Clark learning theories


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Clark learning theories

  1. 1. BEHAVIORISM M. Clark
  2. 2. IVAN PAVLOV (1849-1936)-ANobel Prize winner in Physiology.-Famous for his classicalConditioning technique to train dogsto salivate to bell tones without thenatural stimulus of food. Thisprocess refers to the natural reflex thatoccurs in response to a stimulus.
  3. 3. B.F. SKINNER (1904-1990)-Skinner conducted experimentswith pigeons and the reward systemto train and shape their behavior,step by step to get the desiredbehavior.- Skinner believes “ that people shapetheir behavior based on the rewards orpositive reinforcement they receive.”
  4. 4. ALBERT BANDURA-Bandura is famous for his ideas onthe Social Cognitive theory.-Bandura believes that peopleacquire their behaviors, first byobservingand then by imitating thesebehaviors.
  5. 5. KEY POINTS OF BEHAVIORISM• Assumes the learner is passive.• Learning behavior is done solely through a system of positive and negative reinforcements.• Both positive and negative reinforcements will either, decrease or increase, the previous behavior.• Learning in Behaviorism, is determined by a change in the learners behavior.
  6. 6. CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS Inside the classroom teachers can find behaviorism including classicalconditioning, operant conditioning, and the social cognitive theory, to be ofpractical use. A lot of times in school, especially elementary, teachers use thereward/punishment system to reinforce good behavior. Both positive and negativerewards help shape the students behavior to that which is appropriate in theclassroom setting. With some „trouble‟ students, operant conditioning may beutilized, because little steps of good behavior will be rewarded until the correctbehavior is achieved. The social cognitive theory can be seen in every classroom.Students are absorbing so much in the classroom. In this way teachers can shapethe students behavior by rewarding „good‟ students and by being a positive rolemodel. Online activities help reinforce these behaviorist theories as they mostoften have rewards/punishments for the activities. For simple question answergames, they either reward students with happy faces/positive sounds/points, orthey “punish” with sounds/pictures that have negative connotations.
  7. 7. CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDENTS In operant conditioning students will imitate the behavior that isrewarded by the teacher and will likely lessen the behavior that gets them introtrouble. For the most part the students will learn to obey the teacher and learnto do the right things when they are rewarded. Students will strive to do whatis demanded of them in hopes that they will get the desired positive response.Behaviorism is all about the outcome of the decisions they make, they strivefor positive reinforcement.
  8. 8. IMPLICATIONS FOR MY OWN TEACHING I believe the theories of behaviorism are the most effective withyounger children because they are always looking for that positive reassurance.With younger children they are constantly seeking approval and want others tothink well of them. Whether that is in their school work or in their peer groupthey will strive to be a part of the accepted, “good group.” This will helpwhen teaching because I can appropriately reward/ punish for both schoolwork and behavior. Especially, if I am in 3 rd grade and under, utilizing stickers,smiley faces or “green-good” stickers, to reward students is an easy way toencourage the positive behavior. Also, especially with younger children, they are more easilyinfluenced so my positive behavior could have a great impact on them. As Ibehave in a respective way, they will respond and hopefully act accordingly as Iset high standards of behavior for them.
  9. 9. CREDIT"Albert Bandura." FSU Faculty/Staff Personal Page Web Server Index. Web. 28Nov. 2011. <>."Behaviorism." Learning Theories. Web. 22 Nov. 2011. <>."Behaviourism." Learning and Teaching Home. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <>."Ivan Pavlov." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <>."LearningTheory." Cognitive Design Solutions. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <>.