SOCIAL PSYCH INTRO (Psych 201 - Chapter 1 - Spring 2014)

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  • 1. THIS WEEK’S PLAYLIST 1 Artist Song 1. Weezer Perfect Situation Power of the Situation 2 will.i.am I Got It From My Mama Nature vs. Nurture; Proximal vs. Distal Influences 4. Taylor Swift I Knew You Were Trouble Hindsight Bias 5. Bill Withers Lean On Me Collectivist Cultural Values 6. Haddaway What Is Love? Operationalizing Constructs 7 Notorious B.I.G. Mo Money Mo Problems Understanding Correlations
  • 2. WELCOME! Psychology 201: Intro to Social Psychology Melanie B. Tannenbaum, M.A. January 22, 2014
  • 3. THIS WEEK ! ○ Who are you? ! ! ○ What will this class be like? ! ! ○ A brief introduction to Social Psychology
  • 4. ON YOUR INDEX CARD... ○ Name ! ! ○ Year in school (freshman, sophomore, etc.) ! ! ○ College major & future plans ! ! ○ One defining and/or interesting fact about yourself!
  • 5. ABOUT ME ○ Name: Melanie Tannenbaum ! ○ Year: I am a 5th year Ph.D. candidate in social psychology ! ○ Background: I’m originally from NY; I graduated from Duke in 2009. Here at UIUC, I study persuasion, motivation, the effects of social class on political attitudes, and whether or not “scare tactics” work to change behavior. ! ○ Interesting Fact: This isn’t all I teach! I’m also a group fitness instructor; I teach PiYo (Pilates/Yoga) & Zumba. I also like competing in Tough Mudders & Spartan Races ☺
  • 6. SYLLABUS I strongly encourage you to come to class having read the textbook... ! ...but lecture will highlight important points from the book.
  • 7. SYLLABUS There are 12 Psych 201 sections, and I only teach 2. Exams are the same for all sections. Other instructors may highlight different things in their classes. ! I will do my best to make sure I cover everything on the exams, but I can’t guarantee it. You should be comfortable with the textbook material.
  • 8. SYLLABUS ● Participation: Available in lecture only ○ Assessed using iClickers ○ There will be several iClicker questions during each class period; you only have to answer one in order to receive credit, and any answer (even an incorrect one) will count. ○ Please see me after class if you have issues with your iClicker on any particular day (but this should not be frequent, please!) ! ● Extra Credit: Up to 3% added onto your final grade ○ If your final grade would be an 89, it would get bumped up to a 92 ○ Psychology Subject Pool - 1% for each hour of participation up to 3% ○ For over ½ of the students last semester who did not participate in studies, doing so would have made of a difference of at least ½ a letter grade (and 2 people could have gone from a B+ to an A!) ○ Most people who did participate moved up at least ½ a letter grade
  • 9. ICLICKERS Please register your iClicker on Compass 2G and the iClicker website, if possible! ! Website: http://www1.iclicker.com/ register-an-iclicker/
  • 10. ICLICKERS If you get a new iClicker during the semester, or if you have more than one already, please register all numbers, or else you won’t get credit for your participation!
  • 11. PLEASE DO NOT... ○ Oversleep and miss your midterm or final exam ● ...especially if it is at 7 PM ! ! ○ Book a non-refundable flight the day before your exam ! ! ○ Forget the date and/or time and/or room of your exam
  • 12. GRADES: WILL NOT BE ROUNDED UP ○ Yes, I mean it. ! ! ○ No, there are really no exceptions. ! ! ○ Even if you need a certain grade to graduate, remain a student in good standing, not get yelled at by your parents, etc...
  • 13. ! ! I really want everyone to get an A in this class, but earning the A is UP TO YOU.
  • 14. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: Introduction and Methods
  • 15. WHY TAKE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY? ○ Required ! ! ○ Recommended by a friend/classmate ! ! ○ Not at 8 AM
  • 16. WHAT IF THIS CLASS COULD... ○ Impact your view of pop culture? ! ○ Change how you read literature, listen to music, or understand current events? ! ○ Help you pursue your goals, change people’s attitudes, or get someone to like you?
  • 17. GIVE ME MY SODA! Does it really matter how big our food/drink containers are?
  • 18. WHEN WILL YOU BE FULL? WHEN I REACH THE BOTTOM. WELL, GOOD LUCK WITH THAT.
  • 19. WHEN WILL YOU BE FULL? WHEN I REACH THE BOTTOM. WELL, GOOD LUCK WITH THAT. 75%
  • 20. GIVE ME MY SODA! Does it really matter how big our food/drink containers are?
  • 21. GIVE ME MY SODA! Yes. People really will drink more soda if they have bigger containers.
  • 22. GIVE ME PORN! Does it really matter if the U.K. has an internet porn filter?
  • 23. 100%
  • 24. 3%
  • 25. 33%
  • 26. OPT IN OPT OUT
  • 27. 98% 15%
  • 28. 60%
  • 29. GIVE ME PORN! Does it really matter if the U.K. has an internet porn filter?
  • 30. GIVE ME PORN! Yes. Even if they can “opt out” of the filter... ...most people are probably too lazy to bother.
  • 31. A FEW QUESTIONS... 1. Your little sister wants to be an artist, but her art is terrible. Your parents want you to encourage her by telling her that her art is really good. You would be most likely to change your mind and actually start to think her art is really good if your parents gave you... ! A) $5 for telling your sister that her art is good B) $20 for telling your sister that her art is good C) $100 for telling your sister that her art is good D) No money for telling your sister that her art is good
  • 32. A FEW QUESTIONS... 2. You’re getting married, and you want to make sure that you and your spouse-to-be don’t get divorced. Research tells us that there are four “dangerous behaviors” to avoid in relationships, and by observing the presence (or absence) of these behaviors during a 15-minute interaction, we can predict whether or not a couple will divorce. How accurate do you think these predictions are? ! A) These behaviors predict divorce with 52% accuracy. B) These behaviors predict divorce with 68% accuracy. C) These behaviors predict divorce with 87% accuracy. D) These behaviors predict divorce with 93% accuracy.
  • 33. A FEW QUESTIONS... 3. UIUC is considering a pay-for-grades policy; students would be paid $100 for every “A” they get each semester. What do you think would be the effect of this policy? ! A) Students would be more motivated to learn B) Students would be less motivated to learn C) Students would be more motivated at first, but eventually be even less motivated than before the policy D) Students would be less motivated at first, but eventually be even more motivated than before the policy
  • 34. A FEW QUESTIONS... 4. You want your friend to come to a party with you, but she says that she is too shy to go to a big party. To convince her to come along, you should challenge her by... ! A) Reminding her that she liked the last party she went to B) Telling her this would be a good chance to test that belief C) Asking her to list 10 examples of times she was outgoing D) Asking her to list 10 examples of times she was shy
  • 35. You will learn about all of this (and more!) in this class.
  • 36. You will learn about all of this (and more!) in this class. Hindsight Bias ! The tendency to see events that have already occurred as more predictable than they really were. ! “I knew it all along!”
  • 37. You will learn about all of this (and more!) in this class. After you learn about a social psychology finding, it might seem “obvious.” ! Remember that things are not always so predictable when you don’t already know about them...this is why studying social psychology is so important! And I’m so happy that you are here! ☺
  • 38. CHAPTER 1 PLAN ! ○ Characterizing Social Psychology ! ! ○ 3 important themes ● Power of the Situation ● Construal ● Proximal vs. Distal Influences
  • 39. WHAT IS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY? • The scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. • Scientific Study ! • Thoughts, Feelings, Behaviors ! • Presence of Others
  • 40. WHAT IS NOT SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY? ○ Personality Psychology ● We tend to (though not always) focus on more fleeting, environmental influences; they often focus on personality traits or how people are consistent over time. ! ○ Cognitive Psychology ● We focus exclusively on social behavior; they often study things like reading, language acquisition, etc. ! ○ Sociology/Anthropology ● We tend to focus more on individual behavior; they can examine many of the same behaviors, but tend to look at how these behaviors are displayed across an entire country, culture, or society.
  • 41. THE POWER OF THE SITUATION ○ Kurt Lewin ● Father of Social Psych ! ○ B = f (P, E) ● Behavior is a function of the person and the environment ! ○ The situation is important, not just personality!
  • 42. SITUATION: PROXIMAL VS. DISTAL FORCES ○ Here & Now ! ○ Immediate Situation ○ Perceptions/Construal ! ○ Perceiving/reacting to immediate situation ○ Removed In Time ! ○ Culture/Socialization ○ Evolution ! ○ Shapes behavior on a broader scale Proximal Distal
  • 43. PROXIMAL FACTORS ENVIRONMENTAL CUES DEFAULTS PERCEIVED CONVENIENCE
  • 44. PROXIMAL FACTORS ○ “Good Samaritan” Study ● Darley & Batson, 1973 ! ○ Seminary Students ! ○ “You’ll be giving a speech across campus.” ! ! ○ ½: Prepare a speech on the “Good Samaritan” Parable ○ ½: Prepare a speech on a neutral topic ! ! ○ ½: “Oh no, you’re late! You have to rush there ASAP!” ○ ½: “Don’t worry, you have plenty of time!”
  • 45. PROXIMAL FACTORS On the way, they passed a man on the street who clearly needed help. ! Psychologists were spying from the side of the road. Which group of people do you think were most likely to stop and help him?
  • 46. PERSONALITY? Seminary students have dedicated their lives to helping others...these are all very good people. ! They should all stop to help!
  • 47. PERSONALITY? Seminary students have dedicated their lives to helping others...these are all very good people. ! They should all stop to help!
  • 48. WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND? The ones giving a speech on the Good Samaritan literally had the idea of helping others right there at the fronts of their minds... (it was primed) ! They should be more likely to stop and help others on the way to the speech!
  • 49. WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND? The ones giving a speech on the Good Samaritan literally had the idea of helping others right there at the fronts of their minds... (it was primed) ! They should be more likely to stop and help others on the way to the speech!
  • 50. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED... 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% In A Hurry Not In A Hurry Percentagewhostoppedtohelp Time pressure was the only thing that mattered.
  • 51. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED... 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% In A Hurry Not In A Hurry Percentagewhostoppedtohelp Even seminary students who were on their way to give a speech about the Good Samaritan did not stop to help if they were in a hurry.
  • 52. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED... 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% In A Hurry Not In A Hurry Percentagewhostoppedtohelp The power of the situation!!!
  • 53. CHANNEL FACTORS Situational circumstances that appear unimportant but have great consequences for behavior, either facilitating it, guiding it, or blocking it. The size of the plate Being in a hurry
  • 54. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL CONSTRUAL ! People’s interpretation and inferences about the stimuli or situations they confront. ! What is this symbol?
  • 55. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL CONSTRUAL ! People’s interpretation and inferences about the stimuli or situations they confront. ! What is this symbol?
  • 56. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL CONSTRUAL ! People’s interpretation and inferences about the stimuli or situations they confront. ! What is this symbol?
  • 57. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL Many times, the actual situation itself is not as important as how you interpret it.
  • 58. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL ○ What kind of experience do you expect when you sit down to watch this movie? ● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bztYTkBiR0Q ! ! ○ What about this one? ● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmkVWuP_sO0 ! ! ○ Context makes a difference!
  • 59. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL ! ! ! Construals determine how we perceive and judge the world around us & social situations ! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTVZheHPcNc
  • 60. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL ○ Schemas: Generalized knowledge about the physical and social world, such as how to behave in certain situations and with certain kinds of people. ! ! ○ Schemas make it easy to go into “auto-pilot” in most situations – they are necessary for daily functioning. ! ! ○ Stereotypes are a specific type of schema; you can think of schemas like “stereotypes, but not just for people.”
  • 61. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL PARTY
  • 62. THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL CLASS
  • 63. NORMAL BEHAVIOR. ○ Talk loudly with friends ! ○ Wear “going out” clothes ! ○ Hold a Solo cup ! ○ Take pictures ○ Sit quietly ! ○ Wear a backpack ! ○ Hold your laptop ! ○ Take notes PARTY CLASS
  • 64. NORMAL BEHAVIOR? ○ Talk loudly with friends ! ○ Wear “going out” clothes ! ○ Hold a Solo cup ! ○ Take pictures ○ Sit quietly ! ○ Wear a backpack ! ○ Hold your laptop ! ○ Take notes CLASS PARTY
  • 65. IMAGINE THAT THIS IS YOUR BRAIN... Your conscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are just the tip of the iceberg! ! There is a lot that goes on beneath the surface that you don’t even realize.
  • 66. IMAGINE THAT THIS IS YOUR BRAIN... And I know what you’re thinking, but this doesn’t necessarily mean things like dream analysis, penis envy, wanting to sleep with your Mom and kill your Dad, psychic energies, ESP...
 (although it can, I guess, if you’re into that stuff.)
  • 67. IMAGINE THAT THIS IS YOUR BRAIN... It just means that we might have culturally learned attitudes that we might not even endorse but are still there in our brains anyway, or automatic mental schemas meaning that hearing a certain word will activate related concepts in our minds, or “gut reactions” to situations that we can’t control (though we can control how we respond to them)...and so on!
  • 68. SUMMARY SO FAR ○ Proximal Factors ● Power Of The Situation ● Construal ● Channel Factors ! ○ What about distal factors? ● Broader aspects of culture, evolution, etc. ● Things that are not quite so immediate/obvious
  • 69. WHO AM I? ○ Finish the sentence “I am...” a few times in your head. ! ! ○ Complete the sentences using self-descriptions that you think best define who you are. ! ! ○ Think to yourself about what most of these sentences look like before I switch to the next slide.
  • 70. DID YOUR SENTENCES LOOK MORE LIKE... ○ I am intelligent. ! ○ I am artistic. ! ○ I am friendly. ! ○ I am charitable. ! ○ I am athletic. ○ I am a good daughter. ! ○ I am a brother. ! ○ I am a loyal friend. ! ○ I am a Tri Delt. ! ○ I am a UIUC student. ...this? ...or this?
  • 71. COLLECTIVIST CULTURES Asia, Africa, South America ! Define self in terms of relationships and group memberships. ! “I am a good friend.”
  • 72. INDIVIDUALIST CULTURES USA, Canada, Western Europe ! Define self in terms of unique traits, attributes, and actions. ! “I am friendly.”
  • 73. IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE ! ! This is just one (admittedly big) way in which cultures differ ! ! Depending on culture, people may be more (or less) likely to cooperate, assign different roles to men and women, or behave in certain ways.
  • 74. COLLECTIVISTS MAY BE MORE LIKELY TO... ! ! Keep a secret to preserve the harmony of the group. ! ! Work harder after failure to avoid bringing shame to one’s family. ! ! Buy a car that is advertised by emphasizing the great times you’ll have in it with your friends and family.
  • 75. INDIVIDUALISTS MAY BE MORE LIKELY TO... ! ! Tattle or whistleblow to get individual glory/save one’s own skin ! ! Switch to a different task after failure to find something he/she is personally good at. ! ! Buy a car that is advertised by emphasizing how you’ll stand out from the crowd and be seen as a trendsetter.
  • 76. CHAPTER 1: 
 MOST IMPORTANT POINTS ○ What is social psychology? ! ! ○ How is it different from other disciplines? ! ! ○ What are construals? Why are they so important? ○ What is a schema? ! ! ○ What was the main point of the Good Samaritan study? ! ! ○ Is the situation important? (Hint: Yes.) ! ○ What is the difference between individualist and collectivist cultures?