AB0401 Sustainable Enterprise
E-Learning Week
(CO2 Australia)
Lee May Ee, Michelle Ng, Koh Xin
Hui, Kong Ding Rong, Ang Ya...
Estimation of Carbon
Footprint

AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning

2
Estimation of Carbon Footprint
Campus carbon footprint

AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning

Source: Stefan Sprangers...
The make-up of the
student and staff
population is similar
to that of Erasmus
University Rotterdam
(EUR), thus we would
be...
Estimation of Carbon Footprint
• The factor that contribute most to the carbon
footprint of NTU would be the students’ and...
Estimation of Carbon Footprint
• With the prevalence of halls and residences in NTU,
for both staff and students, the foll...
The rest of the population stays outside of college.
Assuming that the students and staff follows the travel
pattern of Si...
Assuming that the population travels to school 4
times a week and the proportion of people
travelling by bus and train is ...
Total annual bus emission per student: 200kg
 Total annual carbon emission for students who
take public transport (bus an...
Assuming that ⅓ of
the population
drives, due to the
prevalence of
carparks and the
full parking rates.

 Total annual
ca...
NTU’s estimated carbon footprint
Scope

Emission Category

Total CO2
emission (kg)

Comments

Scope 1

On Campus Stationar...
Option 1:
Transforming a significant
proportion of our course
delivery from classroom
to an online format

AB0401 Sustaina...
Benefits of an online class
• Reduce electricity consumption
 Lower electricity consumption since there will be
much less...
Benefits of an online class
• Save on transport (public and shuttle bus)
 Online classes reduces students‟ need to travel...
Benefits of an online class
• Reduces land constraint
 With lesser physical class, the university does not
need to be so ...
Benefits of an online class
• Reduced wastage and electricity
consumption from dormitories
 Electronic-based classes redu...
Benefits of an online class
Study by Open University:

“On average, the production and provision of

distance learning cou...
Cons of an online class
• Lesser interaction between students and
faculty staffs
 Fewer networking opportunities
 Potent...
Cons of an online class
• Drop in public transport usage insignificant
 Public buses will still continue on as usual even...
Cons of an online class
• Transfer of the carbon footprint to students
house
 A decrease in the school carbon footprint d...
Online class: Stakeholders
• Students
 More convenience, reduce the time of
transportation
 Reduce transportation expens...
• NTU (management)
 Lesser expenses incurred
 Might be concern about the quality of NTU students.
 Quality of education...
Option 2:
Buying carbon credits
from the provider (CO2
Group Limited)

AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning

23
Carbon credits
Pros
Cons
Quickest solution in the short run Heavy reliance creates an artificial
sense of being ‘environme...
Carbon credits
Can act as a buffer while carbon Accurate estimates close to ‘true’
reducing projects are underway carbon e...
Carbon credits
Simple solution → NTU is only
required to finance the initiative

NTU may not find any motivation
to decrea...
ANALYSIS OF
ALTERNATIVES
Option 3: Planting Eucalyptus Trees
Pros
1. Eucalyptus trees grow rapidly,
and takes relatively shorter time to
purify air...
Other Alternatives
• Recycling initiatives in NTU




Placing more recycling bins around NTU
Tap into their concern for...
Other Alternatives
•

Seek professor‟s help



Collaborate with companies to research on ways for
promoting CO2 savings
...
Stakeholder analysis on alternatives
• Students
- Increased awareness of green initiatives in school
- Concerned students ...
Stakeholder analysis on alternatives
• NTU
- Strengthen its school image and branding regarding
its green initiatives move...
Stakeholder analysis on alternatives
• Industries
o Industrial processes emits Co2 emissions through fossil fuel
combustio...
Decision Criteria
Option 1
Long Term Sustainability
Financial Ability
Actual reduction in CO2
emissions
Easy Implementatio...
Stakeholders on CO2 emissions
• NTU
•

Strengthen its school image and branding
regarding its green initiatives movement

...
Stakeholders on CO2 emissions
• Companies/ Institutions
o Electricity consumption
o Excessive usage of paper consumption

...
Conclusion
• Option 1 (online based learning) is our
choice for moving towards a carbon-neutral
environment
• More initiat...
Thank You

AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning

38
Executive Summary
We have chosen the option of changing our coursework to become
more online-based as our solution towards...
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Ab0401 sem 3 grp 4 - May Ee, Michelle, Yan Lin, Xiu Hui, Xin Hui, Ding Rong

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  • Very well-structured presentation, interesting but rather complex proposals. Not clear 'what I should do when I leave the room,' an important take-home for change agents. A rich set of alternatives, though hoped to see impact of your proposed plan on our carbon footprint.
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  • Eucalyptus trees grow rapidly, takes relatively shorter time to help purify airthe trees need to be kept for 100 years, long term benefit for ntu. (requirements for CO2 group limited)Space constraint: Space is required to plant these treesSingapore is a land scarce country hard to find a big enough land to plant enough trees to attain the carbon credit needed for NTUEucalyptus trees are able to absorb pollutants from reclamation areas (A big plus for Singapore)Might require a large number of trees, far too much as every 250 trees offsets carbon emissions of a car being used for 10 years(Might have land constraint)
  • Ab0401 sem 3 grp 4 - May Ee, Michelle, Yan Lin, Xiu Hui, Xin Hui, Ding Rong

    1. 1. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprise E-Learning Week (CO2 Australia) Lee May Ee, Michelle Ng, Koh Xin Hui, Kong Ding Rong, Ang Yan Ling, Lin Xiuhui AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 1
    2. 2. Estimation of Carbon Footprint AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 2
    3. 3. Estimation of Carbon Footprint Campus carbon footprint AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning Source: Stefan Sprangers, “Calculating the carbon footprint of universities” 3
    4. 4. The make-up of the student and staff population is similar to that of Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), thus we would be deriving scope 1 & 2 by subjecting the figures to a multiplier of 1.7 (NTU‟s population/EUR population = 1.68). And the students commuting footprints would be modified based on local context. Source: Stefan Sprangers, “Calculating the carbon footprint of universities”
    5. 5. Estimation of Carbon Footprint • The factor that contribute most to the carbon footprint of NTU would be the students’ and staff transportation. • Employee count: 6612 Student count: 33241 Total: 39,853 people ¾ commuting 29,889.75 ~~~ 29,890people Driving = 29890/3 = 9964 people Public transport = 19,926 people AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 5
    6. 6. Estimation of Carbon Footprint • With the prevalence of halls and residences in NTU, for both staff and students, the following assumptions could be made: o ¼ population stays in schools (staff residences, graduate residences, halls) o These people would not contribute to the carbon footprint of the school unless they are leaving school residences for their own purpose AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 6
    7. 7. The rest of the population stays outside of college. Assuming that the students and staff follows the travel pattern of Singapore population, they would be travelling by MRT, LRT and Bus as frequent as above. Their average trip distance would also be as such.
    8. 8. Assuming that the population travels to school 4 times a week and the proportion of people travelling by bus and train is equal, we will arrive at the following results: Total annual Co2 emission per student by national rail: 288kg
    9. 9. Total annual bus emission per student: 200kg  Total annual carbon emission for students who take public transport (bus and train): 0.5(200+288) x 19,926 = 4,861,944 kg/year
    10. 10. Assuming that ⅓ of the population drives, due to the prevalence of carparks and the full parking rates.  Total annual carbon emission for students who travel by car: 3939 x 9964 = 39,248,196 kg/year
    11. 11. NTU’s estimated carbon footprint Scope Emission Category Total CO2 emission (kg) Comments Scope 1 On Campus Stationary sources 23,203 X 1.7 of EUR Direct transportation sources 2262 X 1.7 of EUR Purchased Electricity 1,564,273 X 1.7 of EUR Purchased Heat - Not applicable as there is no need for NTU to heat up the school Employee Commuting 44,110,140 4,861,944 + 39,248,196 = 44,110,140 Employee Travels Water Usage Paper Consumption Waste 572,879 85,525 126,872 185,000 X 1.7 of EUR Electricity T&D losses 140,785 X 1.7 of EUR Total 46,810,939 Scope 2 Scope 3 Student Commuting Scope 4
    12. 12. Option 1: Transforming a significant proportion of our course delivery from classroom to an online format AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 12
    13. 13. Benefits of an online class • Reduce electricity consumption  Lower electricity consumption since there will be much lesser physical classes.  Translate into lower carbon emission. • Reduce air conditioning usage  This will also save on electricity  Air conditioning a typical home produces a carbon footprint of about 6,600 pounds CO2. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 13
    14. 14. Benefits of an online class • Save on transport (public and shuttle bus)  Online classes reduces students‟ need to travel to school  Fuel consumption will be reduced, lowering carbon emission. Cars with an average fuel efficiency produce nearly 20 pounds of CO2 for every gallon of gasoline burned. Worldwide, the fossil fuels used for transportation contribute to over 13% of greenhouse gas emissions AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 14
    15. 15. Benefits of an online class • Reduces land constraint  With lesser physical class, the university does not need to be so big.  Demolishing part of the building can translate to more land for the government to develop.  Every piece of land is of great importance for a land scarce country. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 15
    16. 16. Benefits of an online class • Reduced wastage and electricity consumption from dormitories  Electronic-based classes reduces the need for students to rest in hostels  Decrease in electricity and aircon consumption  Decrease in waste produced AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 16
    17. 17. Benefits of an online class Study by Open University: “On average, the production and provision of distance learning courses consumed nearly 90 percent less energy and produced 85 percent fewer CO2 emissions per student than conventional campus-based university courses.” AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 17
    18. 18. Cons of an online class • Lesser interaction between students and faculty staffs  Fewer networking opportunities  Potentially poorer teaching quality Face to face explanation vs virtual explanation AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 18
    19. 19. Cons of an online class • Drop in public transport usage insignificant  Public buses will still continue on as usual even if there are fewer commuters on board.  There will only be a decrease in frequency of NTU shuttle buses • More feasible for future universities  Demolishing the irrelevant building may take up too much cost  not feasible.  Option more feasible for future universities. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 19
    20. 20. Cons of an online class • Transfer of the carbon footprint to students house  A decrease in the school carbon footprint due to the reduce in aircon and electricity consumption may be offset by students usage at home  Chance that more electricity may be used as individual students all switch on lights and aircon as compared to a centralised system. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 20
    21. 21. Online class: Stakeholders • Students  More convenience, reduce the time of transportation  Reduce transportation expenses  May not be as effective  more easily distracted • Professors  More flexibility and control of own schedule  More difficult to capture students attention. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 21
    22. 22. • NTU (management)  Lesser expenses incurred  Might be concern about the quality of NTU students.  Quality of education may be poorer with online learning  may affect NTU prestige image in the long run. • Government  Able to have a greener Singapore  strengthen Singapore‟s position as a „green‟ country. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 22
    23. 23. Option 2: Buying carbon credits from the provider (CO2 Group Limited) AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 23
    24. 24. Carbon credits Pros Cons Quickest solution in the short run Heavy reliance creates an artificial sense of being ‘environmentally friendly’ but in truth pollution has not decreased Provides an incentive to go green Who is to bear the additional costs → to avoid paying for more → would university students be carbon credits willing to pay for university’s carbon credits? Ready marketplace for carbon Is it justifiable for a Singapore credit trading → able to obtain university to buy from an carbon credits easily, but at the Australian provider at the price set same time, sell away the excess for Australians Low fixed cost, but variable costs Risk of dealing with a company in the long run can be substantial who has yet to establish itself in Singapore
    25. 25. Carbon credits Can act as a buffer while carbon Accurate estimates close to ‘true’ reducing projects are underway carbon emission required to avoid overspending or underbuying carbon credits. Eucalyptus trees grow rapidly, Space is required to plant these takes relatively shorter time to trees help purify air The trees need to be kept for 100 Singapore is a land scarce years, long term benefit for NTU. country hard to find a big enough (requirements for CO2 group land to plant enough trees to limited) attain the carbon credit needed for NTU Eucalyptus trees are able to Requires large number of trees, absorb pollutants from as every 250 trees offsets carbon reclamation areas emissions of a car being used for 10 years
    26. 26. Carbon credits Simple solution → NTU is only required to finance the initiative NTU may not find any motivation to decrease their carbon footprint further as this can already solve their problem → there is not a need to rack their brains to find more solutions to reduce their carbon footprint further. → not really good for the government This is in line with the government view of Singapore being a green city -
    27. 27. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES
    28. 28. Option 3: Planting Eucalyptus Trees Pros 1. Eucalyptus trees grow rapidly, and takes relatively shorter time to purify air . Moreover, the trees need to be kept for 100 years , therefore it is a long term benefit for NTU. 2. Eucalyptus trees are able to absorb pollutants from reclamation areas (BIG plus for Singapore) Cons Space and Land constraint: Large amount of space is required to plant these trees Moreover, Singapore is a land scarce country and it will be difficult to find a land to plant enough trees in order to attain the carbon credit needed for NTU. Moreover, it might require a large number of trees as every 250 trees offsets carbon emissions of a car being used for 10 years
    29. 29. Other Alternatives • Recycling initiatives in NTU    Placing more recycling bins around NTU Tap into their concern for the environment and their natural enthusiasm for change Schools should let students to be involved in practical projects around the school
    30. 30. Other Alternatives • Seek professor‟s help   Collaborate with companies to research on ways for promoting CO2 savings $20 million IES fund set up by the government to help finance the development of innovative environmental technologies • Generate our own electricity which helps to reduce CO2 emission and save money • Gain national recognition for school and additional funding for sustainable energy projects
    31. 31. Stakeholder analysis on alternatives • Students - Increased awareness of green initiatives in school - Concerned students are now able to utilize these initiatives platform to set up their own practical projects • Professors - Have the power now to play a part in improving on the school‟s green initiative measures
    32. 32. Stakeholder analysis on alternatives • NTU - Strengthen its school image and branding regarding its green initiatives movement • Government - Able to reach out to students regarding green initiatives efforts - Strengthen Singapore‟s image as a green society
    33. 33. Stakeholder analysis on alternatives • Industries o Industrial processes emits Co2 emissions through fossil fuel combustion • General Public o Gasoline & diesel burnt for transportation purposes o Electricity consumption in residential estates o Waste generated
    34. 34. Decision Criteria Option 1 Long Term Sustainability Financial Ability Actual reduction in CO2 emissions Easy Implementation Option 2 Option 3 Other Alternatives
    35. 35. Stakeholders on CO2 emissions • NTU • Strengthen its school image and branding regarding its green initiatives movement • Government • • Able to reach out to students regarding green initiatives efforts Strengthen Singapore‟s image as a green society
    36. 36. Stakeholders on CO2 emissions • Companies/ Institutions o Electricity consumption o Excessive usage of paper consumption AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 36
    37. 37. Conclusion • Option 1 (online based learning) is our choice for moving towards a carbon-neutral environment • More initiatives have to be taken for a more efficient and effective step towards becoming carbon neutral AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 37
    38. 38. Thank You AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 38
    39. 39. Executive Summary We have chosen the option of changing our coursework to become more online-based as our solution towards the move of reducing carbon footprint. Studies have shown that staff and students‟ commute to the school are the greatest source of carbon emissions. Changing the way classes are carried out to an online based form will greatly reduce the need for commuting, thus effectively lowering carbon emissions. The potential problem of such a change in the coursework structure is that the quality of learning and teaching may be compromised. It prevents students from spontaneously querying about the subject, and the effectiveness of teaching might thus be affected as a result. Weighing all the alternatives, our team recognizes that one option alone is insufficient to reduce carbon footprint effectively. A greener community will only be achievable if lifestyle habits are significantly changed with the thought of environmental sustainability in mind. AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises ELearning 39

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