Cells and Energy
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Cells and Energy

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Cells and Energy Cells and Energy Presentation Transcript

  • Cells and Energy
  • Cellular Respiration CELLULAR RESPIRATION is a series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food into a usable form of energy called ATP. Cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria of a cell.
  • Cellular Respiration The first step of cellular respiration is called glycolysis. It takes place in the cytoplasm of all cells. GLYCOLYSIS is a process by which a sugar called glucose is broken down into smaller molecules. Glycolysis produces some ATP molecules. It also uses energy from other ATP molecules. More ATP is made during the second step of cellular respiration than during glycolysis. View slide
  • Cellular Respiration View slide
  • Cellular Respiration The second step in cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. This step uses oxygen. The smaller molecules made during glycolysis are broken down. Many ATP molecules are made. Cells use ATP molecules to power all cellular processes. Two waste products, H2O and CO2, are given off during this step of cellular respiration.
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Carbohydrates go into the cell 1
  • Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose 2
  • Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars 3
  • Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars e e and energy is released 4
  • Simple sugars enter the mitochondria and are broken down more 5
  • Oxygen is used Energy is released Carbon dioxide and water are produced and released as wastes. energy + CO2 + H2O ] + O2 wastes products 6
  • Fermentation FERMENTATION is a reaction that cells use to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels are low. Because no oxygen is used, fermentation makes less ATP than cellular respiration does. Fermentation takes place in a cell’s cytoplasm, not in mitochondria.
  • Carbohydrates go into the cell 1
  • Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose 2
  • Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars 3
  • Glucose are broken down into 2 simpler sugars e e and energy is released 4
  • Simpler sugars do not go into the mitochondria 5
  • Chemical Reactions occur in cytoplasm and some energy is released. e e e Wastes are also produced, such as lactic acid, alcohol, or carbon dioxide. 6
  • Types of Fermentation LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION Some bacteria and fungi help produce cheese, yogurt, and sour cream using lactic-acid fermentation. The muscle cells in animals, including humans, can release energy during exercise using lactic-acid fermentation.
  • Types of Fermentation ALCOHOL FERMENTATION Some types of bacteria and yeast make ATP through a process called alcohol fermentation. Alcohol fermentation produces an alcohol, called ethanol, and carbon dioxide. Many types of bread are made using yeast. The carbon dioxide produced by yeast during alcohol fermentation makes bread dough rise.
  • Types of Fermentation
  • Photosynthesis PHOTOSYNTHESIS is a series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food-energy molecule glucose and the waste product oxygen.
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis LIGHT AND PIGMENT Photosynthesis uses light energy, which is absorbed by chlorophyll. As chlorophyll absorbs light, it absorbs all the colors in it except green. The green light is reflected as the green color that you see in leaves and stems. Plants might also contain pigments that reflect other colors, such as red, yellow, or orange light.
  • Photosynthesis REACTIONS IN CHLOROPLASTS The chlorophyll that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis is in chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells that convert light energy to chemical energy in food. During photosynthesis, light energy, water, and carbon dioxide combine and make sugars. Photosynthesis also produces oxygen, which is released into the atmosphere.
  • Photosynthesis PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION