Plastics
TechnologY
Handbook
edited by
Donald V. Rosato
PhD, MBA, MS, BS, PE
Marlene G. Rosato
BASc (ChE), P Eng
Nick R. S...
Aboutthe Authors	 v
Figures	 xvii
Tables	 xxxi
Abbreviations	 xli
Acknowledgments	 xlix
Preface	 li
10. Coating	 1
OVERVIE...
viii	 Contents
FUNDAMENTALS OF RESIN FORMATION	 23
CondensationType	 24
AdditionType	 26
Fluorine-­Containing Resin	 35
Ac...
Contents	 ix
Burst Strength	 72
Compression Set	 72
Curl	 72
Elongation	 73
Flame Resistance,Vertical	 73
Flexibility	 73
...
x	 Contents
Introduction	 100
Process	 101
SOLVENT CASTING OF FILM	 102
12. Reaction Injection Molding	 103
INTRODUCTION	 ...
Contents	 xi
Polytetrafluoroethylene Billet	 196
Hot Compression-­Molding PTFE	 203
PROCESSING	 204
Heating	 205
Automatio...
xii	 Contents
Stamping	 314
SELECTING PROCESSES	 315
DESIGN	 317
Aspect Ratio	 317
Tolerance	 329
ENGINEERINGANALYSIS	 333...
Contents	 xiii
17. Mold and DieTooling	 366
OVERVIEW	 366
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION	 382
STEEL	 393
ALUMINUM	 399
Preheatin...
xiv	 Contents
Cold Runner	 491
Hot Runner	 502
Runner Overview	 512
Material of Construction	 516
Cooling	 519
CavityVenti...
Contents	 xv
SoftwareTrend	 645
REPAIRVERSUS BUYING	 646
Welding	 646
Storage	 647
TOOL BUILDERS	 647
GLOSSARY	 648
APPEND...
Figure 10.1	 Example of industrial coating and drying apparatus.	 20
Figure 10.2	 The basic drying process and typical dry...
xviii	 Figures
Figure 11.2	 Example of a LIM casting process.	 95
Figure 11.3	 Example of more accurate mixing of componen...
Figures	 xix
Figure 13.5	 RM products in Europe.	 149
Figure 13.6	 Example of RM products including large tank.	 150
Figur...
xx	 Figures
Figure 14.17	 A 4000-­ton press with 5 × 8 ft platens (courtesy of Erie Press).	 192
Figure 14.18	 A 400-­ton ...
Figures	 xxi
Figure 15.8	 Glass fiber-­TS polyester filament wound RP tank trailer that transports
corrosive and hazardous...
xxii	 Figures
Figure 15.34	 Sheet molding compound (SMC) production line using chopped glass
fiber including roving to pro...
Figures	 xxiii
Figure 17.1	 Flow chart for typical tool activity.	 379
Figure 17.2	 Example of a steam chest mold for prod...
xxiv	 Figures
Figure 17.33	 Gate temperature/pressure/temperature relationships for amorphous
and crystalline plastics are...
Figures	 xxv
Figure 17.67	 Examples of recommended vent dimensions for PP (top view) and other
TPs.	 530
Figure 17.68	 Exa...
xxvi	 Figures
Figure 17.97	 Examples of nonstreamlined and streamlined entrances in dies.	 590
Figure 17.98	 Flow coeffici...
Figures	 xxvii
Figure 17.130	 New coextrusion die design (left) is compared to the traditional flat-­
plate die.	 634
Figu...
xxviii	 Figures
Figure 18.28	 Examples of coarse, dusty, and powder material-­filtering systems.	 776
Figure 18.29	 Exampl...
Figures	 xxix
Figure 18.56	 Examples of pipe-­extrusion caterpillar puller with rollers and conveyor
belts.	 800
Figure 18...
xxx	 Figures
Figure 18.85	 Example of design joints for hot-­gas welding.	 875
Figure 18.86	 Examples of visually examinin...
Table 10.1	 Examples of different coating materials	 3
Table 10.2	 Important coating compounds and applications	 6
Table 1...
xxxii	 Tables
Table 10.25	 Color indicators of acids and bases pH	 77
Table 10.26	 Classifications and definitions of solv...
Tables	 xxxiii
Table 13.20	 Examples of warpage standards for RM plastics	 164
Table 13.21	 Guide for inner and outer radi...
xxxiv	 Tables
Table 15.14	 Aramid fiber-­TP RP properties	 242
Table 15.15	 Properties of unidirectional hybrid-­nylon RPs...
Tables	 xxxv
Table 15.43	 Comparing properties of SMC with steel	 283
Table 15.44	 Filament-­wound structures for commerci...
xxxvi	 Tables
Table 16.18	 Advanced blow molding	 363
Table 16.19	 Microcellular plastic: formation and shaping	 364
Table...
Tables	 xxxvii
Table 17.33	 Different grain standards used for surface finishes	 409
Table 17.35	 Diamond-­particle compou...
xxxviii	 Tables
Table 18.1	 Example of manufacturing cycle that includes equipment	 739
Table 18.2	 SPE auxiliaries buyer’...
Tables	 xxxix
Table 18.38	 Shear strength of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to PET in psi (MPa)	 850
Table 18.39	 Shear ...
xl	 Tables
Table 18.66	 Properties of radio-­frequency welding of rigid PVC to itself and other
plastics	 889
Table 18.67	...
AA acrylic acid
AAE AmericanAssociation of Engineers
AAES AmericanAssociation of Engineering
Societies
ABR polyacrylate
AB...
xlii	 Abbreviations
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASNDT American Society for Non-­Destructive
Testing
ASQC...
Abbreviations	 xliii
compression set); dynamic value research;
dynamic velocity ratio
E modulus of elasticity;Young’s modu...
xliv	 Abbreviations
H hysteresis; hydrogen
HA hydroxyapatite
HAF high-­abrasion furnace
HB Brinell hardness number
HCFC hy...
Abbreviations	 xlv
mµ micromillimeter; millicron; 0.000001 mm
µm micrometer
MA maleic anhydride
MAD mean absolute deviatio...
xlvi	 Abbreviations
PB polybutylene
PBA physical blowing agent
PBNA phenyl-­β-­naphthylamine
PBT polybutylene terephthalat...
Abbreviations	 xlvii
PVT pressure-­volume-­temperature (also P-­V-­T or
pvT)
PW Plastics World magazine
QA quality assuran...
xlviii	 Abbreviations
TP thermoplastic
TPE thermoplastic elastomer
TPO thermoplastic olefin
TPU thermoplastic polyurethane...
Undertaking the development through to the completion of the Plastics Technology Handbook required
the assistance of key i...
This book, as a two-­volume set, offers a simplified, practical, and innovative approach to under-
standing the design and...
lii	 Preface
limitations that exist in plastics as they exist in other materials such as steel, wood, and so on.There
is n...
Preface	 liii
freely.While the information presented represents useful information that can be studied or ana-
lyzed and i...
Chapter 10
Coating
OVERVIEW
Different resin (also called polymer and plastic) coating systems have widespread industrial a...
2	 Plastics Technology Handbook—Volume 2
Resins continue to be the backbone in the coating industry because almost all coa...
Coating	 3
Table 10.1  Examples of different coating materials
imo-rosato2.indb 3 7/27/11 12:13 PM
4	 Plastics Technology Handbook—Volume 2
Table 10.1  Examples of different coating materials (continued)
imo-rosato2.indb ...
Coating	 5
Table 10.1  Examples of different coating materials (continued)
imo-rosato2.indb 5 7/27/11 12:13 PM
6	 Plastics Technology Handbook—Volume 2
complex material civilization. The protective function includes resistance to air...
Coating	 7
Table 10.2  Important coating compounds and applications (continued)
imo-rosato2.indb 7 7/27/11 12:13 PM
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2

6,309
-1

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,309
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,290
Comments
0
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

63586562 plastics-technology-handbook-volume-2

  1. 1. Plastics TechnologY Handbook edited by Donald V. Rosato PhD, MBA, MS, BS, PE Marlene G. Rosato BASc (ChE), P Eng Nick R. Schott PhD, MS, BS (ChE), PE UMASS Lowell Professor of Plastics Engineering Emeritus & Plastics Department Head Retired V O L U M E 2 Manufacturing • Composites • Tooling • Auxiliaries ISBN: 978-1-60650-082-8 9 781606 500828 90000 Rosato Rosato Schott VOLUME 2 Plastics TechnologY Handbook MANUFACTURING • COMPOSITES TOOLING • AUXILIARIES www.momentumpress.net This comprehensive two-volume handbook provides a simplified, practical, and innovative approach to understanding the design and manufacture of plastic products. It will expand the reader’s understanding of plastics technology by defining and focusing on past, current, and future technical trends. In Volume 1, plastics behavior is presented so as to help readers fabricate products that meet performance standards, low cost requirements, and profitability targets. In this second volume, all major plastics compounding and forming technolo- gies are presented—from mass production extrusion and injection processes to specialty techniques like rotational molding, compression molding, spray mold- ing, encapsulation, potting, ink screening, impregnation, and vacuum-assisted liquid injection molding, among many others. A chapter on Coating provides all the major forms of modifying surface properties of plastics for desired thermal, physical and chemical behavior. A chapter on Casting focuses in all major meth- ods of forming plastic melts in physical molds, including mold types, removal molds and quality control issues. A unique chapter on Mold and Die Tooling offers hard to find information on tool and die design specific to plastics manu- facture--including detailed explanation on die design and use, tooling materials, tool casting and machining, and a 41- page glossary of common die and tooling terms. Finally, an extensive chapter on Auxiliary and Supplementary machines and systems provides incredibly useful background—for everything from bond- ing, chemical etching, cutting, and decorating to plastics machining, pelletiz- ing, printing, polishing, stamping, vacuum debulking, welding, and many more processes involved in bringing desired plastics products to market. This chapter also extensively covers various means of mechanical assembly of plastics parts. Over 15,000 subjects are reviewed with 1800 figures and 1400 tables. This 2,500 page, two-volume handbook will be of interest to a wide range of plas- tics professionals: from plastics engineers to tool makers, fabricators, designers, plant managers, materials suppliers, equipment suppliers, testing and quality control personnel, and cost estimators. Moreover, this handbook provides an ex- cellent introduction to students studying the plastics field. Contents Synopsis: Preface, Coating, Casting, Reaction Injection Molding, Rota- tional Molding, Compression Molding, Reinforced Plastic, Other Processes, Mold and Die Tooling, Auxiliary and Secondary Equipment, Glossary, Further Reading. Plastics TechnologY Handbook VOLUME 2: Manufacturing • Composites • Tooling • AuxiliarieS Edited by Donald V. Rosato • Marlene G. Rosato • Nick R. Schott
  2. 2. Aboutthe Authors v Figures xvii Tables xxxi Abbreviations xli Acknowledgments xlix Preface li 10. Coating 1 OVERVIEW 1 Different CoatingAspect 8 TERMAND PERFORMANCE INTRODUCTION 11 Paint 14 Water-­Based Paint 16 Varnish 17 Lacquer 17 Solvent 17 PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS 21 Thermoplastic Coating 22 TS Coating 23 Contents imo-rosato2.indb 7 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  3. 3. viii Contents FUNDAMENTALS OF RESIN FORMATION 23 CondensationType 24 AdditionType 26 Fluorine-­Containing Resin 35 Acrylic Resin 35 Cellulosic Resin 35 Copolymer Resin 36 Coumarone-­lndene Resin 36 Parylene 36 APPLICATION 39 Coil Coating 40 Strippable Coating 44 Germ-­Free Coating 45 EVALUATION METHOD 45 PROCESS 46 Overview 46 Film Solidification 55 Coating Methods 56 Coating Equipment 59 Roll-­Coat Finish 59 Spread Coating 60 Floating Knife Coater 60 Fluidized Bed Coating 61 Spray Coating 61 Powder Coating 62 Electrostatic Spraying 62 Coil Coating (Metal Coating) 62 PROPERTY 63 Corrosion and Chemical Resistance 64 Fire Retardant 66 Intumescent Coating 67 Heat Resistant 68 Thermal Control 68 Electrical Insulating 69 SIMULATED SERVICETESTS 70 Abrasion Resistance 70 Adhesion 71 AcceleratedAging in HotAir 71 Accelerated aging in oxygen 72 Blocking 72 imo-rosato2.indb 8 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  4. 4. Contents ix Burst Strength 72 Compression Set 72 Curl 72 Elongation 73 Flame Resistance,Vertical 73 Flexibility 73 Hardness 73 Hydrostatic Resistance 74 LowTemperature Cracking 74 Modulus 74 Gas Permeability 75 Liquid Permeability 75 pHValue 75 Resiliency 75 Stretch 75 Swelling 78 Tear Strength 78 Tensile Strength 79 Thickness 79 Wicking 79 Weathering 79 SOLVENTAND COATING 80 Solvent Composition in Coating 80 Solvent and Solvent-­Free Coatings 83 Emission 84 CleanAirAct 87 SOLVENT SUBSTITUTION 87 11. Casting 90 INTRODUCTION 90 PLASTIC 91 PROCESSES 92 CASTING OFACRYLIC 96 Introduction 96 Casting Sheet 97 Casting Rod andTube 98 Embedment 99 Filled Casting 99 Prototype Casting 100 CASTING OF NYLON 100 imo-rosato2.indb 9 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  5. 5. x Contents Introduction 100 Process 101 SOLVENT CASTING OF FILM 102 12. Reaction Injection Molding 103 INTRODUCTION 103 EQUIPMENT 108 MOLD 109 Runner and Gate Design 115 Cost 115 PROCESSING 120 Process Control 123 MATERIAL 124 Conversion Process 130 TP Polyurethane 133 TS Polyurethane 133 Cure ofTS 133 Polymerization 134 RRIM and ResinTransfer Molding 138 COSTING 138 13. Rotational Molding 140 INTRODUCTION 140 PROCESS 141 PLASTIC 145 PLASTIC BEHAVIOR 153 Effect of theThermalTreatment 155 Effect of Pigmentation and Mixing Method 157 Conclusion 157 PERFORMANCE 158 MACHINES 165 MOLD 169 DESIGN 172 PRODUCTIONAND COST 177 14. Compression Molding 178 INTRODUCTION 178 MOLD 185 MACHINES 188 PLASTIC 193 imo-rosato2.indb 10 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  6. 6. Contents xi Polytetrafluoroethylene Billet 196 Hot Compression-­Molding PTFE 203 PROCESSING 204 Heating 205 Automation 207 Transfer Molding 211 Compression-­Injection Molding 212 Compression and lsostatic Molding 216 15. Reinforced Plastic 223 OVERVIEW 223 DEFINITION 225 Fibrous Composite 240 Laminar Composite 251 Particulate Composites 252 Fillers 252 PROPERTIES 254 ORIENTATION OF REINFORCEMENT 270 Directional Property 274 Hetergeneous/Homogeneous/Anisotropic 279 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 279 Prepreg 282 Sheet Molding Compound 283 Bulk Molding Compound 284 Compound 285 FABRICATING PROCESS 286 Preform Process 286 Type Process 288 Compression Molding 288 Hand Layup 291 FilamentWinding 295 Injection Molding 306 Marco Process 307 Pultrusion 307 Reactive Liquid Molding 309 Reinforced RTM 310 Reinforced Rotational Molding 311 SCRIMP Process 311 Soluble Core Molding 312 Spray-­Up 312 imo-rosato2.indb 11 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  7. 7. xii Contents Stamping 314 SELECTING PROCESSES 315 DESIGN 317 Aspect Ratio 317 Tolerance 329 ENGINEERINGANALYSIS 333 DesignTheory 333 16. Other Processes 335 INTRODUCTION 335 PVC PLASTISOL 336 Introduction 336 Processing Plastisol 338 Processing Organosol 340 Slush Molding 340 Rotational Molding 341 Spray Molding 342 Continuous Coating 342 Open Molding 342 Closed Molding 343 Dip Molding 343 Dip Coating 344 Heating System 344 INK SCREENING 344 ENCAPSULATION 344 POTTING 345 LIQUID INJECTION MOLDING 345 Vacuum-­Assisted LIM 346 IMPREGNATION 346 CHEMICAL ETCHING 347 TWIN-­SCREW INJECTION MOLDING 347 TEXTILE COVERED MOLDING 348 MELT COMPRESSION MOLDING 348 Back Injection 349 Melt Flow Compression Molding 351 Back Compression (Melt Compression Molding) 352 MCM-­IML 352 PROCESSING COMPARISON 353 imo-rosato2.indb 12 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  8. 8. Contents xiii 17. Mold and DieTooling 366 OVERVIEW 366 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 382 STEEL 393 ALUMINUM 399 Preheating 402 Aluminum Zinc 403 COPPER 403 Beryllium Copper 404 Copper Zinc 404 OtherAlloys 404 METAL SPRAY 405 POROUS METAL 405 SOFTTOOLING 406 MANUFACTURING 406 Electric-­Discharge Machining 408 Electroforming 408 SURFACE FINISH 408 POLISHING 410 Orange Peel 414 Art of Polishing 414 Hand Polishing 415 PROTECTIVE COATING/PLATING 416 Overview 416 Problems 418 Plating 422 Coating 423 HeatTreatment 425 Cryogenic Processing 426 MAINTENANCE/CLEANING 427 MOLD 429 Introduction 429 Basic Operation 460 Mold Components 460 MoldType 462 Injection Mold Feed System 472 Sprue 472 Runner 473 Gate 475 Cavity 488 imo-rosato2.indb 13 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  9. 9. xiv Contents Cold Runner 491 Hot Runner 502 Runner Overview 512 Material of Construction 516 Cooling 519 CavityVenting 529 Ejection 533 Mold/Part Shrinkage 539 Mold Construction 544 ReleaseAgent 553 Faster/Lower-­Cost Mold InsertApproach 554 Manufacturing Mold Cavity 554 Polishing 556 Preengineering 557 Safety 567 Moldmakers 569 Imports 570 Directories 570 Summary 572 DIES 573 Material of Construction 574 Terminology 575 Design 585 Melt Flow 585 Extrudate Performance 594 Manifold 598 Process Control 598 DieType 606 Tubular Dies 614 New Die Designs 633 COMPUTERS 634 ToolAnalysis 635 Model Construction 635 Software 636 Material Selection Software 636 TOOLINGAND PROTOTYPING 637 Rapid System 638 RapidTooling 640 Selecting RapidTooling 644 Rapid Prototyping 644 imo-rosato2.indb 14 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  10. 10. Contents xv SoftwareTrend 645 REPAIRVERSUS BUYING 646 Welding 646 Storage 647 TOOL BUILDERS 647 GLOSSARY 648 APPENDIX 689 18. Auxiliary and Secondary Equipment 738 INTRODUCTION 738 MATERIAL/PRODUCT HANDLING 756 Material-­Handling System 757 Injection Molding 777 Extruding 786 DECORATING 805 JOININGANDASSEMBLING 807 Adhesive and Solvent Bonding 807 MechanicalAssembly 835 Staking 849 WeldingAssembly 863 MACHINING 892 Overview 892 Machining and Cutting Operations 897 Machining andTooling 911 Machining NonmeltTP 919 Laser Machining 922 Other Machining Methods 923 Machining Safety 924 Glossary 925 Further Reading 953 imo-rosato2.indb 15 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  11. 11. Figure 10.1 Example of industrial coating and drying apparatus. 20 Figure 10.2 The basic drying process and typical drying parameters. 20 Figure 10.3 Temperature distribution in strippable vinyl foam. 44 Figure 10.4 High-­speed extrusion coating line. 48 Figure 10.5 Example of roller coating processes. 49 Figure 10.6 Knife spread coating. 50 Figure 10.7 Transfer coating of PUR (top) and PVC. 50 Figure 10.8 Cast coating line for coating by transfer from paper carrier. 51 Figure 10.9 Fabric dip coating line. 52 Figure 10.10 Example of a vacuum coater. 53 Figure 10.12 Electrodeposition for application of coating to magnet wire or strip. 53 Figure 10.11 In-­mold coating used in the reaction injection molding process. 53 Figure 10.13 Floor covering coating line. 54 Figure 10.14 Foam plastic carpet backing coating line. 54 Figure 10.15 Vacuum-­ultraviolet radiation effects on organic coatings. 63 Figure 10.16 Vacuum-­ultraviolet radiation effects on stabilized organic coatings. 63 Figure 10.17 Relationship between solar absorbance, total hemispherical emittance, and pigment ratios. 64 Figure 10.18 Relationship between solar absorbance and pigment ratios. 64 Figure 10.19 Vacuum-­ultraviolet radiation effects on inorganic coatings. 65 Figure 10.20 Effects of vacuum-­ultraviolet radiation on pigments. 65 Figure 10.21 Emission ofVOCs in the life cycle of a varnish. 87 Figure 10.22 Pressure-­temperature and pressure-­density behavior of matter. 88 Figure 11.1 Example of the liquid casting process. 92 Figures imo-rosato2.indb 17 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  12. 12. xviii Figures Figure 11.2 Example of a LIM casting process. 95 Figure 11.3 Example of more accurate mixing of components for liquid injection casting. 95 Figure 12.1 Example of typical PUR RIM process (courtesy of Bayer). 104 Figure 12.2 Diagram highlighting material use and handling in a PUR RIM process (courtesy of Bayer). 104 Figure 12.3 Example of in-­mold coating application. 105 Figure 12.4 Polyurethane RIM product for a computerized tomography (CT) device (courtesy of Bayer). 106 Figure 12.5 Refrigerator with PUR foam door with no sheet metal (courtesy of Bayer). 107 Figure 12.6 RIM machine with mold in the open position (courtesy of Milacron). 110 Figure 12.7 RIM machine with mold in the closed position (courtesy of Milacron). 111 Figure 12.8 Example of an auto bumper RIM production line (courtesy of Milacron). 112 Figure 12.9 RIM machine with auxiliary clamping system (courtesy of Battenfeld). 113 Figure 12.10 Example of a RIM production line, where molds are on a moving track permitting final cure of PUR (courtesy of Battenfeld). 114 Figure 12.11 Gating and runner systems demonstrating laminar melt flow and uniform flow front (courtesy of Bayer). 115 Figure 12.12 Example of a dam gate and runner system (courtesy of Bayer). 116 Figure 12.13 Examples of triangular and quadratic fan gates (chapter 17; courtesy of Bayer). 117 Figure 12.14 Example of melt flow around obstructions near the vent (courtesy of Bayer). 118 Figure 12.15 Examples of various ribbing approaches to aid melt flow (courtesy of Bayer). 118 Figure 12.16 Example of a low gate position with high vent for best results when foaming (courtesy of Bayer). 119 Figure 12.17 Example of how to properly split a melt stream from the mixer (courtesy of Bayer). 119 Figure 12.18 Basic schematic for mixing two liquid components to produce a PUR. 122 Figure 12.19 TDI is an isomer comprising toluene-­2,4-­and 2,6-­diisocyanate. 126 Figure 12.20 Diphenylmethane-­4,4-­diisocyanate (MDI). 127 Figure 12.21 Examples of PUR RIM plastic products. 131 Figure 12.22 Density distribution across the thickness of a foamed part. 132 Figure 12.23 Molding pressure with RIM and RTM measures significantly less in other processes (courtesy of Bayer). 138 Figure 13.1 RM’s four basic steps (courtesy ofThe Queen’s University, Belfast). 142 Figure 13.2 Rotational rate of the two axes is at 7:1 for this product. 146 Figure 13.3 Consumption of plastics for RM. 149 Figure 13.4 RM products in NorthAmerica. 149 imo-rosato2.indb 18 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  13. 13. Figures xix Figure 13.5 RM products in Europe. 149 Figure 13.6 Example of RM products including large tank. 150 Figure 13.7 The effect of maximum inner temperature on the impact strength of the moldings (a = PE and b = PP). 156 Figure 13.8 Effect of heating rate on the optimum processing temperature of PE. 156 Figure 13.9 Effect of the grinding temperature on the optimum processing temperature of PE. 156 Figure 13.10 Effect of extrusion on the thermal properties of PE. 157 Figure 13.11 Effect of pigmentation on the thermal properties of turboblended PE. 157 Figure 13.12 Effect of pigmentation and mixing on the impact strength of PE. 158 Figure 13.13 Examples of similar-­mold RM machine schematics. 160 Figure 13.14 Dual system with different-­sized molds. 160 Figure 13.15 Schematic example of a multilayer RM machine. 161 Figure 13.16 Transfer of additional heat using a heat pipe. 165 Figure 13.17 Schematic of a basic three-­station RM machine. 166 Figure 13.18 Example of a shuttle machine. 167 Figure 13.19 Example of a clamshell molding machine. 167 Figure 13.20 Example of a rock-­and-­roll molding machine. 168 Figure 14.1 Schematic of the CM of a plastic material. 178 Figure 14.2 Compression molded ring-­shaped part removed from the mold. 179 Figure 14.3 CM using a molding compound. 182 Figure 14.4 CM using an impregnated material. 182 Figure 14.5 Examples of flash in a mold: (a) horizontal, (b) vertical, and (c) modified vertical. 184 Figure 14.6 Positive compression mold. 186 Figure 14.7 Flash compression mold. 186 Figure 14.8 Semipositive compression mold. 187 Figure 14.9 Example of mold vent locations. 187 Figure 14.10 Example of vent locations in a mold processingTPs. 188 Figure 14.11 Example of land locations in a split-­wedge mold (courtesy of National Tool and ManufacturingAssociation). 189 Figure 14.13 The left side is a better edge design when using a draw angle. 190 Figure 14.12 Optimum draft for shear edges in molding sheet-­molding compounds. 190 Figure 14.14 Knife shear edge. 190 Figure 14.15 Press with 4 × 4 in platens and ½-­ton clamp pressure (courtesy of Carver Press). 191 Figure 14.16 A 400-­ton press with much larger than normal platens that measure 5 × 10 ft; the press has multiple zones of electrically heated platens, an automatic bump cycle, an audible alarm to signal the end of the cure cycle, and front and back safety-­light curtains (courtesy ofWabash MPI). 191 imo-rosato2.indb 19 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  14. 14. xx Figures Figure 14.17 A 4000-­ton press with 5 × 8 ft platens (courtesy of Erie Press). 192 Figure 14.18 A 400-­ton press with 18 platens, each measuring 4 × 6 ft (courtesy of BaldwinWorks). 193 Figure 14.19 An 8000-­ton press with 10 × 10 ft platens that have book-­type opening and closing action (courtesy of Krismer, Germany). 194 Figure 14.20 Processing sequence for compression stamping glass fiber–­reinforcedTP sheets. 195 Figure 14.21 Heat-­curing cycles forTPs go throughA-­B-­C stages. 195 Figure 14.22 Transition point and linear thermal expansion of PTFE (courtesy of DuPont). 199 Figure 14.23 Mechanism of sintering PTFE (courtesy of DuPont). 200 Figure 14.24 Example of a sintering cycle. 202 Figure 14.25 Example of a simple loading tray with a retractable slide plate to deliver material to multicavity mold. 207 Figure 14.26 CM machine with preplasticizer. 208 Figure 14.27 Three screws of the preplasticizer have been retracted from their barrels for viewing; not in the operating mode. 209 Figure 14.28 Preheated compounds exiting the preplasticizers prior to guillotine slicing the required shot sizes. 210 Figure 14.29 Schematic of transfer molding. 211 Figure 14.30 Comparing IM, CM, and transfer molding. 211 Figure 14.31 Detail view of transfer molding with two cavities. 212 Figure 14.32 Example of a screw plasticizer preheating plastic that is delivered into the transfer molding pot for delivery into the mold cavities. 212 Figure 14.33 A 64-­cavity transfer mold about to receive electronic devices from a work-­loading frame. 215 Figure 14.34 Principal steps of isostatic molding. 217 Figure 14.35 Basic isostatic compaction process. 219 Figure 14.36 Three ways of molding PTFE tubes: (a) two flexible bags, (b) inner flexible bag with outer rigid cylinder, and (c) outer flexible bag with inner rigid rod. 220 Figure 15.1 Effect of matrix content on strength (F) or elastic moduli (E) of RPs. 223 Figure 15.2 Properties versus amount of reinforcement. 224 Figure 15.3 Glass fiber-­TS polyester-­filament-­wound RP underground gasoline storage tank. 226 Figure 15.4 Complete primary and secondary bus structure hand layup of glass fiber-­TS polyester RP. 226 Figure 15.5 Glass fiber swirl mat-­TS polyester RP vacuum hand layup boat shell. 227 Figure 15.6 Glass fiber-­TS polyester RP robot controlled hand layup 28 ft long boat. 227 imo-rosato2.indb 20 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  15. 15. Figures xxi Figure 15.8 Glass fiber-­TS polyester filament wound RP tank trailer that transports corrosive and hazardous materials. 228 Figure 15.7 Glass fiber tape-­TS polyester hand layup smoke stack liner. 228 Figure 15.9 Pultruded glass fiber roving-­TS polyester rods in a 370 ft long lift bridge supports up to 44T traffic load. 228 Figure 15.10 Glass fiber-­TS polyester filament wound RP railroad hopper car body. 229 Figure 15.11 Monsanto House of the future all glass fiber-­TS polyester RP hand layup has four 16 ft long U-­shaped (monocoque box girders) cantilever structures 90° apart producing the main interior. 229 Figure 15.12 Interface of a RP. 230 Figure 15.13 Examples of reinforcement types and processing methods. 230 Figure 15.14 Fishbone diagram for an RP process (courtesy of Plastics FALLO). 231 Figure 15.15 Review of different processes to fabricate RP products. 231 Figure 15.16 Modulus of different materials can be related to their specific gravities with RPs providing an interesting graph. 232 Figure 15.17 Short and long glass fiber-­TP RP data (wt% fiber in parentheses). 246 Figure 15.18 Short to long fibers influence properties of RPs. 247 Figure 15.19 Specific tensile strength to specific tensile modulus of elasticity data f nylon RPs. 247 Figure 15.20 Flexural fatigue data of woven glass fiber roving RPs. 247 Figure 15.21 Common glass fiber-­TS polyester resin RP fatigue data versus other materials (chapter 19). 248 Figure 15.22 Comparing different fiber material strength properties at elevated temperatures. 248 Figure 15.23 Comparing whisker reinforcements with other reinforcements. 249 Figure 15.24 Schematic example in the manufacture of glass filaments/fibers. 249 Figure 15.25 Staple glass fiber and continuous glass filament fiber process methods. 272 Figure 15.26 Fiber arrangements and property behavior (courtesy of Plastics FALLO). 272 Figure 15.27 RP density versus percentage glass by weight or volume. 273 Figure 15.28 Fiber orientation provides different directional properties. 274 Figure 15.29 Examples of how fiber orientation influences properties of RPs. 275 Figure 15.30 Parallel/bidirectional layup of woven fabric 181 glass fiber (courtesy of Plastics FALLO). 280 Figure 15.31 Parallel/unidirectional layup woven fabric 143 glass fiber (courtesy of Plastics FALLO). 280 Figure 15.32 Ply layup at 0° and 90° woven fabric 143 glass fiber construction (courtesy of Plastics FALLO). 281 Figure 15.33 Ply layup at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° woven fabric 143 glass fiber construction (courtesy of Plastics FALLO). 281 imo-rosato2.indb 21 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  16. 16. xxii Figures Figure 15.34 Sheet molding compound (SMC) production line using chopped glass fiber including roving to provide bidirectional properties, cutting continuous rovings for ease of mold-­cavity fit. 282 Figure 15.35 These different SMC production lines produce by using chopped glass fibers (top), including roving to provide bidirectional properties, cutting continuous rovings so that they can fit easily in a mold cavity, and producing thicker SMC (about 4 mm thick by 120 cm wide; bottom). 284 Figure 15.36 Flow of glass fiber rovings traveling through a plenum machine. 287 Figure 15.38 Flow of glass fiber rovings traveling through a water-­slurry machine. 287 Figure 15.37 Flow of glass fiber rovings traveling through a direct machine. 287 Figure 15.39 Two-­part compression mold. 289 Figure 15.40 Layout of reinforcement is designed to meet structural requirements. 293 Figure 15.41 Automated-­integrated RP vacuum hand layup process that uses prepreg sheets that are in the B-­stage (chapter 1). 293 Figure 15.42 Schematic of hand-­layup bag molding in an autoclave. 294 Figure 15.43 Early-­twentieth-­century tape-­wrapping patent of a tube-­making machine by Hoganas-­BillesholmsA.B., Sweden. 297 Figure 15.44 Views of fiber filament-­wound isotensoid pattern of the reinforcing fibers without plastic (left) and with resin cured. 301 Figure 15.45 Box winding machine with position changes of clamp tooling. 301 Figure 15.46 Schematics of “racetrack” filament-­winding machines.Top view shows machine in action; other view is a schematic of a machine built to fabricate 150,000 gal rocket motor tanks. 304 Figure 15.47 Conventional single stage IMM. 306 Figure 15.48 IM with a preloader usually providing heat to the RP compound. 307 Figure 15.49 Schematics of ram and screw IMM. 308 Figure 15.50 Use is made of vacuum, pressure, or pressure-­vacuum in the Marco process. 309 Figure 15.51 Cutaway view of a reinforced RTM mold. 311 Figure 15.52 Lost-­wax process fabricated a high-­strength RP structural beam. 312 Figure 15.53 Nonatomized, dispensed Glass-­Craft spray gun is easy to use and produces low styrene emissions and is economic to maintain. 313 Figure 15.54 Example of the effect of shrinkage in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a molded part. 319 Figure 15.55 Tensile stress-­strain curves for epoxy-­unreinforced and epoxy-­reinforced RPs and other materials. 322 Figure 15.56 Example of crack propagation to fracture that can occur, resulting in product failure under load. 329 Figure 16.1 Effect of temperature on macromolecular characteristics of PVC plastisol. 337 Figure 16.2 Example of time-­dependent viscosity of PVC plastisol. 338 imo-rosato2.indb 22 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  17. 17. Figures xxiii Figure 17.1 Flow chart for typical tool activity. 379 Figure 17.2 Example of a steam chest mold for producing expandable polystyrene (EPS) foams. 381 Figure 17.3 Examples of dimensional changes of tool materials subjected to heat treatment. 396 Figure 17.4 Terms identifying tool surface roughness perASA B46.1 standard. 411 Figure 17.5 Symbols identified on tool perASA B46.1 standard. 411 Figure 17.6 Illustrating roughness at a given point on a tool surface perASA B46.1 standard. 411 Figure 17.7 Polishability versus hardness. 412 Figure 17.8 Comparison of polishing tool hardness. 413 Figure 17.9 Cost of polishing tool steels. 413 Figure 17.10 Flow of the molding from the process that includes the mold to the product. 430 Figure 17.11 Mold operation and types. 430 Figure 17.12 Examples of mold layouts, configurations, and actions. 431 Figure 17.13 Sequence of mold operations. 433 Figure 17.14 Mold action during a fabricating molding cycle. 433 Figure 17.15 Examples of precision mold half alignment. 434 Figure 17.16 Examples to simplify mold design and action. 436 Figure 17.17 Examples of different actions in molds. 438 Figure 17.18 Examples of unscrewing molds. 447 Figure 17.19 Examples of mold parts and molds. 450 Figure 17.20 Examples of mold force based on determining clamp force required for melt flow. 456 Figure 17.21 Examples of melt flow’s path length as a function of part wall thickness and injection pressures. 457 Figure 17.22 Example of an IM mold and a listing of its principal component parts. 461 Figure 17.23 Examples of two-­plate molds. 463 Figure 17.24 Examples of three-­plate molds. 466 Figure 17.25 Examples of stacked molds. 469 Figure 17.26 Examples of micromolded products compared to a US coin. 471 Figure 17.27 View of plastic flow from sprue to runner to gate to cavity. 472 Figure 17.28 Examples of cold and heated sprue designs. 473 Figure 17.29 Examples ofTP balanced cold runners that include primary and secondary runners. 474 Figure 17.30 Example of a cold runner mold for processingTS plastics. 475 Figure 17.31 Examples of various gate types. 476 Figure 17.32 Melt flow pattern in cavity can relate to gate-­flow pattern based on single gate (left) or multiple gates. 477 imo-rosato2.indb 23 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  18. 18. xxiv Figures Figure 17.33 Gate temperature/pressure/temperature relationships for amorphous and crystalline plastics are shown. 478 Figure 17.34 Schematic of gate land location. 479 Figure 17.35 Schematic of heated single-­edge gate. 481 Figure 17.36 Schematic of heated double-­edge gate. 482 Figure 17.37 These molded test specimens highlight melt flow direction from a gate or gates. 483 Figure 17.38 Cavity arrangement in balanced and unbalanced runner layouts. 489 Figure 17.39 Example of a melt flow fountain (or balloon) pattern across the thickness in a mold cavity. 490 Figure 17.40 Examples of cold runner feed systems. 492 Figure 17.41 Common runner configurations. 493 Figure 17.42 Equivalent hydraulic diameters for common runner configurations. 494 Figure 17.43 Balanced cold runner with edge gates. 495 Figure 17.44 Example of dissimilar cavities in a family mold. 495 Figure 17.45 Examples of unbalanced cold runner molds. 496 Figure 17.46 Examples of melt viscosity data. 497 Figure 17.47 Balanced runner system in an eight-­cavity mold. 498 Figure 17.48 Unbalanced runner system in a six-­cavity mold. 501 Figure 17.49 Unbalanced runner system in a ten-­cavity mold. 502 Figure 17.50 Schematics of hot runner mold systems. 503 Figure 17.51 Internally heated hot manifold. 504 Figure 17.52 Insulated hot runner systems. 505 Figure 17.53 Examples of direct hot runner gates. 506 Figure 17.54 Advanced types of hot runner gates. 506 Figure 17.55 Example of a hot manifold support system. 507 Figure 17.56 Example of a hot manifold stack mold with ninety-­six cavities. 508 Figure 17.57 Example of a twelve-­cavity hot manifold stack mold. 509 Figure 17.58 Heated manifold forTP hot runner system. 514 Figure 17.59 Cooling arrangements for cores of various sizes. 520 Figure 17.60 Cooling channel considerations. 521 Figure 17.61 Poor and good cooling channel layouts. 522 Figure 17.62 Schematic of laminar flow (left) and turbulent flow (right) in coolant channels. 522 Figure 17.63 Heat-­transfer characteristics in a typical hot runner mold (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 525 Figure 17.64 Examples of mold-­cooling components. 526 Figure 17.65 Nomogram guide for determining cooling channels. 527 Figure 17.66 Without proper venting, air entrapment can occur in the mold cavity. 529 imo-rosato2.indb 24 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  19. 19. Figures xxv Figure 17.67 Examples of recommended vent dimensions for PP (top view) and other TPs. 530 Figure 17.68 Examples of vents. 531 Figure 17.69 Example of a vent pin used to break the vacuum between core and plastic. 532 Figure 17.70 Sequence in ejection molded parts using ejection pins. 534 Figure 17.71 Operation of ejector pins (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 536 Figure 17.72 Operation of stripper plate (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 536 Figure 17.73 Hydraulic operation of stripper plate (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 537 Figure 17.74 Chain operation of stripper plate. 537 Figure 17.75 Ejection system incorporating blades. 538 Figure 17.76 Flexible molded parts can easily be ejected from the mold cavity. 538 Figure 17.77 View of undercut that ensures molded part is retained in female cavity. Data on undercuts that are strippable. 539 Figure 17.78 Examples of dimensional changes of annealed nylon 6/6 versus temperature at various humidities. 540 Figure 17.79 Nylon 6/6 shrinkage due to annealing versus mold temperature. 541 Figure 17.80 This nomograph for nylon estimates shrinkages. 543 Figure 17.81 Shrinkage as a function of part thickness and gate area. 544 Figure 17.82 Molds can be cored to eliminate or reduce shrinkage. 544 Figure 17.83 Example of shrinkage control and mold dimensions. 545 Figure 17.84 Example of a simplified unscrewing bottle cap mold. 545 Figure 17.85 Examples of sprue pullers. 550 Figure 17.86 Example of the location for a mold pressure transducer sensor. 551 Figure 17.87 Guide to mold alignment. 551 Figure 17.88 Examples of only a few of the many preengineered mold component parts and devices. 559 Figure 17.89 Preengineered spiral flow test mold. 567 Figure 17.90 Example of an extrusion line that includes a die and downstream equipment. 573 Figure 17.91 Some identifying terms for dies; other terms are described in the text. 576 Figure 17.92 Location of the extrusion die land. 582 Figure 17.93 Examples of melt flow patterns in a coat hanger die. 586 Figure 17.94 Examples of melt distribution with die geometry via their manifold channels. Each die has limitations for certain types of melts. 586 Figure 17.95 Examples of melt flow patterns based on minimum die and process control. 587 Figure 17.96 Schematic of wall-­thickness control for extruding blow molded parisons. 589 imo-rosato2.indb 25 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  20. 20. xxvi Figures Figure 17.97 Examples of nonstreamlined and streamlined entrances in dies. 590 Figure 17.98 Flow coefficients calculated at different aspect ratios for various shapes using the same equation. 593 Figure 17.99 Calculation for the volumetric melt flow rate for this specific shape. 594 Figure 17.100 Shown are the (more conventional) rigid and die-­lip lands. 595 Figure 17.101 Example of the land in an extrusion blow molding die that is usually from 10:1 to 20:1 ratio. 596 Figure 17.102 Examples of different profiles that include using lands of different configurations. 597 Figure 17.103 Honing extrusion coater die land. 599 Figure 17.104 Schematic of feedblock sheet die. 599 Figure 17.105 Example of a dual chamber of a feedblock and die assembly. 600 Figure 17.106 Specially designed Proteus feedblock (courtesy of EDI). 601 Figure 17.107 Example of heating different dies. 602 Figure 17.108 Melt flow rates versus melt pressure in die openings. 603 Figure 17.109 Examples of flat dies with its controls. 609 Figure 17.110 Examples of deckles that are adjusted during processing (top) and manually adjusted off-­line. 610 Figure 17.111 Examples of a flat die’s automatic control systems. 611 Figure 17.112 Cutaway view of a coat hanger sheet die with a restrictor bar. 612 Figure 17.113 Example of a straight coating or laminating manifold die. 613 Figure 17.114 Examples of a crosshead coating dies. 613 Figure 17.115 Examples of single-­layer blown-­film dies include side-­fed typex (top left), bottom-­fed types with spiders (top center), and spiral-­fed types. 614 Figure 17.116 Examples of different pipe die designs. 617 Figure 17.117 Different views of assembled and disassembled profile dies. 618 Figure 17.118 Examples of wire coating dies. 619 Figure 17.119 Schematic for determining wire coated DRB in dies. 620 Figure 17.120 Schematic for determining wire coating DDR in dies. 621 Figure 17.121 Examples of netting and other special forms. 622 Figure 17.122 Examples of underwater pelletizer dies. 624 Figure 17.123 Examples of coextruded dies. 625 Figure 17.124 Examples of feedblock multimanifold coextrusion dies. 629 Figure 17.125 Schematic of the RV feedblock showing melt paths and assembled RV feedblock with layer control plates and skin flow inserts in the foreground (courtesy of Davis-­Standard). 630 Figure 17.126 Example of a coextrusion combining adapter. 631 Figure 17.127 Examples of layered plastics based on four modes of die rotation. 632 Figure 17.128 Example of the multilayer blown-­film die. 632 Figure 17.129 Displacement of layers leaving an extruder film die. 633 imo-rosato2.indb 26 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  21. 21. Figures xxvii Figure 17.130 New coextrusion die design (left) is compared to the traditional flat-­ plate die. 634 Figure 18.1 Example ofAE required for plastics going from a railcar to a silo. 744 Figure 18.2 Closeup view of a piping system to and from silos, with each having a capacity of 2000 lb. 745 Figure 18.3 Examples of plant layout with extrusion and injection molding primary andAE. 746 Figure 18.4 Example of an extrusion laminator withAE. 747 Figure 18.5 Example of a blow-­molding extruder withAE (rolls, turret winder, etc.). 748 Figure 18.6 Example of an extruder coater withAE. 749 Figure 18.7 Example of plant layout with injection molding primary andAE. 749 Figure 18.8 Example of extruded products requiringAE. 750 Figure 18.9 Example of ventilationAE used with an injection molding machine (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 751 Figure 18.10 Examples of material handling AE used with an injection molding machine (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 752 Figure 18.11 Example of a pneumatic vacuum venturi flow system. 757 Figure 18.12 Example of continuous pressure pellets with rates based on polystyrene at 35 lb/ft3 (560 kg/m3). 760 Figure 18.13 Example of continuous vacuum pellets with rates based on polystyrene at 35 lb/ft3 (560 kg/m3). 761 Figure 18.14 Example of continuous vacuum powder with rates based on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) at 35 lb/ft3 (560 kg/m3). 762 Figure 18.15 Example of a 10 hp vacuum system conveying polystyrene at 35 lb/ft3 (560 kg/m3). 763 Figure 18.16 Example of a 25 hp vacuum system conveying polystyrene at 35 lb/ft3 (560 kg/m3). 764 Figure 18.17 Example of a single pneumatic material-­handling line-­feeding hoppers. 768 Figure 18.18 Example of the front and side views of a basic hopper. 769 Figure 18.19 Introduction to hopper mixers. 770 Figure 18.20 Example of a dump-­type hopper loader. 770 Figure 18.21 Example of a screw-­controlled feeding loader (courtesy of Spirex Corporation). 771 Figure 18.22 Detail view of a hopper screw-­controlled feeding loader. 771 Figure 18.23 Example of components in a hopper blender. 772 Figure 18.24 Example of metering a color additive in a blender. 773 Figure 18.25 Example of a hopper power-­pump loader. 773 Figure 18.26 Example of a vacuum hopper-­loading cycle. 774 Figure 18.27 Systems utilizing a rotary air lock feeder to separate pressure and vacuum airflow. 775 imo-rosato2.indb 27 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  22. 22. xxviii Figures Figure 18.28 Examples of coarse, dusty, and powder material-­filtering systems. 776 Figure 18.29 Example of a positive take-­out and transfer mechanism for molded products (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 778 Figure 18.30 Example of a positive take-­out system to handle and pack molded products (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 779 Figure 18.31 Example of a free-­drop take-­out and transfer mechanism of molded products. 780 Figure 18.32 Example of an unscramble-­and-­orient system for molded products (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 781 Figure 18.33 Example of bulk filling with automatic carton indexing of molded products (courtesy of Husky Injection Molding Systems Inc.). 781 Figure 18.34 Example of flow of material to shipping of molded products. 782 Figure 18.35 Example of a robot removing parts from a mold and depositing them in orderly fashion in a container. 783 Figure 18.36 Mold base en route manually to injection molding press. 788 Figure 18.37 Mold base placed manually to the right in injection molding press. 789 Figure 18.38 Fully automatic horizontal mold change (courtesy of Staubli Corp., Duncan, South Carolina). 790 Figure 18.39 Fully automatic overhead-­crane mold change. 790 Figure 18.40 Examples of tension-­control rollers in a film, sheet, or coating line. 791 Figure 18.41 Example of laminating with an adhesive. 791 Figure 18.42 Example of roll-­change-­sequence winder (courtesy of Black Clawson). 791 Figure 18.43 Closeup view of a tension roll that is processing plastic film. 792 Figure 18.44 Example herringbone idler reducing wrinkles of web. 792 Figure 18.45 Examples of drum-­cooling designs with shell cooling being the best design. 793 Figure 18.46 Examples of matted and unmatted embossing rolls. 793 Figure 18.47 Example of a wood-­grain embossing roll. 794 Figure 18.48 Example of ultrasonically sealing a decorative pattern. 794 Figure 18.50 Example of a dancer roll controlling tension in an extruded sheet line. 795 Figure 18.51 Example of an extruded sheet line turret wind-­up reel change system. 795 Figure 18.49 Guide to sheet-­polishing roll sizes with a 450°F (230°C) melt temperature. 795 Figure 18.52 View of a large single winder at the end of an extruder sheet line (courtesy ofWelex). 796 Figure 18.53 View of a large dual-­turret winder at the end of an extruder sheet line. 797 Figure 18.54 View of a sheet roll stock extruder winder with triple fixed shafts (courtesy ofWelex). 798 Figure 18.55 View of downstream extruder-­blown film line going through control rolls and dual wind-­up turrets (courtesy ofWindmoeller & Hoelscher Corporation). 799 imo-rosato2.indb 28 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  23. 23. Figures xxix Figure 18.56 Examples of pipe-­extrusion caterpillar puller with rollers and conveyor belts. 800 Figure 18.57 Description of a caterpillar belt puller used in an extruder line (courtesy of Conair). 801 Figure 18.58 Description of a vacuum sizing tank used in an extruder line (courtesy of Conair). 801 Figure 18.59 Description of a water-­and-­spray tank used in an extruder line (courtesy of Conair). 802 Figure 18.60 Description of a rotary knife cutter used in an extruder line (courtesy of Conair). 802 Figure 18.61 Description of a pneumatic-­stop rotary knife cutter used in an extruder line (courtesy of Conair). 803 Figure 18.62 Description of a traveling up-­cut saw used in an extruder line (courtesy of Conair). 803 Figure 18.63 Description of a product takeaway conveyor used in an extruder line (courtesy of Conair) 804 Figure 18.64 Examples in the use of masking for paint spraying. 814 Figure 18.65 Examples of paint spray-­and-­wipe. 815 Figure 18.66 Examples of screen printing. 815 Figure 18.67 Example of hot stamping using a roll-­on technique. 815 Figure 18.68 Example of pad transfer printing. 816 Figure 18.69 Joining and bonding methods. 830 Figure 18.70 Examples of joint geometries. 831 Figure 18.71 Examples of corona treatments in extrusion lines. 839 Figure 18.72 Guide for molding threads. 852 Figure 18.73 Examples of assembling all plastic and plastic to different materials where thermal stresses can become a problem when proper design is not used (chapter 19). 853 Figure 18.74 Examples of self-­tapping screws. 855 Figure 18.75 Molded-­in insert designs. 856 Figure 18.76 Examples of metal-­expansion types of slotted and nonslotted inserts. 859 Figure 18.77 Examples of press-­fit-­stress analyses (courtesy of Bayer). 861 Figure 18.78 Examples of cantilever beam snap-­fits. 863 Figure 18.79 Example of cold staking of plastic. 864 Figure 18.80 Example of hot staking of plastic. 864 Figure 18.81 Example of hot-­plate welding. 869 Figure 18.82 Film-­welded, 8-­ply arrangement using a Doboy thermal welder. 872 Figure 18.83 Example of a manual hot-­gas welding. 874 Figure 18.84 Example of an automatic hot-­gas welder; hot gas blown between sheets, which melt and flow together. 874 imo-rosato2.indb 29 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  24. 24. xxx Figures Figure 18.85 Example of design joints for hot-­gas welding. 875 Figure 18.86 Examples of visually examining hot-­gas weld quality. 875 Figure 18.87 Example of linear-­vibration welding. 876 Figure 18.88 Penetration-­versus-­time curve showing the four phases of vibration welding. 876 Figure 18.89 Spin welding, where one part does not move and the other part rotates. 881 Figure 18.90 Example of a joint used in spin welding. 881 Figure 18.91 Components of an ultrasonic welder. 882 Figure 18.92 Stages in ultrasonic welding. 883 Figure 18.93 Examples of plastic mating joints to be ultrasonically welded. 884 Figure 18.94 Example of induction heat produced during induction welding. 886 Figure 18.95 Example of induction welding a lid to a container. 886 Figure 18.96 The three steps in resistance welding. 890 Figure 18.97 Example of an extrusion-­welding system, where the hot air melts the plastic to be welded prior to the extruded melt flows into the area. 891 Figure 18.98 Examples of cutting and punching in-­line, extrudedTPs. 895 Figure 18.99 Example of extrusion in-­line shear cutter with sheets being stacked. 897 Figure 18.100 Guide to slitting extruded film or coating. 909 Figure 18.101 Schematics of cutting-­tool actions. 911 Figure 18.102 Basic schematic of a cutting tool. 913 Figure 18.103 Example of forces acting on a tool. 914 Figure 18.104 Example of wear pattern. 915 Figure 18.105 Nomenclature for single-­point tools. 918 Figure 18.106 Nomenclature of twist drills. 918 Figure 18.107 Nomenclature of milling cutters. 919 Figure 18.108 Cutting tool for machining (skiving) tape from a molded plastic block. 922 imo-rosato2.indb 30 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  25. 25. Table 10.1 Examples of different coating materials 3 Table 10.2 Important coating compounds and applications 6 Table 10.3 Environmental performance of some coating materials 9 Table 10.4 Survey of often-­used coating systems for concrete 11 Table 10.5 Wet coating materials for metals 11 Table 10.6 Examples of coating materials including those containing solvents 12 Table 10.7 Typical release coating systems and applications 14 Table 10.8 Example of paint and varnish coating compositions 16 Table 10.9 Examples of solvents and their behaviors 18 Table 10.10 Examples of coating performances 21 Table 10.11 General performance comparisons 29 Table 10.12 General composition of dispersion coatings 30 Table 10.13 Example of advantages using dispersion coatings 30 Table 10.14 Examples of properties for Parylenes N and C 38 Table 10.15 Effect of various sterilization methods for Parylenes N and C 38 Table 10.16 Guide for applying paint coatings to plastic substrates 40 Table 10.17 Surface energy of plastics as a result of fluorination 40 Table 10.18 Typical plastics used in coil coatings 41 Table 10.19 Coil coating plastic characteristics and applications 42 Table 10.20 Plastic properties of coil coatings 43 Table 10.21 Coating methods related to performances 46 Table 10.22 Examples of spray coating methods related to transfer efficiency 55 Table 10.23 Plastic coating property guide 66 Table 10.24 Examples of acids and bases pH 76 Tables imo-rosato2.indb 31 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  26. 26. xxxii Tables Table 10.25 Color indicators of acids and bases pH 77 Table 10.26 Classifications and definitions of solvents 81 Table 10.27 Examples of basic calculations ofVOC-­emissions during applications of emulsion paints 86 Table 10.28 Critical properties of solvents 89 Table 12.1 Information on computerized tomography (CT) devices (courtesy of Bayer) 106 Table 12.2 Information on GMP’s patented refrigerator door technique 108 Table 12.3 Calculations for determining dimensions for a dam gate (courtesy of Bayer) 120 Table 12.4 Calculations for determining dimensions for a quadratic gate (courtesy of Bayer) 121 Table 12.5 Terminology of chemical and other terms 125 Table 12.6 Structural foam information for large, complex products 128 Table 12.7 John Deere rear shield made from a soy-­based structural foam PUR RIM formulation 129 Table 12.8 Chemical reaction review 135 Table 12.9 Example of cost analysis of PUR RIM and injection molding of products with large surface areas 139 Table 13.1 Comparison of different processes 141 Table 13.2 Tack temperatures for different plastics 142 Table 13.3 Relative time to reach two tack temperatures at different oven temperatures 143 Table 13.4 Heat transfer coefficients during mold cooling 143 Table 13.5 Steps taken during the RM fabrication process 144 Table 13.6 Effect of oven heat time on RM plastics 145 Table 13.7 Examples of rotational ratios for different shapes 146 Table 13.8 Effect of oven condition on foaming high-­density PE (HDPE) 147 Table 13.9 Examples of RM products 148 Table 13.10 Examples of PVC plastics used in RM 150 Table 13.11 Sieve sizes 151 Table 13.12 Classifying particle shape for irregular particles 151 Table 13.13 Typical powder bulk density 152 Table 13.14 Comparing powders with micropellets 153 Table 13.15 Types of powder flow 154 Table 13.16 Property changes with increasing PE density (chapter 2) 159 Table 13.17 Property changes with increasing melt index (chapter 22) 159 Table 13.18 Recommended draft angles for RM plastics 163 Table 13.19 Recommended draft angles for smooth and textured (0.1 mm texture depth) molds 163 imo-rosato2.indb 32 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  27. 27. Tables xxxiii Table 13.20 Examples of warpage standards for RM plastics 164 Table 13.21 Guide for inner and outer radiuses in RM dimensions 164 Table 13.22 Properties of mold materials 169 Table 13.23 Plaster casting materials 169 Table 13.24 Heating cycle times for aluminum molds 170 Table 13.25 Steel sheet-­metal gauge 170 Table 13.26 RM mechanical design aspects 173 Table 13.27 Wall-­thickness range for RM plastics 176 Table 13.28 Guide to linear shrinkage values for RM plastics 176 Table 14.1 Example of applications for compression molded thermoset (TS) plastics 180 Table 14.2 Comparing compression molded properties with other processes 180 Table 14.3 Relating materials to properties to processes 181 Table 14.4 Examples of the effect of preheating and part depth of phenolic parts on CM pressure (psi) 183 Table 14.5 Examples of OD, ID, height, and weight relationships of different PTFE billet CMs 197 Table 14.6 Examples of PTFE sintering conditions 201 Table 14.7 Effect of cooling rate on crystallinity, typical for granular molding powders (courtesy of DuPont) 202 Table 14.8 Effect of CM processes on properties (courtesy of DuPont) 204 Table 14.9 Guide to wall-­thickness tolerance for CM different plastics 205 Table 14.10 Guide in the use of reinforcements and fillers in different molding compounds 206 Table 14.11 Transfer molding compared to CM 213 Table 14.12 Transfer molding compared to reinforced plastic molding 214 Table 14.13 Examples of isostatically molded parts 217 Table 14.14 Isostatic mold design considerations 222 Table 15.1 Types of composites 224 Table 15.2 Examples of composite ablative compounds 224 Table 15.3 Examples of reinforcement types and processing methods 232 Table 15.4 Examples of RTP properties 233 Table 15.5 TP-­glass fiber RPs injection molding (IM) temperatures 234 Table 15.6 Examples of properties and processes of RTS plastics 235 Table 15.7 Properties of the popularTS polyester-­glass fiber RPs 235 Table 15.8 Different properties of RTPs and RTSs perASTM standards 236 Table 15.9 Properties of fiber reinforcements 240 Table 15.10 Reinforcement thermal properties 240 Table 15.11 Properties of glass-­fiber RPs 241 Table 15.12 Comparative yarn properties 242 Table 15.13 Examples of different carbon fibers 242 imo-rosato2.indb 33 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  28. 28. xxxiv Tables Table 15.14 Aramid fiber-­TP RP properties 242 Table 15.15 Properties of unidirectional hybrid-­nylon RPs 243 Table 15.16 Charpy impact test results of square woven fabric using hybrid fibers-­ nylon RPs 244 Table 15.17 Damage propagation of aramid and E-­glass RPs using tensile-­notched test specimens 244 Table 15.18 Examples of different glass fiber yarns 244 Table 15.19 Examples of glass fiber staple fiber yarn data 245 Table 15.20 Examples of glass fiber cloth constructions 246 Table 15.21 Examples of fillers used inTP RPs (chapter 1) 253 Table 15.22 Examples of fillers used inTS RPs (chapter 1) 253 Table 15.23 Comparison of tensile properties in RPs, steel, and aluminum 254 Table 15.24 Mechanical properties of resins that are reinforced to increase properties 255 Table 15.25 Properties perASTM of 30 wt% glass-­fiber RTPs 256 Table 15.26 Properties of glass-­fiber RTPs with different glass fiber contents and other reinforcements 257 Table 15.27 Properties of short and long glass fiber-­nylon 6/6 RPs at elevated temperatures 257 Table 15.28 Examples of obtaining desired properties ofTP-­RPs 258 Table 15.29 Properties of RPs with 30 wt% to 50 wt% glass fiber-­TS polyester based on fabricating process 259 Table 15.30 Properties ofTS polyester RPs with different amounts of glass fibers 260 Table 15.31 Properties of glass fiber mats RPs with different types ofTS polyesters 261 Table 15.32 General properties ofTS RPs perASTM testing procedures 262 Table 15.33 Examples of mechanical properties ofTS RPs at ambient and elevated temperatures 264 Table 15.34 Flexural modulus of glass-­polyester–­RPs exposed to various environmental elements 265 Table 15.35 Strength and modulus for glass fiber-­TS RPs at low temperature 266 Table 15.36 Coefficients of thermal expansion for parallel glass fiber-­TS RPs 267 Table 15.37 Example ofTS RPs for electrical applications 268 Table 15.38 Mechanical properties of glass fabric-­TS polyester RPs exposed to various intensities of near-­UV radiation in a vacuum 269 Table 15.39 Mechanical properties of glass fiber fabric-­TS polyester RPs after irradiation at elevated temperatures 270 Table 15.40 Properties of different materials 271 Table 15.41 Properties of unidirectional RPs using different types of fibers 276 Table 15.42 Properties of unidirectional graphite fiber-thermoplastic RPs varying in resin content by weight and varying in void content by volume (at 72°F and 350°F) 277 imo-rosato2.indb 34 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  29. 29. Tables xxxv Table 15.43 Comparing properties of SMC with steel 283 Table 15.44 Filament-­wound structures for commercial and industrial applications 296 Table 15.45 Filament-­wound structures for aerospace, hydrospace, and military applications 297 Table 15.46 Different FW patterns meet different performance requirements 298 Table 15.47 RP processing guide to RP process selection 316 Table 15.48 RP processing guide to RP size 317 Table 15.49 Examples of a few processes to material comparisons 318 Table 15.50 RP resin transfer, SMC compression, and IM processes compared 319 Table 15.51 Examples of RTS plastic processes 320 Table 15.52 Comparing uses of different plastics with different RP and other processes 321 Table 15.53 Examples of interrelating product-­RP material-­process performances 322 Table 15.54 Comparison of RP design aspects and processes to cost 323 Table 15.55 Examples of processing variables 325 Table 15.56 Product design versus processing methods 326 Table 15.57 Other product design considerations versus processing methods 327 Table 15.58 Product design shapes versus processing methods 328 Table 15.59 Examples of the efficiency RPs fiber orientation 329 Table 15.60 Example ofTS polyester volume shrinkage during curing 330 Table 15.61 RPs wall-­thickness tolerances 331 Table 15.62 Comparing unreinforced and RP mold shrinkage rates 332 Table 15.63 Composite efficiency of RPs 334 Table 15.64 Examples of loading conditions 334 Table 16.1 Example of a PVC blend formulation 343 Table 16.2 Automotive industry objectives for decorative plastics 349 Table 16.3 Definitions applicable to low-­pressure decorating molding 350 Table 16.4 Example of an MCM-­IML molding cycle 352 Table 16.5 Examples of MCM-­IML advantages and applications 353 Table 16.6 Examples of valid reasons for using MCM-­IML 354 Table 16.7 Examples of invalid reasons for using MCM-­IML 354 Table 16.8 Process and materials composition 355 Table 16.9 Processing, materials, and geometry 355 Table 16.10 Geometry function and complexity 356 Table 16.11 Listing of abbreviations used in the following tables 357 Table 16.12 Reactive liquid composite molding 358 Table 16.13 Multimaterial multiprocess (MMP) technology 359 Table 16.15 TP sheet composite 360 Table 16.14 Fusible core IM 360 Table 16.16 Gas-­assisted IM: process and simulation 361 Table 16.17 Low-­pressure molding 362 imo-rosato2.indb 35 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  30. 30. xxxvi Tables Table 16.18 Advanced blow molding 363 Table 16.19 Microcellular plastic: formation and shaping 364 Table 16.20 Lamellar IM 365 Table 17.1 Types of tools and materials 367 Table 17.2 American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and some BS numbers without their “B” prefix (BH10A/H10A) with comparableWerkstoff numbers and their mean (average) chemical compositions 371 Table 17.3 Werkstoff numbers with comparableAISI numbers or a near-­matching chemical composition 374 Table 17.4 Elements and their symbols 376 Table 17.5 Examples of different metals used in tools 377 Table 17.6 Examples of mold and die tools for different fabricating processes 378 Table 17.7 Examples of cost comparison of molds in terms of the properties of plastic 380 Table 17.8 Typical properties of various RP mold bag materials 381 Table 17.9 Examples of the properties of different tool materials 383 Table 17.10 Guide to different tool materials, where 5 is best 384 Table 17.11 Examples of improving/changing properties of tool materials via alloying 384 Table 17.12 Example of costs and properties of tool materials, including alloys 385 Table 17.13 Hardness of tool materials for a few different plastic materials and processes 385 Table 17.14 Example of tool materials arranged in order of hardness 386 Table 17.15 Different hardness conversions 387 Table 17.16 Thermal conductivity of tool materials 388 Table 17.17 Thermal-­expansion coefficients of tool materials 389 Table 17.18 HRC file check 389 Table 17.19 Example of a schedule, in weeks, for purchasing of a mold 390 Table 17.20 Guide for mold construction 390 Table 17.22 Example of a mold progress report 391 Table 17.21 Example of a mold checklist 391 Table 17.23 Example of a detailed mold progress report 392 Table 17.25 Properties of the more popular tool materials 394 Table 17.26 Examples of tool steels with applications 395 Table 17.27 Examples of tool steel alloys (first two digits denote type of steel; second two digits indicate carbon weight percentage) 396 Table 17.28 Property comparison of aluminum and steel 401 Table 17.29 Strength of aluminum based on thickness 401 Table 17.30 Wrought aluminum performance 402 Table 17.31 Properties of beryllium copper versus other tool materials 404 Table 17.32 Various heat treatments versus finish of Uddeholm tool steels 409 Table 17.34 Identification of surface finish based on manufacturing process 409 imo-rosato2.indb 36 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  31. 31. Tables xxxvii Table 17.33 Different grain standards used for surface finishes 409 Table 17.35 Diamond-­particle compound relates to surface finish 410 Table 17.36 Polishing sequences 412 Table 17.37 Examples of coatings based on material used 418 Table 17.38 Examples of coatings based on process used 419 Table 17.39 Guide to tool surface enhancements and coatings commonly used (courtesy of Eastman Chemical Co./431) 420 Table 17.40 Examples of coating materials for tools 423 Table 17.41 Examples of cleaning methods 428 Table 17.42 Examples of tapers for cavity sidewalls 434 Table 17.43 Examples of pressures applied to molds 456 Table 17.44 Examples of plastic mold temperatures and pressure requirements 456 Table 17.45 Basic mold component operations 458 Table 17.46 Guidelines for melt shear rates (courtesy of Synventive Molding Solutions) 485 Table 17.47 TP melt temperatures (°C) 486 Table 17.48 Guide to size of round runners 493 Table 17.49 Property comparison of some mold construction materials 517 Table 17.50 Applications of principal mold steels 518 Table 17.51 Guide to cooling channel diameters for PP (see Fig. 17.61) 522 Table 17.52 Examples of factors that influence PP shrinkage 545 Table 17.53 Guide for mold shrinkage of ¼ and ½ in thick specimens perASTM D 955 546 Table 17.54 Guide for mold shrinkage for different thickness dimensions 547 Table 17.55 Examples of error in mold size as a result of using incorrect shrinkage formulas 548 Table 17.56 Checklist and guideline for operating a mold 568 Table 17.57 SPI Moldmakers Division quotations guide 571 Table 17.58 Examples of operational effects and geometrical variables on melt flow conditions in a die 592 Table 17.59 Examples of melt shear rates 604 Table 17.60 Examples of the effect of shear rate on the die swell ofTPs 604 Table 17.61 Examples of extrusion dies from Extrusion Dies Inc. 607 Table 17.62 Guide to different pellets that are fabricated from different performing dies 623 Table 17.63 Examples of blown-­film applications for coextrusion 628 Table 17.64 Rapid prototyping processes 638 Table 17.65 Checklist procedure for mold repair (courtesy of Synventive Molding Solutions) 670 Table 17.66 Example of SPI’s moldmakers directory for services 671 Table 17.24 Tool materials with near-­matching chemical compositions 689 imo-rosato2.indb 37 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  32. 32. xxxviii Tables Table 18.1 Example of manufacturing cycle that includes equipment 739 Table 18.2 SPE auxiliaries buyer’s guide (courtesy of SPE) 740 Table 18.3 Introduction to auxiliary and SE performances 754 Table 18.4 Examples of auxiliary and SE 755 Table 18.5 Estimated annual savings for energy-­efficient electric motors (Electrical Apparatus ServiceAssociation) 765 Table 18.6 Examples of the usual functions of robots and perimeter guarding 784 Table 18.7 Examples of comparing robots with other parts-­handling systems 786 Table 18.8 Examples of types of robots manufactured 787 Table 18.9 Examples of different rolls used in different extrusion processes 806 Table 18.10 Guide to decorating 808 Table 18.11 Examples of methods for decorating plastic products after fabrication 810 Table 18.12 Examples of methods for decorating plastic products in a mold 811 Table 18.13 Guide in comparing a few decorating methods from size to cost 812 Table 18.14 Review of a few decorating methods 813 Table 18.15 Examples of joining methods 817 Table 18.16 Examples of joiningTPs andTSs 817 Table 18.17 Examples of descriptions for different joining methods 818 Table 18.18 Directory of companies that provide joining and assembling methods 820 Table 18.19 Examples of adhesives for bonding plastics to plastics 826 Table 18.20 Examples of bondingTPs to nonplastics 829 Table 18.21 Examples of bondingTS plastics to nonplastics 829 Table 18.22 Adhesive terminology 832 Table 18.23 Example of adhesives classified by composition 834 Table 18.24 Plasma treatment 836 Table 18.26 Peel strength of plastics after plasma treatment perASTM test methods 837 Table 18.25 Lap shear strength of plastics after plasma treatment perAmerican Society forTesting Materials (ASTM) test methods 837 Table 18.27 Shear strength of PP to PP adhesive bonds in psi (MPa) perASTM D 4501 838 Table 18.28 Shear strength of polyethylene (PE) to PE in psi (MPa) 840 Table 18.29 Shear strength ofABS toABS in psi (MPa) 841 Table 18.30 Shear strength of PP to PP in psi (MPa) 842 Table 18.31 Shear strength of PVC to PVC in psi (MPa) 843 Table 18.32 Shear strength of polycarbonate (PC) to PC in psi (MPa) 844 Table 18.33 Shear strength of PUR to PUR in psi (MPa) 845 Table 18.34 Shear strength of PA to PA in psi (MPa) 846 Table 18.35 Shear strength of polyimide to polyimide in psi (MPa) 847 Table 18.36 Shear strength of acetal to acetal in psi (MPa) 848 Table 18.37 Shear strength of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to PMMA in psi (MPa) 849 imo-rosato2.indb 38 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  33. 33. Tables xxxix Table 18.38 Shear strength of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to PET in psi (MPa) 850 Table 18.39 Shear strength of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) to PEEK in psi (MPa) 850 Table 18.40 Shear strength of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) to LCP in psi (MPa) 851 Table 18.41 Shear strength of fluoroplastic to fluoroplastic in psi (MPa) 851 Table 18.42 Guide relating molded wall thicknesses to insert diameters (in [mm]) 862 Table 18.43 Examples of welding methods versus tensile-­strength retention 865 Table 18.44 Examples of welding characteristics 865 Table 18.45 Examples of ultrasonic welding applications 866 Table 18.46 Comparison of a few welding methods 866 Table 18.47 Comparing welding of different plastics, each to itself 867 Table 18.48 Economic guide to a few welding processes 868 Table 18.49 Tensile strength of hot-­plate welding PP copolymerized with ethylene pipe 870 Table 18.50 Impact and tensile strength of hot-­plate welding high-­density polyethylene (HDPE) 870 Table 18.51 Tensile strength of different hot-­plate welds of PP copolymerized with ethylene pipe 870 Table 18.52 Tensile strength of hot-­plate weldingABS 871 Table 18.53 Properties of vibration welds of PC to itself and other plastics 877 Table 18.54 Properties of vibration welds of PC/ABS to itself and other plastics 877 Table 18.55 Properties of vibration welds of PC/polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) to itself and to PC 878 Table 18.56 Properties of vibration welds ofABS to itself and other plastics 878 Table 18.57 Properties of vibration welds of acrylonitrile-­styrene-­acrylate (ASA) to itself 879 Table 18.58 Properties of vibration welds of PS-­modified PPE/PA to itself and other plastics 879 Table 18.59 Properties of vibration welds of modified polypropylene oxide (PPO) to itself and other plastics 880 Table 18.60 Properties of vibration welds of PBT to itself and other plastics 880 Table 18.61 Example of a boss-­hole design for the use of ultrasonically installed inserts using styrene maleic anhydride copolymer 884 Table 18.62 Optimum ultrasonic welding conditions for impact-­modified PET-­PC blend 884 Table 18.63 Weld strength of ultrasonic bonds of medical plastics; three letters in each box represent bonds subjected to no sterilization, ethylene-­oxide sterilization, and gamma-­radiation sterilization, respectively 885 Table 18.64 Guide to bonding plastic to plastic via induction welding 886 Table 18.65 Properties of radio-­frequency welding of flexible PVC to itself and other plastics 888 imo-rosato2.indb 39 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  34. 34. xl Tables Table 18.66 Properties of radio-­frequency welding of rigid PVC to itself and other plastics 889 Table 18.67 Properties of radio-­frequency welding of aromatic polyester PUR to itself and other plastics 889 Table 18.68 Properties of laser-­welded PE joints 892 Table 18.69 Properties of laser-­welded PP joints 892 Table 18.70 Examples of machining operations 893 Table 18.71 Examples of finishing operations 893 Table 18.72 Examples of supplementary machining operations 894 Table 18.73 Guide to single-­point box-­tool machining (chapter 17 reviews tool materials) 898 Table 18.74 Guide to turning, cutoff, and form-­tool machining 899 Table 18.75 Guide to drilling 900 Table 18.76 Guide to end milling: Slotting machining 901 Table 18.77 Guide to end milling: Peripheral machining 902 Table 18.78 Guide to side and slot milling arbor-­mounted cutter machining 903 Table 18.79 Guide to face-­milling machining 904 Table 18.80 Guide to power band sawing 905 Table 18.81 Guide to tappingTPs andTS plastics 905 Table 18.82 Guide to reamingTPs andTS plastics 906 Table 18.83 Guide to standard tolerances for punched holes and slots in sheet stock 907 Table 18.84 NEMA guide to standard tolerances for punched holes and slots in high-­ pressure composite laminated grades of sheet stock, rods, and tubes 908 Table 18.85 Guide to cutting equipment capabilities 908 Table 18.86 Guide to drill geometry 908 Table 18.87 Examples of cutting-­tool geometries 912 Table 18.88 Guide for drilling 1/2 to 3/8 in holes inTPs 919 imo-rosato2.indb 40 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  35. 35. AA acrylic acid AAE AmericanAssociation of Engineers AAES AmericanAssociation of Engineering Societies ABR polyacrylate ABS acrylontrile-­butadiene-­styrene AC alternating current ACS American Chemical Society ACTC Advanced CompositeTechnology Consortium ad adhesive ADC allyl diglycol carbonate (also CR-­39) AFCMA Aluminum Foil Container Manufactur- ers’Association AFMA American Furniture Manufacturers’ Association AFML Air Force Material Laboratory AFPA American Forest and PaperAssociation AFPR Association of Foam Packaging Recyclers AGMA American Gear Manufacturers’Association AIAA American Institute ofAeronautics and Astronauts AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIMCAL Association of Industrial Metallizers, Coaters, and Laminators AISI American Iron and Steel Institute AMBA American Mold Builders Association AMC alkyd molding compound AN acrylonitrile ANSI American National Standards Institute ANTEC AnnualTechnical Conference (of the Soci- ety of the Plastic Engineers) APC American Plastics Council APET amorphous polyethylene terephthalate APF Association of Plastics Fabricators API American Paper Institute APME Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe APPR Association of Post-­Consumer Plastics Recyclers AQL acceptable quality level AR aramid fiber; aspect ratio ARP advanced reinforced plastic ASA acrylonitrile-­styrene-­acrylate ASCII american standard code for information exchange ASM American Society for Metals Abbreviations imo-rosato2.indb 41 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  36. 36. xlii Abbreviations ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASNDT American Society for Non-­Destructive Testing ASQC American Society for Quality Control ASTM American Society forTesting Materials atm atmosphere bbl barrel BFRL Building and Fire Research Laboratory Bhn Brinell hardness number BM blow molding BMC bulk molding compound BO biaxially oriented BOPP biaxially oriented polypropylene BR polybutadiene Btu British thermal unit buna polybutadiene butyl butyl rubber CA cellulose acetate CAB cellulose acetate butyrate CaCO3 calcium carbonate (lime) CAD computer-­aided design CAE computer-­aided engineering CAM computer-­aided manufacturing CAMPUS computer-­aided material preselection by uniform standards CAN cellulose acetate nitrate CAP cellulose acetate propionate CAS Chemical Abstract Service (a division of the American Chemical Society) CAT computer-­aided testing CBA chemical blowing agent CCA cellular cellulose acetate CCV Chrysler composites vehicle CEM Consorzio Export Mouldex (Italian) CFA Composites FabricatorsAssociation CFC chlorofluorocarbon CFE polychlorotrifluoroethylene CIM ceramic injection molding; computer inte- grated manufacturing CLTE coefficient of linear thermal expansion CM compression molding CMA Chemical Manufacturers’Association CMRA Chemical Marketing Research Association CN cellulose nitrate (celluloid) CNC computer numerically controlled CP Canadian Plastics CPE chlorinated polyethylene CPET crystallized polyethylene terephthalate CPI Canadian Plastics Institute cpm cycles/minute CPVC chlorinated polyvinyl chloride CR chloroprene rubber; compression ratio CR-­39 allyl diglycol carbonate CRP carbon reinforced plastics CRT cathode ray tube CSM chlorosulfonyl polyethylene CTFE chlorotrifluorethylene DAP diallyl phthalate dB decibel DC direct current DEHP diethylhexyl phthalate den denier DGA differential gravimetric analysis DINP diisononyl phthalate DMA dynamic mechanical analysis DMC dough molding compound DN Design News publication DOE Design of Experments DSC differential scanning calorimeter DSD Duales System Deutschland (German Recy- cling System) DSQ German Society for Quality DTA differential thermal analysis DTGA differential thermogravimetric analysis DTMA dynamic thermomechanical analysis DTUL deflection temperature under load DV devolatilization DVR design value resource; dimensional velocity research; Druckverformungsrest (German imo-rosato2.indb 42 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  37. 37. Abbreviations xliii compression set); dynamic value research; dynamic velocity ratio E modulus of elasticity;Young’s modulus EBM extrusion blow molding Ec modulus, creep (apparent) EC ethyl cellulose ECTFE polyethylene-­chlorotrifluoroethylene EDM electrical discharge machining E/E electronic/electrical EEC European Economic Community EI modulus × moment of inertia (equals stiffness) EMI electromagnetic interference EO ethylene oxide (also EtO) EOT ethylene ether polysulfide EP ethylene-­propylene EPA Environmental ProtectionAgency EPDM ethylene-­propylene diene monomer EPM ethylene-­propylene fluorinated EPP expandable polypropylene EPR ethylene-­propylene rubber EPS expandable polystyrene Er modulus, relaxation Es modulus, secant ESC environmental stress cracking ESCR environmental stress cracking resistance ESD electrostatic safe discharge ET ethylene polysulfide ETFE ethylene terafluoroethylene ETO ethylene oxide EU entropy unit; European Union EUPC EuropeanAssociation of Plastics Converters EUPE European Union of Packaging and Environment EUROMAP Eu^ropean Committee of Machine Manufacturers for the Rubber and Plastics Industries (Zurich, Switzerland) EVA ethylene-­vinyl acetate E/VAC ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer EVAL ethylene-­vinyl alcohol copolymer (trade- name for EVOH) EVE ethylene-­vinyl ether EVOH ethylene-­vinyl alcohol copolymer (or EVAL) EX extrusion F coefficient of friction; Farad; force FALLO follow all opportunities FDA Food and Drug Administration FEA finite element analysis FEP fluorinated ethylene-­propylene FFS form, fill, and seal FLC fuzzy logic control FMCT fusible metal core technology FPC flexible printed circuit fpm feet per minute FRCA Fire Retardant Chemicals Association FRP fiber reinforced plastic FRTP fiber reinforced thermoplastic FRTS fiber reinforced thermoset FS fluorosilicone FTIR Fourier transformation infrared FV frictional force × velocity G gravity; shear modulus (modulus of rigidity); torsional modulus GAIM gas-­assisted injection molding gal gallon GB gigabyte (billion bytes) GD&T geometric dimensioning and tolerancing GDP gross domestic product GFRP glass fiber reinforced plastic GMP good manufacturing practice GNP gross national product GP general purpose GPa giga-­Pascal GPC gel permeation chromatography gpd grams per denier gpm gallons per minute GPPS general purpose polystyrene GRP glass reinforced plastic GR-­S polybutadiene-­styrene GSC gas solid chromatography imo-rosato2.indb 43 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  38. 38. xliv Abbreviations H hysteresis; hydrogen HA hydroxyapatite HAF high-­abrasion furnace HB Brinell hardness number HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCl hydrogen chloride HDPE high-­density polyethylene (also PE-­HD) HDT heat deflection temperature HIPS high-­impact polystyrene HMC high-­strength molding compound HMW-­HDPE high molecular weight–­high density polyethylene H-­P Hagen-­Poiseuille HPLC high-­pressure liquid chromatography HPM hot pressure molding HTS high-­temperature superconductor Hz Hertz (cycles) I integral; moment of inertia IB isobutylene IBC internal bubble cooling IBM injection blow molding; International Busi- ness Machines IC Industrial Computing publication ICM injection-­compression molding ID internal diameter IEC International Electrochemical Commission IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IGA isothermal gravimetric analysis IGC inverse gas chromatography IIE Institute of Industrial Engineers IM injection molding IMM injection molding machine IMPS impact polystyrene I/O input/output ipm inch per minute ips inch per second IR synthetic polyisoprene (synthetic natural rubber) ISA Instrumentation, Systems, andAutomation ISO International Standardization Organiza- tion or International Organization for Standardization IT information technology IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IV intrinsic viscosity IVD in vitro diagnostic J joule JIS Japanese Industrial Standard JIT just-­in-­time JIT just-­in-­tolerance Jp polar moment of inertia JSR Japanese SBR JSW Japan SteelWorks JUSE Japanese Union of Science and Engineering JWTE JapanWeatheringTest Center K bulk modulus of elasticity; coefficient of thermal conductivity; Kelvin; Kunststoffe (plastic in German) kb kilobyte (1000 bytes) kc kilocycle kg kilogram KISS keep it short and simple Km kilometer kPa kilo-­Pascal ksi thousand pounds per square inch (psi × 103) lbf pound-­force LC liquid chromatography LCP liquid crystal polymer L/D length-­to-­diameter (ratio) LDPE low-­density polyethylene (PE-­LD) LIM liquid impingement molding; liquid injection molding LLDPE linear low-­density polyethylene (also PE-­LLD) LMDPE linear medium density polyethylene LOX liquid oxygen LPM low-­pressure molding m matrix; metallocene (catalyst); meter imo-rosato2.indb 44 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  39. 39. Abbreviations xlv mµ micromillimeter; millicron; 0.000001 mm µm micrometer MA maleic anhydride MAD mean absolute deviation; molding area diagram Mb bending moment MBTS benzothiazyl disulfide MD machine direction; mean deviation MD&DI Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry MDI methane diisocyanate MDPE medium density polyethylene Me metallocene catalyst MF melamine formaldehyde MFI melt flow index mHDPE metallocene high-­density polyethylene MI melt index MIM metal powder injection molding MIPS medium impact polystyrene MIT Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology mLLDPE metallocene catalyst linear low-­density polyethylene MMP multimaterial molding or multimaterial multiprocess MPa mega-­Pascal MRPMA Malaysian Rubber Products Manufactur- ers’Association Msi million pounds per square inch (psi × 106) MSW municipal solid waste MVD molding volume diagram MVT moisture vapor transmission MW molecular weight MWD molecular weight distribution MWR molding with rotation N Newton (force) NACE NationalAssociation of Corrosion Engineers NACO NationalAssociation of CAD/CAM Operation NAGS NorthAmerica Geosynthetics Society NASA NationalAeronautics SpaceAdministration NBR butadiene acrylontrile NBS National Bureau of Standards (since 1980 renamed the National Institute Standards and Technology or NIST) NC numerical control NCP National Certification in Plastics NDE nondestructive evaluation NDI nondestructive inspection NDT nondestructive testing NEAT nothing else added to it NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association NEN Dutch standard NFPA National Fire ProtectionAssociation NISO National Information Standards Organization NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology nm nanometer NOS not otherwise specified NPCM National Plastics Center and Museum NPE National Plastics Exhibition NPFC National Publications and Forms Center (US government) NR natural rubber (polyisoprene) NSC National Safety Council NTMA NationalTool and Machining Association NWPCA NationalWooden Pallet and Container Association OD outside diameter OEM original equipment manufacturer OPET oriented polyethylene terephthalate OPS oriented polystyrene OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration P load; poise; pressure Pa Pascal PA polyamide (nylon) PAI polyamide-­imide PAN polyacrylonitrile imo-rosato2.indb 45 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  40. 40. xlvi Abbreviations PB polybutylene PBA physical blowing agent PBNA phenyl-­β-­naphthylamine PBT polybutylene terephthalate PC permeability coefficient; personal computer; plastic composite; plastic compounding; plastic-­concrete; polycarbonate; printed cir- cuit; process control; programmable circuit; programmable controller PCB printed circuit board pcf pounds per cubic foot PCFC polychlorofluorocarbon PDFM Plastics Distributors and Fabricators Magazine PE plastic engineer; polyethylene (UK polythene); professional engineer PEEK polyetheretherketone PEI polyetherimide PEK polyetherketone PEN polyethylene naphthalate PES polyether sulfone PET polyethylene terephthalate PETG polyethylene terephthalate glycol PEX polyethylene crosslinked pipe PF phenol formaldehyde PFA perfluoroalkoxy (copolymer of tetrafluoro- ethylene and perfluorovinylethers) PFBA polyperfluorobutyl acrylate phr parts per hundred of rubber PI polyimide PIA Plastics Institute ofAmerica PID proportional-­integral-­differential PIM powder injection molding PLASTEC PlasticsTechnical Evaluation Center (US Army) PLC programmable logic controller PMMA Plastics Molders and Manufacturers’Asso- ciation (of SME); polymethyl methacrylate (acrylic) PMMI Packaging Machinery Manufacturers’ Institute PO polyolefin POE polyolefin elastomer POM polyoxymethylene or polyacetal (acetal) PP polypropylene PPA polyphthalamide ppb parts per billion PPC polypropylene chlorinated PPE polyphenylene ether pph parts per hundred ppm parts per million PPO polyphenylene oxide PPS polyphenylene sulfide PPSF polyphenylsulfone PPSU polyphenylene sulphone PS polystyrene PSB polystyrene butadiene rubber (GR-­S, SBR) PS-­F polystyrene-­foam psf pounds per square foot PSF polysulphone psi pounds per square inch psia pounds per square inch, absolute psid pounds per square inch, differential psig pounds per square inch, gauge (above atmo- spheric pressure) PSU polysulfone PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene (orTFE) PUR polyurethane (also PU, UP) P-­V pressure-­volume (also PV) PVA polyvinyl alcohol PVAC polyvinyl acetate PVB polyvinyl butyral PVC polyvinyl chloride PVD physical vapor deposition PVDA polyvinylidene acetate PVdC polyvinylidene chloride PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride PVF polyvinyl fluoride PVP polyvinyl pyrrolidone imo-rosato2.indb 46 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  41. 41. Abbreviations xlvii PVT pressure-­volume-­temperature (also P-­V-­T or pvT) PW Plastics World magazine QA quality assurance QC quality control QMC quick mold change QPL qualified products list QSR quality system regulation R Reynolds number; Rockwell (hardness) rad Quantity of ionizing radiation that results in the absorption of 100 ergs of energy per gram of irradiated material. radome radar dome RAPRA Rubber and Plastics ResearchAssociation RC Rockwell C (Rc) RFI radio frequency interference RH relative humidity RIM reaction injection molding RM rotational molding RMA Rubber Manufacturers’Association RMS root mean square ROI return on investment RP rapid prototyping; reinforced plastic RPA Rapid PrototypingAssociation (of SME) rpm revolutions per minute RRIM reinforced reaction injection molding RT rapid tooling; room temperature RTM resin transfer molding RTP reinforced thermoplastic RTS reinforced thermoset RTV room temperature vulcanization RV recreational vehicle Rx radiation curing SAE Society ofAutomotive Engineers SAMPE Society for theAdvancement of Material and Process Engineering SAN styrene acrylonitrile SBR styrene-­butadiene rubber SCT soluble core technology SDM standard deviation measurement SES Standards Engineering Society SF safety factor; short fiber; structural foam s.g. specific gravity SI International System of Units SIC Standard Industrial Classification SMC sheet molding compound SMCAA Sheet Molding Compound Automotive Alliance SME Society of Manufacturing Engineers S-­N stress-­number of cycles SN synthetic natural rubber SNMP simple network management protocol SPC statistical process control SPE Society of the Plastics Engineers SPI Society of the Plastics Industry sPS syndiotactic polystyrene sp. vol. specific volume SRI Standards Research Institute (ASTM) S-­S stress-­strain STP SpecialTechnical Publication (ASTM); stan- dard temperature and pressure t thickness T temperature; time; torque (orTt) TAC triallylcyanurate T/C thermocouple TCM technical cost modeling TD transverse direction TDI toluene diisocyanate TF thermoforming TFS thermoform-­fill-­seal Tg glass transition temperature TGA thermogravimetric analysis TGI thermogravimetric index TIR tooling indicator runout T-­LCP thermotropic liquid crystal polymer TMA thermomechanical analysis;Tooling and Manufacturing Association (formerlyTDI); Toy Manufacturers of America torr mm mercury (mmHg); unit of pressure equal to 1/760th of an atmosphere imo-rosato2.indb 47 7/27/11 12:12 PM
  42. 42. xlviii Abbreviations TP thermoplastic TPE thermoplastic elastomer TPO thermoplastic olefin TPU thermoplastic polyurethane TPV thermoplastic vulcanizate Ts tensile strength; thermoset TS twin screw TSC thermal stress cracking TSE thermoset elastomer TX thixotropic TXM thixotropic metal slurry molding UA urea, unsaturated UD unidirectional UF urea formaldehyde UHMWPE ultra-­high molecular weight polyethyl- ene (also PE-­UHMW) UL Underwriters Laboratories UP unsaturated polyester (alsoTS polyester) UPVC unplasticized polyvinyl chloride UR urethane (also PUR, PU) URP unreinforced plastic UV ultraviolet UVCA ultra-­violet-­light-­curable-­cyanoacrylate V vacuum; velocity; volt VA value analysis VCM vinyl chloride monomer VLDPE very low-­density polyethylene VOC volatile organic compound vol% percentage by volume w width W watt W/D weight-­to-­displacement volume (boat hull) WIT water-­assist injection molding technology WMMA Wood Machinery Manufacturers of America WP&RT World Plastics and RubberTechnology magazine WPC wood-­plastic composite wt% percentage by weight WVT water vapor transmission XL cross-­linked XLPE cross-­linked polyethylene XPS expandable polystyrene YPE yield point elongation Z-­twist twisting fiber direction imo-rosato2.indb 48 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  43. 43. Undertaking the development through to the completion of the Plastics Technology Handbook required the assistance of key individuals and groups.The indispensable guidance and professionalism of our publisher, Joel Stein, and his team at Momentum Press was critical throughout this enormous proj- ect.The coeditors, Nick R. Schott, Professor Emeritus of the University of Massachusetts Lowell Plastics Engineering Department, and Marlene G. Rosato, President of Gander International Inc., were instrumental to the data, information, and analysis coordination of the eighteen chapters of the handbook. A special thank you is graciously extended to Napoleao Neto of Alphagraphics for the organization and layout of the numerous figure and table graphics central to the core handbook theme. Finally, a great debt is owed to the extensive technology resources of the Plastics Institute of America at the University of Massachusetts Lowell and its Executive Director, Professor Aldo M. Crugnola. Dr. DonaldV. Rosato, Coeditor and President, PlastiSource, Inc. Acknowledgments imo-rosato2.indb 49 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  44. 44. This book, as a two-­volume set, offers a simplified, practical, and innovative approach to under- standing the design and manufacture of products in the world of plastics. Its unique review will expand and enhance your knowledge of plastic technology by defining and focusing on past, cur- rent, and future technical trends. Plastics behavior is presented to enhance one’s capability when fabricating products to meet performance requirements, reduce costs, and generally be profitable. Important aspects are also presented to help the reader gain understanding of the advantages of different materials and product shapes.The information provided is concise and comprehensive. Prepared with the plastics technologist in mind, this book will be useful to many others.The practical and scientific information contained in this book is of value to both the novice, including trainees and students, and the most experienced fabricators, designers, and engineering person- nel wishing to extend their knowledge and capability in plastics manufacturing including related parameters that influence the behavior and characteristics of plastics.The toolmaker (who makes molds, dies, etc.), fabricator, designer, plant manager, material supplier, equipment supplier, test- ing and quality control personnel, cost estimator, accountant, sales and marketing personnel, new venture type, buyer, vendor, educator/trainer, workshop leader, librarian, industry information provider, lawyer, and consultant can all benefit from this book.The intent is to provide a review of the many aspects of plastics that range from the elementary to the practical to the advanced and more theoretical approaches. People with different interests can focus on and interrelate across subjects in order to expand their knowledge within the world of plastics. Over 20000 subjects covering useful pertinent information are reviewed in different chapters contained in the two volumes of this book, as summarized in the expanded table of contents and index. Subjects include reviews on materials, processes, product designs, and so on. From a prag- matic standpoint, any theoretical aspect that is presented has been prepared so that the practical person will understand it and put it to use.The theorist in turn will gain an insight into the practical Preface imo-rosato2.indb 51 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  45. 45. lii Preface limitations that exist in plastics as they exist in other materials such as steel, wood, and so on.There is no material that is“perfect.”The two volumes of this book together contain 1800-­plus figures and 1400-­plus tables providing extensive details to supplement the different subjects. In working with any material (plastics, metal, wood, etc.), it is important to know its behavior in order to maximize product performance relative to cost and efficiency. Examples of different plastic materials and associated products are reviewed with their behavior patterns. Applications span toys, medical devices, cars, boats, underwater devices, containers, springs, pipes, buildings, aircraft, and spacecraft.The reader’s product to be designed or fabricated, or both, can be related directly or indirectly to products reviewed in this book. Important are behaviors associated with and interrelated with the many different plastics materials (thermoplastics [TPs], thermosets [TSs], elastomers, reinforced plastics) and the many fabricating processes (extrusion, injection molding, blow molding, forming, foaming, reaction injection molding, and rotational molding). They are presented so that the technical or nontechnical reader can readily understand the interrelationships of materials to processes. This book has been prepared with the awareness that its usefulness will depend on its simplicity and its ability to provide essential information.An endless amount of data exists worldwide for the many plastic materials, which total about 35000 different types. Unfortunately, as with other mate- rials, a single plastic material that will meet all performance requirements does not exist. However, more so than with any other materials, there is a plastic that can be used to meet practically any product requirement. Examples are provided of different plastic products relative to critical factors ranging from meeting performance requirements in different environments to reducing costs and targeting for zero defects.These reviews span products that are small to large and of shapes that are simple to complex.The data included provide examples that span what is commercially available. For instance, static physical properties (tensile, flexural, etc.), dynamic physical properties (creep, fatigue, impact, etc.), chemical properties, and so on, can range from near zero to extremely high values, with some having the highest of any material.These plastics can be applied in different envi- ronments ranging from below and on the earth’s surface to outer space. Pitfalls to be avoided are reviewed in this book.When qualified people recognize the poten- tial problems, these problems can be designed around or eliminated so that they do not affect the product’s performance. In this way, costly pitfalls that result in poor product performance or failure can be reduced or eliminated. Potential problems or failures are reviewed, with solutions also presented.This failure-­and-­solution review will enhance the intuitive skills of people new to plastics as well as those who are already working in plastics. Plastic materials have been produced worldwide over many years for use in the design and fabrication of all kinds of plastic products.To profitably and successfully meet high-­quality, consistency, and long-­life standards, all that is needed is to understand the behavior of plastics and to apply these behaviors properly. Patents or trademarks may cover certain of the materials, products, or processes presented. They are discussed for information purposes only and no authorization to use these patents or trademarks is given or implied. Likewise, the use of general descriptive names, proprietary names, trade names, commercial designations, and so on does not in any way imply that they may be used imo-rosato2.indb 52 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  46. 46. Preface liii freely.While the information presented represents useful information that can be studied or ana- lyzed and is believed to be true and accurate, neither the authors, contributors, reviewers, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors, omissions, inaccuracies, or other factors. Information is provided without warranty of any kind. No representation as to accuracy, usability, or results should be inferred. Preparation for this book drew on information from participating industry personnel, global industry and trade associations, and the authors’ worldwide personal, industrial, and teaching experiences. DON & MARLENE ROSATOAND NICK SCHOTT, 2011 imo-rosato2.indb 53 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  47. 47. Chapter 10 Coating OVERVIEW Different resin (also called polymer and plastic) coating systems have widespread industrial and commercial applications.They can be applied by direct contact of a liquid coating with the substrate to deposition using an atomization process. Direct methods include brushing, roller coating, dip- ping, flow coating, and electrodeposition. Deposition methods include conventional spray, airless spray, hot spray, and electrostatic spray. Extrusion coating is one of the principal methods (chap- ter 5). Coating via calenders is another important method (chapter 9). Coatings are applied in molds during injection molding (chapter 4).There is film coating applied during thermoforming (chapter 7; 477). Other fabricating processes incorporate coatings. Coating resins are used for coating materials in practically all the markets that include electric/ electronic, packaging, building, household and industrial appliances, transportation, marine, medi- cal, and clothing (chapter 20). Continual consumer demands for more attractive and styled packages have caused plastic material suppliers to develop new coatings with high decorative and visual appeal. Selection of the plastic to be used usually depends on decorative and environmental requirements. Coated containers include beer cans, liquid-­containing tanks, and electronics packages. Resin coatings are used extensively for corrosion protection of metals in different environ- ments such as inside and outside of buildings,chemical plants,marine products,and so on.Residual stresses can be present in these coatings. For example, solvent loss and, in the case of thermosets (TSs), the curing process, causes shrinkage of the coating.When it is applied to a stiff substrate, the shrinkage in the plane of the coating is resisted and biaxial tensile residual stresses form. If applica- tion of the coating is made at a temperature different from the subsequent service temperature, there will be further residual stresses that result from differential thermal expansion of the coating and substrate (chapter 21). imo-rosato2.indb 1 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  48. 48. 2 Plastics Technology Handbook—Volume 2 Resins continue to be the backbone in the coating industry because almost all coatings are com- posed of resin materials.The most widely used are based on polyethylenes, polypropylenes, vinyls, alkyds, acrylics, urea-­melamine, styrenes, epoxies, phenolics, fluoroplastics, and silicones (chapter 2).The resins are used alone or are cross-­blended with other resins.Table 10.1 lists different coat- ings that include those in solvent systems or those with certain resins, such as vinyl in different forms of organic media dispersions.These higher solids content dispersions can be in nonvolatile (plastisol) suspension or in volatile (organosol) suspension (chapter 16).Table 10.2 reviews coating compounds with applications that are mainly used in Europe. The alkyds are used mainly (but extensively) in coatings.Their ease of application and low cost makes them useful. Epoxy systems continue to find more applications because they have inherently desirable characteristics such as the ease with which they adhere to a substrate. Fluorocarbons can be vacuum deposited on various metals and plastics containers, which provides the expected envi- ronmental resistances, such as to water and salt spray.The polyamides are used to protect metal containers from weathering and chemical corrosion.The silicones are considered for use when heat resistance is part of the coating requirement. Urethane coatings are generally baked so to provide maximum protection in such applications as electrical or outdoor-­use packages. Properties of the different plastics are reviewed in chapter 2. The vinyls appear to be in a class of their own, because they can be applied by many different techniques to metal and other parts before fabrication into various shapes.They are tough, flexible, low in cost, and resistant to normal environments.They also provide good adhesion. Fuel-­resistant coatings are used to help the handling of gasoline and fuel oil in plastic or steel tanks. Coating systems employed in the past were only partially successful in protecting the steel interior of the tanks.They often cracked, peeled, or softened and thus exposed the steel to corro- sion. Excellent coatings have now been developed and used successfully. Growth has been steady and reliable, so that rational and economic coating production is no longer regarded, as was the case until relatively recently, as an art or craft based solely on empirical results. For example, coatings are being applied to plastic and metal containers to provide improve- ments in appearance, resistance to environmental breakdown, and easy handling. Resins are employed in the manufacture of a large number of coating compounds that are used to cover the surfaces of many materials from paper to metal to concrete. Many plastics are used as coating materials, including paints, varnishes, enamels, and materials of various resin-­coating com- positions that are applied to fabrics,paper,plastic,cardboard,leather,metal,and wood.As has been noted, there are a number of methods of applying plastic coatings, including the major processes such as extrusion and injection molding.When they are in a liquid or latex form, such as in paint or adhesives, they may be applied by brushing, spraying, dipping, and so on. In coating operations, the base material, such as paper, is run through a machine that melts solid plastic granules and spreads them evenly across the surface of the base material.As the hot plastic cools,it becomes bonded,like an adhesive, to its base. The products of the coating industry are essential for the protection and decoration of the majority of manufactured goods and architectural or industrial structures that characterize our imo-rosato2.indb 2 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  49. 49. Coating 3 Table 10.1  Examples of different coating materials imo-rosato2.indb 3 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  50. 50. 4 Plastics Technology Handbook—Volume 2 Table 10.1  Examples of different coating materials (continued) imo-rosato2.indb 4 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  51. 51. Coating 5 Table 10.1  Examples of different coating materials (continued) imo-rosato2.indb 5 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  52. 52. 6 Plastics Technology Handbook—Volume 2 complex material civilization. The protective function includes resistance to air, water, organic liquids, and aggressive chemicals such as acids and alkalis, together with improved superficial mechanical properties such as greater hardness and abrasion resistance.The decorative effect may be obtained through color, gloss, or texture or combinations of these properties. In the case of many surfaces such as walls or floors, or objects such as interior fittings, furniture and other articles, the surface coating can fulfill hygienic requirements.The surface should not be prone to collect dirt, bacteria, and other impurities. It should be easy to clean with common clean- ing agents. In certain cases special qualities are required of the surface coating. For example, special Table 10.2  Important coating compounds and applications imo-rosato2.indb 6 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  53. 53. Coating 7 Table 10.2  Important coating compounds and applications (continued) imo-rosato2.indb 7 7/27/11 12:13 PM
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×