1. Pedagogical uses of translation
Translation facilate comunication between speakears
of different languages
Translation has been proposed as a means for
learning and teaching a foreight language
this would be in line with the important general
pedagogic principle of building on what learners are
already familiar with.
2. Arguments against translation
Opponents of the uses of translation claimed that
translation into the foreign language interfered with
the natural process of learning a foreign language.
Corrupted it uses through what was thought to be an
unnaturalco-presence of the mother tongue.
Interference to occur when learners translated from
the foreign language into their native language.
3. Arguments against translation
It was claimed that the learnears command command of
their native would suffer due to confusing co-present of
foreign language in their minds.
None of these arguments was substantiated in
Theories of how two language are learnt, stored, an
recalled suggest that it is natural and normal to switch
into bilingual mods.
4. Arguments for translation
Translation into the foreign language and from the
foreign language has always been widely employed as a
teching teachnique in foreign language departaments.
Translation is a key feature in the so-called grammartranslation method.
Translation is a mode of comunication.
Communicative translation activities can also involve the
production of original source text.
5. Current issues
Translation as intercultural comunication, the nature of the
translation process, corpus translation studies, and translation and
6. Translation as intercultural
Translation is both a linguistic and a cultural activity
involving communication across cultures.
One major difference is the degree to which the
recipients of the translation are necessarily aware of the
fact that the translation originates in another culture.
Cultural filter is applied in order to adapt the source text
to the communicative norms of the target culture.
7. Translation as intercultural
The intercultural perceptions has been absorbed by the
translator but denied to the recipients of the translation.
In recent decades has been a shift in translation studies
from a linguistic to a cultural orientations.
The received view of translation today is that it is first
and foremost a process of intercultural change a kind of
This view is epitomized in statements such as ‘one does
not translate languages’ but ‘cultures or translation is
8. The nature of the translation process
One method used in this internal or process approach to
translation is to ask translators what they are thinking,
while they are translating.
This is know as thinking aloud or introspection.
one can also ask translators inmediately after they finish
translating about dificulties, this is known as
Verbal reports also known as think-aloud protocols.
9. Corpus stidies in translation
Corpus is a collection of texts selectd and compiled
acording to specific criteria.
The use of corpus methods in translation studies has a
number of advantage.
Corpus methodes also allow us to focus on a
combination of lexical, sintactic, and discoursal features.
Corpus methodes are useful for analysing translations as
These consist of a set of text in one language and a set
of their translations into another language .
10. Translation and globalization
Globalization processes have not only had an impact on
world economy and international politic, they also
dramatically altered the role of translation in the modern
Now rely heavily on new information technologies such
Translation plays an important role in multilingual news
writing and in the provision of touris information
The development of the World Wide Web has spread the
need for translation activities into e-commerce
globalization, another field of growing importance.