elements
and
chemical
bonds
Atoms Bond
Elements rarely exist in pure form in nature.
Instead, atoms of different elements chemically
combine and form ...
Atoms Bond
Compounds make up most of the matter around
you, including living and nonliving things.
H20
C02
02
C6H12O6
positions of Electrons
• The exact position of the
electrons in an atom cannot
be determined. Electrons
constantly move ar...
Electrons and energy
• The areas in which electrons move around the nucleus are
called energy levels.
Electrons and energy
• Different electrons in an atom
have different amounts of
energy.
• The amount of energy an
electron...
Electrons and energy
• The lowest energy level in the atom can hold only two
electrons.
• The second energy level can hold...
Electrons and bonding
• Like magnets, the negatively charged electrons are
attracted to the positively charged nucleus of ...
valence electrons
• Electrons farthest from their nucleus are easily
attracted to the nuclei of nearby atoms.
valence electrons
• These outermost electrons are the only electrons
that form chemical bonds.
valence electrons
• A valence electron is an outermost electron of an atom
that participates in chemical bonding. Valence
...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
valence electrons
• The number of valence electrons in an atom helps
determine the type and number of bonds the atom
can f...
electron dot diagram
• An electron dot diagram is a simple way to show an
element’s valence electrons.
• An electron dot d...
electron dot diagram
• Electron dot diagrams can help you predict how an
atom will bond with other atoms.
ClN
5 valence el...
electron dot diagram
electron dot diagram
electron dot diagram
electron dot diagram
electron dot diagram
• Notice that a neon atom, Ne,
has eight valence electrons. It
has no unpaired dots.
• Atoms with eig...
noble gases
• The elements in Group 18 are called noble gases. With
the exception of helium, noble gases have eight
valenc...
stable and unstable atoms
• Atoms with unpaired dots in their electron dot
diagrams are reactive, or chemically unstable.
...
stable and unstable atoms
• When an atom forms a bond, it gains, loses, or shares
valence electrons with other atoms.
• By...
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Elements and Chemical Bonds

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Elements and Chemical Bonds

  1. 1. elements and chemical bonds
  2. 2. Atoms Bond Elements rarely exist in pure form in nature. Instead, atoms of different elements chemically combine and form compounds. H X H20 ✓
  3. 3. Atoms Bond Compounds make up most of the matter around you, including living and nonliving things. H20 C02 02 C6H12O6
  4. 4. positions of Electrons • The exact position of the electrons in an atom cannot be determined. Electrons constantly move around the nucleus. • However, each electron is usually in a certain area around the nucleus. Some are in areas close to the nucleus and some are in areas farther away.
  5. 5. Electrons and energy • The areas in which electrons move around the nucleus are called energy levels.
  6. 6. Electrons and energy • Different electrons in an atom have different amounts of energy. • The amount of energy an electron has is related to its distance from the nucleus. • Electrons closest to the nucleus are in the lowest energy level. These electrons have the least energy. • Electrons farthest from the nucleus are in the highest energy level.
  7. 7. Electrons and energy • The lowest energy level in the atom can hold only two electrons. • The second energy level can hold up to eight electrons.
  8. 8. Electrons and bonding • Like magnets, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus of an atom. • Electrons close to the nucleus have a strong attraction to it. Nail A Nail B Which has the stronger attraction to the magnet?
  9. 9. valence electrons • Electrons farthest from their nucleus are easily attracted to the nuclei of nearby atoms.
  10. 10. valence electrons • These outermost electrons are the only electrons that form chemical bonds.
  11. 11. valence electrons • A valence electron is an outermost electron of an atom that participates in chemical bonding. Valence electrons have the most energy of all the electrons in an atom.
  12. 12. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has.
  13. 13. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 1 has 1 valence electron
  14. 14. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 2 has 2 valence electron
  15. 15. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 13 has 3 valence electron
  16. 16. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 14 has 4 valence electron
  17. 17. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 15 has 5 valence electron
  18. 18. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 16 has 6 valence electron
  19. 19. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 17 has 7 valence electron
  20. 20. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 18 has 8 valence electron
  21. 21. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Except for helium, which has 2.
  22. 22. electron dot diagram • An electron dot diagram is a simple way to show an element’s valence electrons. • An electron dot diagram is a model that represents valence electrons in an atom as dots around the element’s chemical symbol. ClN 5 valence electrons 7 valence electrons
  23. 23. electron dot diagram • Electron dot diagrams can help you predict how an atom will bond with other atoms. ClN 5 valence electrons 7 valence electrons
  24. 24. electron dot diagram
  25. 25. electron dot diagram
  26. 26. electron dot diagram
  27. 27. electron dot diagram
  28. 28. electron dot diagram • Notice that a neon atom, Ne, has eight valence electrons. It has no unpaired dots. • Atoms with eight valence electrons are chemically stable. They do not react easily with other atoms. • Atoms with 1–7 valence electrons are chemically unstable. These atoms easily bond with other atoms and form compounds.
  29. 29. noble gases • The elements in Group 18 are called noble gases. With the exception of helium, noble gases have eight valence electrons and are chemically stable. • Stable atoms do not easily react, or form bonds, with other atoms. Ar
  30. 30. stable and unstable atoms • Atoms with unpaired dots in their electron dot diagrams are reactive, or chemically unstable. • Nitrogen, for example, is reactive because it has three unpaired dots. • Unstable atoms such as nitrogen become more stable by forming chemical bonds with other atoms. N
  31. 31. stable and unstable atoms • When an atom forms a bond, it gains, loses, or shares valence electrons with other atoms. • By forming bonds, atoms become more chemically stable. • Atoms are most stable with eight valence electrons. Therefore, atoms with less than eight valence electrons form bonds and become stable. N
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