Yunus and the Grameen Bank <br />1970s: War against Pakistan, flooding, famine<br />80% of the population living in poverty<br />Yunus: Economist trained in the US teaching at Chittagong University ( southeast Bangladesh)<br />1976: Yunus started a series of experiments lending to poor households in nearby Jobra<br />Activities financed: rice husking, bamboo weaving<br />Finding: poor borrowers without collateral making profits and repaying<br />
Financing out of his own pocket could not meet growing demand<br />Yunus convinced the Bangladesh Central Bank to help him set up a special branch that catered the poor of Jobra<br />Another trial in Tangail (North Central Bangladesh) assured success was not region-specific<br />Grameen went nationwide, village by village, thanks to donor agencies: IFAD, Ford Foundation, and the governments of Bangladesh, Norway, and the Netherlands<br />
Group lending methodology<br />No Collateralsrequested.<br />Group of potential clients form groups (5 members)<br />Loans made to individual participants within the group<br />Joint responsibility: if a member defaults all members have to pay for her or else the entire group excluded from future loans<br />Group lending under joint responsibility gives costumers incentives to select responsible partners, to (peer) monitor, and repay<br />A five-member group is in turn part of a larger “center” composed of eight groups<br />
FabioRosa, BrasilRio Grande do Sul, Palmares.<br />To address the high water costs, Rosa suggested expanding rural electrification to allow more farmers to drop their own wells for irrigation rather than paying exorbitant fees for water rights held by others.<br />Prof. EnnioAmaral (inventor of lowcostelectrictransformator)<br />In 1992, Rosa established Sistemas de TecnologiaAgroelectro (STA) to popularize solar energy. He recognized that that the critical barrier to the adoption of solar energy was its high cost. Thus, he worked to make it attractive by pairing it with electric fencing, which could help address Brazil's problems with overgrazing.<br />
Gloria De Souza, IndiaReform in Education<br />Gloria created and introduced modern experiential education that challenged students to think and to solve problems together instead of chanting facts. <br />Her core contribution has not been to invent modern education but to adapt it to make it attractive to everyone in non-Western settings.<br />
ThefixedDetermination of an IndomitableWillFlorenceNightingale, EnglandNursing<br />Florence Nightingale, May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. A Christian universalist, Nightingale believed that God had called her to be a nurse. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. <br />She was dubbed "The Lady with the Lamp" after her habit of making rounds at night.<br />Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world. <br />
Bill Drayton, U.S.Ashoka: Innovators for the PublicSocial Entrepreneurship<br />Drayton, a former management consultant with McKinsey & Company, established Ashoka to provide social entrepreneurs — and their new ideas — with financial backing and a series of professional supports to help them spread their ideas and solutions, individually and collectively.<br />
JerooBillimoria, IndiaChildline IndiaChild Protection<br />JerooBillimoria has provided millions of vulnerable children living in India with a 24-hour toll free telephone hotline that connects them to an extensive network of hundreds of child-service organizations, making it possible for ordinary citizens, policemen or social workers to assist children in danger at any time. <br />
ErzsébetSzekeres, HungaryAlliance Industrial UnionAssisted Living for the Disabled<br />ErzsébetSzekeres developed a program to address three of the most difficult problems that disabled adults face in Hungary — a lack of job training, few employment opportunities, and a housing shortage. <br />
Vera Cordeiro, BrazilSaúdeCriançaRenascer AssociationReforming Healthcare<br />Vera Cordeiro founded the SaúdeCriança (“Children’s Health”) Renascer Association in 1991 at the Public Hospital of Lagoa in Rio de Janeiro, with the aim of providing emergency assistance to ill children from low-income families during and immediately after hospitalization.<br />
J.B. Schramm, U.S.College SummitCollege Access for Low-Income Students<br />J.B. Schramm is helping low-income students across the U.S. enroll and succeed in college. Operating from outside the educational system, J.B. has identified a fundamental disconnect that prevents thousands of high-potential students from attending college. (College graduates can expect to earn $1 million more during their lifetimes than high school graduates.)<br />
Veronica Khosa, South AfricaTateni Home Care Nursing ServicesCare for AIDS Patients<br />Veronica Khosa saw that the health care system in South Africa was unable to manage the AIDS crisis. A nurse by trade, she had visited hundreds of people with AIDS who were suffering alone in their homes, with no one around to provide simple care or pain relief. <br />
James Grant, U.S.UnicefThe Child Survival Revolution<br />Grant conceived of and orchestrated a global campaign to stop the needless deaths of millions of children each year from easily preventable illnesses. The “child survival and development revolution” that he launched in 1983 mobilized massive international support to bring cheap, life-saving medicines and technologies to children in developing countries including vaccinations and oral rehydration therapy to prevent death from diarrhoeal dehydration, the single biggest killer of children.<br />
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