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Chemistry 3.3

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  • 1. Chemistry Chapter 3 - Section 3 Acidic and Basic Solutions Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 2. Why So Sour?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 3. Why So Sour? The acid causes the sour taste of these and other foods.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 4. Acids ?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 5. Substances that RELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 6. When an acid mixes with water, the acid dissolves, releasing a hydrogen ion.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 7. The hydrogen ion then combines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H30 +.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 8. Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 9. Hydronium Ion ?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 10. positively charged ion with the formula H3O +Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 11. Properties of Acids ๏Tastes Sour ๏Conducts Electricity ๏The hydronium ions in an acidic solution can carry the electric charges in a current ๏Corrosive ๏They can break down certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin, and paper.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 12. Properties of Acids ๏React with metals ๏The solutions of some acids also react strongly with certain metals. ๏The acid-metal reaction forms metallic compounds and hydrogen gas, leaving holes in the metal in the process.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 13. Uses of AcidsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 14. Uses of AcidsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 15. Uses of Acids Acetic AcidWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 16. Uses of AcidsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 17. Uses of Acids Citric AcidWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 18. Uses of AcidsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 19. Uses of Acids Ascorbic AcidWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 20. Uses of AcidsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 21. Uses of Acids Sulfuric AcidWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 22. Uses of AcidsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 23. Uses of Acids Acids often are used in batteries because their solutions conduct electricityWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 24. Uses of AcidsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 25. Uses of Acids Hydrochloric acid, which is known commercially as muriatic acid, is used in a process called pickling. Pickling is a process that removes impurities from the surfaces of metals.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 26. Acidsin the EnvironmentWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 27. Acidsin the Environment Carbonic acid plays a key role in the formation of caves and of stalactites and stalagmites.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 28. Acidsin the EnvironmentWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 29. Acidsin the Environment Carbonic acid is formed when carbon dioxide in soil is dissolved in water.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 30. Acidsin the EnvironmentWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 31. Acidsin the Environment When this acidic solution comes in contact with calcium carbonate—or limestone rock —it can dissolve it, eventually carving out a cave in the rock.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 32. Now on to...Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 33. Bas esWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 34. Bases?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 35. substances that can ACCEPT hydrogen ions.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 36. Do you remember the definition of an acid?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 37. Substances that RELEASE positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 38. Substances that release positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in water. Acids Bases Substances that can accept hydrogen ions.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 39. When a base dissolves in water, some hydrogen atoms from the water molecules are attracted to the base.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 40. A hydrogen atom in the water molecule leaves behind the other hydrogen atom and oxygen atom.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 41. Base + H2O Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 42. Base + H2O  H Base + HO Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 43. Base + H2O  H Base + HO  H Base + HO- Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 44. What is left of the H2O is the OH-, which an ion called a hydroxide ion.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 45. Most bases contain a hydroxide ion, which is released when the base dissolves in water.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 46. For example, sodium hydroxide is a base with the formula NaOH. When NaOH dissolves in water, a sodium ion and the hydroxide ionWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 47. Properties of Bases ๏Basic solutions feel slippery. ๏Bases also taste bitter. ๏Like acids, bases are corrosive. Basic solutions contain ions and can conduct electricity. ๏Basic solutions are not as reactive with metals as acidic solutions are.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 48. Where do we find Bases?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 49. Where do we find Bases? soaps, ammonia, cleaning productsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 50. Where do we find Bases?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 51. Where do we find Bases? The hydroxide ions produced by bases can interact strongly with certain substances, such as dirt and grease.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 52. Where do we find Bases?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 53. Where do we find Bases? chalkWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 54. Where do we find Bases?Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 55. Where do we find Bases? bloodWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 56. Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 57. pHWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 58. pH??Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 59. a measure of how acidic or basic a solution isWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 60. pH ๏The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. ๏Acidic solutions have pH values below 7. ๏A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic. ๏A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral. ๏Basic solutions have pH values above 7.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 61. pHWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 62. A change of 1 pH unit represents a tenfold change in the acidity of the solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 63. For example, if one solution has a pH of 1 and a second solution has a pH of 2, the first solution is not twice as acidic as the second —it is ten times more acidic.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 64. To determine the difference in pH strength, use the following calculation: 10 n, where n = the difference between pHs. For example: pH3 - pH1 = 2 10 2 = 100 times more acidic.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 65. Strength of Acids and Bases ๏The difference between food acids and the acids that can burn you is that they have different strengths.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 66. Strength of Acids and BasesWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 67. Hydrochloric acid separates into ions more readily than acetic acid does when it dissolves in water. The more easily a H+ ion is released, the stronger the acid is.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 68. Therefore, hydrochloric acid exists in water as separated ions. Acetic acid exists in water almost entirely as molecules.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 69. More hydronium ions means a stronger- acid solution. It would have a lower pH than the weak-acid solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 70. The strength of a base is related to how easily the base accepts H +, or how easily a hydroxide ion is made, when the base dissolves in water.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 71. Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 72. Neutra lizatio nWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 73. Neutralization??Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 74. the reaction of an acid with a base. It is called this because the properties of both the acid and base are diminished, or neutralized.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 75. In most cases, the neutralization reaction produces a water and a salt.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 76. How does neutralization occur?? ๏Recall that every water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. ๏When one hydronium ion reacts with one hydroxide ion, the product is two water molecules. This reaction occurs during acid-base neutralization.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 77. How does neutralization occur??Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 78. How does neutralization occur?? ๏Equal numbers of hydronium ions from the acidic solution and hydroxide ions from the basic solution react to produce water. ๏Pure water has a pH of 7, which means that it’s neutral.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 79. Indica torsWednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 80. Indicators??Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 81. are compounds that react with acidic and basic solutions and produce certain colours, depending on the solution’s pH.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 82. Because they are different colors at different pHs, indicators can help you determine the pH of a solution.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 83. When litmus paper is placed in an acidic solution, it turns red. When placed in a basic solution, litmus paper turns blue.Wednesday, July 11, 2012
  • 84. Finish ed!Wednesday, July 11, 2012