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Elements and Chemical Bonds
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Elements and Chemical Bonds

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  • 1. elements and chemical bonds
  • 2. Atoms Bond Elements rarely exist in pure form in nature. Instead, atoms of different elements chemically combine and form compounds. H X H20 ✓
  • 3. Atoms Bond Compounds make up most of the matter around you, including living and nonliving things. H20 C02 02 C6H12O6
  • 4. positions of Electrons • The exact position of the electrons in an atom cannot be determined. Electrons constantly move around the nucleus. • However, each electron is usually in a certain area around the nucleus. Some are in areas close to the nucleus and some are in areas farther away.
  • 5. Electrons and energy • The areas in which electrons move around the nucleus are called energy levels.
  • 6. Electrons and energy • Different electrons in an atom have different amounts of energy. • The amount of energy an electron has is related to its distance from the nucleus. • Electrons closest to the nucleus are in the lowest energy level. These electrons have the least energy. • Electrons farthest from the nucleus are in the highest energy level.
  • 7. Electrons and energy • The lowest energy level in the atom can hold only two electrons. • The second energy level can hold up to eight electrons.
  • 8. Electrons and bonding • Like magnets, the negatively charged electrons are attracted to the positively charged nucleus of an atom. • Electrons close to the nucleus have a strong attraction to it. Nail A Nail B Which has the stronger attraction to the magnet?
  • 9. valence electrons • Electrons farthest from their nucleus are easily attracted to the nuclei of nearby atoms.
  • 10. valence electrons • These outermost electrons are the only electrons that form chemical bonds.
  • 11. valence electrons • A valence electron is an outermost electron of an atom that participates in chemical bonding. Valence electrons have the most energy of all the electrons in an atom.
  • 12. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has.
  • 13. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 1 has 1 valence electron
  • 14. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 2 has 2 valence electron
  • 15. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 13 has 3 valence electron
  • 16. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 14 has 4 valence electron
  • 17. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 15 has 5 valence electron
  • 18. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 16 has 6 valence electron
  • 19. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 17 has 7 valence electron
  • 20. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Group 18 has 8 valence electron
  • 21. valence electrons • The number of valence electrons in an atom helps determine the type and number of bonds the atom can form. • The periodic table can tell you the number of valence electrons an atom has. Except for helium, which has 2.
  • 22. electron dot diagram • An electron dot diagram is a simple way to show an element’s valence electrons. • An electron dot diagram is a model that represents valence electrons in an atom as dots around the element’s chemical symbol. ClN 5 valence electrons 7 valence electrons
  • 23. electron dot diagram • Electron dot diagrams can help you predict how an atom will bond with other atoms. ClN 5 valence electrons 7 valence electrons
  • 24. electron dot diagram
  • 25. electron dot diagram
  • 26. electron dot diagram
  • 27. electron dot diagram
  • 28. electron dot diagram • Notice that a neon atom, Ne, has eight valence electrons. It has no unpaired dots. • Atoms with eight valence electrons are chemically stable. They do not react easily with other atoms. • Atoms with 1–7 valence electrons are chemically unstable. These atoms easily bond with other atoms and form compounds.
  • 29. noble gases • The elements in Group 18 are called noble gases. With the exception of helium, noble gases have eight valence electrons and are chemically stable. • Stable atoms do not easily react, or form bonds, with other atoms. Ar
  • 30. stable and unstable atoms • Atoms with unpaired dots in their electron dot diagrams are reactive, or chemically unstable. • Nitrogen, for example, is reactive because it has three unpaired dots. • Unstable atoms such as nitrogen become more stable by forming chemical bonds with other atoms. N
  • 31. stable and unstable atoms • When an atom forms a bond, it gains, loses, or shares valence electrons with other atoms. • By forming bonds, atoms become more chemically stable. • Atoms are most stable with eight valence electrons. Therefore, atoms with less than eight valence electrons form bonds and become stable. N

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