012
    • Finished the KNP! So, lets see a catalyst at work!Tuesday, July 10, 2012