• A viral disease which may affect the spinal cord causing muscle weakness and paralysis.• The virus enters the body through the mouth, usually from hands contaminated of an infected person.• 3 types: Spinal, Bulbar and Bulbospinal• Disease is more common in the summer• It is primarily an intestinal infection that causes paralysis in http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/policdc002a.jpg less than 1% of cases (Link 86).
• Mother’s performed the “Polio Test” on their children (Black 45). • 25% of polio deaths came in the first 24 hours…85% of deaths occurred during a victim’s first 20 days in the hospital (Black 18).http://www.achievement.org/achievers/sal0/large/sal0-010.jpg • Polio patients whose muscles were paralyzed faced months, perhaps years, of arduous physical therapy to strengthen weakened muscles (Wilson) • Patients were often placed in iron lungs to help with breathing regulation (Black 14). http://historyscoop.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/iron-lung-1.jpg
• FDR’s ”Birthday Balls“, an annual event to raise money for polio research • Founded the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) • “March of the Dimes”; collection of donated dimes that citizens would send to the President (Black 25) • In all, 2,680,000 dimes came in for the first (For both photos) March of the Dimes (Black 25) http://www.umw.edu/hisa/resources/Student%20Projec
Fear was triggered by the post-war baby boom (McCreedy). In the five years following the war, at least 20,000 cases were reported annually (McCreedy). In 1952, polio reached its destructive peak with fifty- eight thousand new diagnoses (McCreedy). http://www.maryboonegallery.com/artist_info/pages/mir/det
Schoolchildren and families were vaccinated, reducing the incidence of polio by almost 90% within two years (Bradford).+Immunization triggers an excellent immune response and long-lasting immunity to all 3 poliovirus types (Bradford)+The virus is not live, thus it is easier to manage than OPV (Bradford) http://www.polio.pitt.edu/images/PhotoSalkLocalSchools.jpg-The price of IPV is over 5 times that of OPV (Bradford)-IPV induces only little immunity in intestinal tract (Bradford) http://www.healthheritageresearch.com/Polio-Vaccine/ gallery/pages/RogersPBFDR-1916Flies-p65.html
+Easily administered by giving children a sugar cube or sugar liquid containing the vaccine (Bradford) +Indirectly protects other susceptible individuals by secondary vaccination (Bradford) -The risk of vaccine- associated paralytic http://www.umw.edu/hisa/resources /Student polio as a result of the %20Projects/McCreedy/students.u mw.edu/_lmccr9sd/poliovaccine/vac vaccination (Bradford) cine.htmlhttp://connectbillions.in/pn/ludhiana/ludhiana-east/sahnewal-khurd/files/2010/11/polio_vaccine_poster1.jpg
• New methods that had to be developed by the U.S government for approval of the killed polio vaccine continue to influence the FDA today (Tocci 5). • The OPV has been distributed to developing countries such as Africa, India, Pakistan, Egypt, and Bangladesh (Rutty). • When polio’s threat was eliminated, [the U.S] aquired a medical hubris that deepened with the elimination of smallpox (Black 257).http://www.umw.edu/hisa/resources/Student%20Projects/McCreedy/students.umw.edu/_lmccr9sd/poliovaccine/development
During the first six months of 1964, there were only 35 cases of polio reported in the U.S, this was minor considering the annual average of 16,316 cases during the early 1950s (Black 256) The United States has been free of the wild poliovirus since 1979 (Okonek). http://www.brown.edu/Courses/Bio_160/Projects1999/polio/v
It is the development of new muscles that begins between 25 and 35 years after an acute attack of paralytic polio (Rutty). Approximately half of all polio survivors will develop Post-Polio Syndrome (Rutty). Has also developed among those who either had a mild polio case, or were unaware of being affected at all (Rutty).
Reduced fear within the American society Became a standard for future vaccines Eradicated the polio virus in the U.Shttp://home.vicnet.net.au/~hmwkhelp/images/polio_vac.jpg
"I won’t ever forget the feeling in my legs when I lost the use of them.It was just such a weird feeling.It was just like it went through me,just a surge went through my body.I can feel it right now just thinking about it.It was very frightening for a little 14-year-old girl to think,gosh, my life’s gone, you know?” —Addie Flowers Vance, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, 1996http://top-10-list.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/polio.jpghttp://ncmuseumofhistory.org/exhibits/healthandhealing/topic/17/