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THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL THEORIES ON EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE

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Module 4 & 5 - ED 310 Foundations of Education

Module 4 & 5 - ED 310 Foundations of Education

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  • 1. What Do You Believe About Teaching and Learning? Dr. Melinda Butler Lewis Clark State College
  • 2.  Explain the relationship between personal philosophy and philosophy of education.  Describe the three branches of philosophy.  Compare the metaphysics of idealism, realism, neo-Thomism, pragmatism, and existentialism.  Compare the epistemology of idealism, realism, neo-Thomism, pragmatism, and existentialism.  Compare the axiology of idealism, realism, neo-Thomism, pragmatism, and existentialism.  Identify the philosophies that take an optimistic view of human nature and those that take a pessimistic view.  Explain philosophic analysis in education.  Discuss your philosophy of life and how it has changed over time.
  • 3.  You began to look at a basic introduction to the main branches of philosophy and how they generally relate to teaching.  Think back over events you’ve experienced this past week. How did philosophy influence what happened? (I would encourage you to really think about this! I know this is easy to by-pass when you are sitting there alone reading it! During an face to face class we would be discussing this!!)  Were there educational events that were influenced by philosophy?
  • 4. METAPHYSICS (What is real?) Ontology (questions about existence and being) Cosmology (Nature and origin of the universe) EPISTEMOLOGY (How do we know?) AXIOLOGY (What is right?) Knowing Through: Experience - Authority Reason - Intuition Active Construction Ethics Aesthetics
  • 5.  How does what we believe about ……  what is real or the nature of existence or the meaning of life……. Shape who we are as a Teacher?  How does what we believe about how knowledge is acquired Shape our approach to teaching?  In what way do our beliefs about what is right and good and beautiful Impact the learning in our classroom?
  • 6.  Your beliefs and your own philosophy of education will influence all your activities in the classroom from how you teach, what you teach, how you manage your classroom, how you relate to students, parents, and colleagues, and how you conduct your professional life  So… do you see why this “stuff” is important to understand!!
  • 7.  If you were sitting in class right now I would have you take out a piece of paper and write down all your thoughts about what comes to your mind when you think about the question above.  So… take a minute or two and jot down your ideas!  What IS EDUCATIONAL THEORY?  Can you think of any?
  • 8.  There are SIX major philosophies that have a major influence on educational practices and decisions  Please make sure that you download the handout to fill in – taking notes as you go. This will be helpful as you begin to formulate your own philosophy.
  • 9. Teacher Centered Focus on Curriculum Teacher Centered Focus on Curriculum Student Centered Focus on Self/Society Student Centered Focus on Self/Society EssentialismEssentialism Social Reconstructionism Social Reconstructionism Perennialism Behaviorism Progressivism Post Modernism Traditional/ Conservative Authoritarian (convergent) Contemporary/ Liberal Non-Authoritarian (divergent)
  • 10. With a few of my anecdotal comments interspersed
  • 11.  They have identified SIX major theories of education being:  Perennialism  Essentialism  Behaviorism  Progressivism  Social Reconstructionism  Postmodernism
  • 12.  Often other terms are used:  Humanism – where the emphasis is on ‘self-actualization’ and a natural approach to learning – Maslow was a big proponent  Existentialism –holds to a freedom of choice where individuals can choose and be responsible for their decisions. Proponents: Kierkegaard, Sartre
  • 13. Let’s explore the concepts as your text relates to them…..
  • 14. 18 Perennialism protests against secularization and against excessive focus on science and technology at the expense of reason. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. 19  The Purpose of Schooling  to teach eternal truths  to cultivate the rational intellect  to develop a spiritual nature  to prepare  The Nature of the Learner  Students are rational beings of value and worth.  They have an intellect and a soul. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 16. 20  The Purpose of Schooling  to teach eternal truths  to cultivate the rational intellect  to develop a spiritual nature  to prepare  The Nature of the Learner  Students are rational beings of value and worth.  They have an intellect and a soul. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 17. 21  Curriculum - Christian doctrine - Great Books and the liberal arts - character training and moral development  Instructional Methods  didactic instruction  coaching  Socratic Method  Classroom Management  train the will  time on task  precision and order  orderliness and structure L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 18. 22  Assessment  objective exams and essay exams  The Teacher  educated in the liberal arts  an authority figure; disseminator of the truth  a “director of mental calisthenics”  an intellectual coach  Leading educational proponents Jacques Maritain Robert Hutchins Mortimer Adler Allan Bloom L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 19.  Focus on teaching ideas that are everlasting.  Seek enduring truths which are constant not changing – through ‘great books’, art, philosophy, religion.  Stress is on growth in Arts - Sciences  Aim to teach students to become critical thinkers  Aligns with “Idealism” (Plato – Socrates)
  • 20. 24 Essentialism protests against a perceived decline of intellectual rigor and moral standards in schools. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 21. 25  The Purpose of Schooling  to train the intellect  to teach culture and traditions  to teach knowledge and skills  The Nature of the Learner  Students can become culturally literate and develop disciplined minds. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 22. 26  Curriculum  Back to Basics  instruction in the essentials  moral development and character training  Instructional Methods  lecture  recitation  discussion  Socratic dialogue L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 23. 27  Classroom Management  character training  discipline  clear expectations  respect for others  Assessment  IQ tests  standardized achievement tests  diagnostic tests  performance-based competency tests L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 24. 28  The Teacher  intellectual, trained in the liberal arts, sciences, or humanities  skilled communicator  Leading educational proponents William C. Bagley Arthur E. Bestor Admiral Hyman G. Rickover E.D. Hirsch, Jr. William Bennett Chester Finn Diane Ravitch L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 25.  There is an indispensable, common core of culture and knowledge that must be taught to all students.  A practical ‘core’ curriculum will help produce useful citizens
  • 26. 30 Behaviorism protests against importance placed on mental processes that cannot be observed, such as thinking and motivation. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 27. 31  The Purpose of Schooling  to increase appropriate behaviors  to decrease inappropriate behaviors  to teach new behaviors  The Nature of the Learner  Students are capable of learning new behavior and of changing behavior. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 28. 32  Curriculum  cognitive problem solving  critical-thinking skills  Instructional Methods  reinforcement  programmed instruction  computer-assisted instruction  problem solving  anger control  self-instruction and self-reinforcement L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 29. 33  Classroom Management  identify expected behavior  establish procedures and routines  monitor/observe  use rewards and penalties  Assessment  behavioral objectives  performance contracting  self-assessment L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 30. 34  The Teacher  behavioral engineer  controller of behavior  arranger of contingencies  Leading educational proponents Pavlov Watson Thorndike Skinner Premack L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 31.  Teacher-directed, systematic, and structured environments  Object clearly stated – broken down into steps  Provide hints or cues that guide students to desired behavior.  Use consequences to reinforce the desired behavior.  Use of traditional teaching and assessment methods (lecture, skill worksheets, activities and test with specific test responses)
  • 32. 36 Progressivism protests against an emphasis on universal truth, at the expense of experience and relevance. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 33. 37  The Purpose of Schooling  to focus on a democratic society  to encourage cooperation  to develop problem-solving and decision-making skills  The Nature of the Learner  Students learn by doing.  They can set their own objectives for learning.  They can work together to solve problems.  They can make classroom rules.  They are able to test and evaluate ideas. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 34. 38  Curriculum  experience-centered  child-centered  growth-centered  Instructional Methods  cooperative group activities  project method  scientific method  problem solving  decision making L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 35. 39  Classroom Management  democratic  participatory  self-directed  Assessment  formative evaluation  ongoing feedback L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 36. 40  The Teacher  a facilitator and guide  a director of learning  a collaborative partner  Leading educational proponents Pestalozzi Rousseau Francis W. Parker John Dewey Ella Flagg Young William H. Kilpatrick Theodore Sizer L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 37.  Learning is active – not passive  Effective teaching takes into account the whole child  Teach problem solving strategies  Teacher Facilitated – Student Centered
  • 38. 42 Social reconstructionists protest against the status quo. To them, society is in need of change. Education needs to take the lead in bringing about these changes. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 39. 43  The Purpose of Schooling  to become agents of change  The Nature of the Learner  The student is capable of initiating and adapting to change, and thus is a critical agent in social change. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 40. 44  Curriculum  democratic  critical theory  critical literacy  societal problems and global issues  hidden curriculum  Instructional Methods  problem solving  critical thinking  planning for change L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 41. 45  Classroom Management  conflict resolution  community building  Assessment  formative evaluation  ongoing feedback L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 42. 46  The Teacher  agent of change; shaper of a new society  transformational leader  Leading educational proponents Karl Marx George S. Counts Theodore Brameld Harold Rugg Ivan Illich Paulo Freire L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 43.  Based on pragmatism  Closely aligned with progressivism  Social reform is the goal of education – social activism  Use contemporary social problems to encourage critical thinking and action
  • 44. 48 Postmodernism protests against disequity between the dominant culture and the disenfranchised, disadvantaged, or marginal groups in society. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 45. 49  The Purpose of Schooling  to develop critical literacy  to question scientific realism  to question objectivity, truth, and rationality  The Nature of the Learner  The student can develop an awareness and understanding of disequity and injustice in society. L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 46. 50  Curriculum  critical literacy  suffering and injustice  cultural politics; challenge unequal power  hidden curriculum  Instructional Methods  constructivism  question, critique, and examine L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 47. 51  Classroom Management  nonthreatening, supportive  open to discussing controversial subjects  encourages self-discipline  Assessment  authentic assessment  self-evaluation L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 48. 52  The Teacher  scholar-practitioner leader  critical thinker  agent of change L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 49. 53  Leading early educational proponents Karl Marx Theodor Adorno Max Horkheimer Herbert Marcuse Jurgen Habermas Eric Fromm L. Dean Webb, Arlene Metha, & K. Forbis Jordan. Foundations of American Education, 5e. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 50.  Encourages a personal awareness, challenge of the status quo, seeks personal reflection  Challenge existing student paradigms of personal, social and cultural norms
  • 51.  So now it is YOUR turn to begin to apply some of these concepts to who you see yourself as a teacher and articulate your own teaching philosophy.
  • 52.  Module 5
  • 53. How would YOU respond……..  Who was your best teacher ever?  What qualities and attributes did this teacher posses?  Are there any of those qualities that you find you would exhibit in the classroom? What?
  • 54. Quick Write Sometimes called Free Writing (A Teaching Strategy) Take Five Minutes and write freely without picking your pencil up from the paper…. Write down your thoughts after reading each question. (this is NOT a ‘paper’ it is ‘free’ writing just write what comes to you) Keep your notes for an upcoming assignment.
  • 55. What do you believe about teaching? Why? What do you believe about learning? Why? There are MORE questions on the next slide!
  • 56. Keep Writing!  What do you believe about KIDS?  What motivates YOU to learn?  What outcomes do you expect from teaching?  How will you run your classroom?  What do you believe your role as an educator is?  What will be the ultimate goal for your students? What will you do in order to attain these goals? (teaching methods, classroom management) Now --- Write Write Write… 5 Minutes Only…..
  • 57. Your Assignment Now… It's time to put some organization to that writing. This will be a stepping stone to writing your own philosophy statement later. Think about it as … sitting in an interview explaining ‘who you are as a teacher’ to the principal! You would NOT blurt out “I am a realist” or “I am philosophically aligned with postmodernism” Use the notes that you have been taking during this “lecture” session!
  • 58. Check This Out Verrry Interesting! • What Is Your Educational Philosophy? • A Questionnaire • This is a multiple choice questionnaire posted by Patricia D. Jersen that helps to identify a preference. • In addition, you can download the Educational Philosophies Self Assessment – It can help you to discover your educational philosophy and theoretical orientation
  • 59.  The Statement for Teaching an Philosophy, Duquesne University Center for Teaching Excellence. This website includes five effective exercises to help you begin the writing process  Teaching Goals Inventory, by Thomas A. Angelo and K. Patricia Cross and their book Classroom Assessment Techniques. This “quiz” helps you to identify or create your teaching and learning goals.  Articulating your Philosophy of Teaching Statement, from the Center for Effective Teaching and Learning at the University of Texas at El Paso. Various exercises to guide someone in thinking about, articulating, and writing a statement of teaching philosophy  Teaching Perspectives Inventory, This survey can help you collect your thoughts and summarize your ideas about teaching and learning Remember: These are only TOOLS to help you reflect and gain some basic focus. You can either click on these links or find the links on the course site.
  • 60. Keep In Mind When you Do get to the point where you will write your Philosophy Statement - Keep in mind Make sure that it is Well written, positive & professional Describe what you believe is the purpose of schooling – teaching – learning. What do you believe is most important when considering classroom environment/management? Write what you believe as your position – It is NOT a Philosophical rendition that is to be published in a Philosophical digest. KISS (keep it simple silly) Do some checking on the web – look at some examples

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