PERSUASION (Psych 201 - Chapter 8 - Spring 2014)

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PERSUASION (Psych 201 - Chapter 8 - Spring 2014)

  1. 1. This Week’s Playlist 1. Kelly Clarkson Stronger (What Doesn’t Kill You) (Attitude Inoculation) 2. The Temper Trap Science of Fear (Fear Appeals) 3. Wilco Walken (Thought Polarization) 4. Boston More Than A Feeling (Many Components/Functions of Attitudes) 5. Mumford & Sons I Will Wait (Public Commitment) 6. Gil Scott-Heron The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (Agenda Control) 7. Justin Timberlake ft. Jay-Z Suit & Tie (Source Characteristics) 8. Green Day American Idiot (Third-Person Effect) 9. Aretha Franklin Think (ELM: Central Route) 10. Neil Diamond Don’t Think...Feel (ELM: Peripheral Route)
  2. 2. Chapter 8:
 Persuasion Melanie B. Tannenbaum, M.A. Psych 201 Spring 2014
  3. 3. Why Do We Have Attitudes?
  4. 4. • Commercial: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1zaaoFpTY0 • What’s your attitude toward this laptop? • A. Very Negative • B. Negative • C. Neutral • D. Positive • E. Very Positive The functions of attitudes
  5. 5. The functions of attitudes • Are you planning on buying a new laptop soon? • A. Yes • B. No ! • Most of you formed an attitude about the laptop • Why form an attitude if you don’t plan to purchase a laptop in the near future? ! • This is how we know that attitudes are useful for more than just guiding imminent behavior…
  6. 6. Current Beliefs Attitudes lead us to selectively attend to information that supports our current beliefs/attitudes/ world-views Uhhh, As for everyone! ICES evals are strongly correlated with a student’s expected grade in the course.
  7. 7. This is who I am! Attitudes allow us to express our personal values to others. You might “like” something on Facebook because of what it says about you as a person – you want people to know this information.
  8. 8. Where Am I? Attitudes allow us to make sense of the situations in which we find ourselves. Those yellow things are live, 10,000 volt wires. ! Are these people having fun? This is Electroshock Therapy, an obstacle from Tough Mudder. ! If you like obstacle course racing, this will seem fun to you! ! If you don’t...it will not.
  9. 9. Where Am I? This is Electroshock Therapy, an obstacle from Tough Mudder. ! If you like obstacle course racing, this will seem fun to you! ! If you don’t...it will not.
  10. 10. Persuasion and 
 Attitude Change
  11. 11. • The ELM is a dual-process model of persuasion • What does dual process mean? • 1. Automatic (Quick, Heuristics) • 2. Controlled (Deliberate, Rational) Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM)
  12. 12. • 1. Peripheral (Automatic) • Superficial cues; celebrities, music, pictures, pretty colors! • 2. Central (Controlled) • Think carefully/logically; listen to rational arguments Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM)
  13. 13. • Don’t worry about the terminology! • The basic ideas of this model are very simple. • When you see a message, can think about it a lot or a little • If you think about it a lot, that means you have elaborated on the message; this is called “taking the central route” • If you think about it a little, that means you have not elaborated on the message; this is called “taking the peripheral route” • This model lists some factors that make it more likely for a person to elaborate on a message, as well as the consequences of that elaboration (or lack thereof) Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM)
  14. 14. Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM)
  15. 15. • When will you use the central route? • High motivation • High ability • What increases motivation? • Personal Relevance: Message is about something you care about • Personal Knowledge: Message is about something you know a lot about • What increases ability? • Clear presentation, easy to understand • Attention • Time • Not Distracted/Tired Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM)
  16. 16. Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM) • There are two “routes” to persuasion: Central and Peripheral • Central • Will use when there is high ability and motivation • If you care about something and aren’t distracted, you’ll pay attention to the logic/rationale of the message • Arguments, statistics, numbers, logic • Peripheral • Will use when there is low ability and motivation • If you don’t really care or are distracted, you won’t pay a lot of attention to the message itself; will use superficial cues • Celebrity endorsements, attractiveness, emotions, pictures
  17. 17. Testing the ELM 
 (Petty et al., 1981) • Gave undergrads a list of arguments for comprehensive exit exams ! ! ! ! ! • What will happen when motivation is high? • What will happen when motivation is low?
  18. 18. Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM) Motivation HIGH Argument Strength Matters Source Matters Motivation LOW
  19. 19. Testing the ELM 
 (Petty et al., 1981) • Gave undergrads a list of arguments for comprehensive exit exams ! ! ! ! • Predictions • 1. When motivation is high, the strength of arguments will matter • 2. When motivation is low, the expertise of the source will matter
  20. 20. Testing the ELM 
 (Petty et al., 1981) • Manipulated 3 Things • 1. Strong vs. Weak Arguments (central) • Good arguments or bad arguments ! ! • 2. Source Expertise (peripheral) • “Commission on Higher Education” or a local HS class ! ! • 3. Personal Relevance (motivation) • Will be implemented in 1 year or in 10 years
  21. 21. Testing the ELM 
 (Petty et al., 1981)
  22. 22. Testing the ELM 
 (Petty et al., 1981)
  23. 23. Testing the ELM 
 (Petty et al., 1981) Low Relevance • Peripheral cues matter! ! • More persuasion if you have pretty pictures, expert sources, heuristic cues High Relevance • Central arguments matter! ! • More persuasion if you have strong arguments, numbers, data, statistics, rational logic
  24. 24. What’s Important 
 About The ELM? Central • Strong, Logical Arguments • High Attention • High Motivation & Ability Peripheral • Weaker Arguments • Low Attention • Low Motivation & Ability
  25. 25. Test Your Knowledge • Fuel Economy: Average of 50 MPG, compared with 21 MPG average for non-hybrid cars. • Will save the average family $930 on fuel each year. • Is this argument... • A. Central • B. Peripheral
  26. 26. Test Your Knowledge • “I’m former vice-president and environmental activist Al Gore, and I approve of this car.” • Is this argument... • A. Central • B. Peripheral
  27. 27. Other Possibilities Central • Average MPG • Fuel economy statistics • Cost • Horsepower • Environmental impact statistics • Information about key safety measures Peripheral • Celebrity endorsement • Family looking happy as they drive in the car • Beautiful pictures of the car driving on a curvy mountain, looking sleek and fast • Upbeat pop music
  28. 28. Five Hour Energy • What are the central and peripheral cues? ! • Are these arguments strong or weak? ! • When would someone be persuaded by this?
  29. 29. Test Your Knowledge • There are a lot of arguments in favor of the Samsung Phone in this ad. ! • The number of arguments is a... • A. Central cue • B. Peripheral cue
  30. 30. Test Your Knowledge • Who is more likely to be swayed by this ad? ! • A. Marie, who is alert and attentive. ! • B. Mallory, who is tired and distracted.
  31. 31. Yale Approach • Who said what to whom? ! • Who: Message Source ! • What: Message Content ! • Whom: Message Receiver
  32. 32. The Who • Source Characteristics • Characteristics of the person who delivers the message
  33. 33. Source Characteristics • Attractiveness • More attractive people are more persuasive • Halo Effect • Good looking people are assumed to have other good qualities as well
  34. 34. Source Characteristics • Credibility • Expertise and Trustworthiness • Experts are more persuasive than non-experts • Certain factors can increase trust
  35. 35. The Sleeper Effect • Messages from unreliable sources tend to be rejected initially (don’t change attitudes), but over time are accepted (change attitudes) • This is the most widely studied persuasion phenomenon
  36. 36. The Sleeper Effect • Why does this happen? ! • The message and the source are separate pieces of information ! • Initially stored together, but over time they can become dissociated ! • No longer remember that you should “discount” the message • Note: This only occurs if the source credibility is questioned AFTER the message; if before, you don’t store the message.
  37. 37. The Sleeper Effect SLEEPER EFFECT: As time goes on, the initially unconvincing message becomes more persuasive as you dissociate it from the uncredible source
  38. 38. The Sleeper Effect • Step 1: Hear persuasive message. Entertain the idea. • Step 2: Realize the source is completely untrustworthy. Say, “Oh. OK, never mind.” Decide you are not persuaded. • Step 3: Over time, you remember the message, but don’t remember where you heard it from (or stop connecting the message to the source; you just know you’ve “heard it” somewhere). • Step 4: When all you remember is the message, you are more persuaded by it than you were right after you heard it, when you were discounting it because of the source.
  39. 39. Summary:
 The Sleeper Effect • The Take Home Message: ! • The sleeper effect is when a message from an unreliable source becomes more persuasive after a delay. ! • Over time, the message becomes separated from the source, so you only remember the message itself (not the fact that you don’t believe the person it’s coming from).
  40. 40. Test Your Knowledge • You find out that your friend Jared was flirting with a stranger at a bar, even though he is dating your other friend Rose. Which of these means of finding out this information would most likely cause a sleeper effect? • A. You saw the flirtation with your own eyes • B. Your best friend Joel tells you about the incident • C. Your friend Sam, a notorious gossip who loves spreading rumors, tells you about the incident • D. Jared himself tells you about the incident • E. None of the above
  41. 41. The What • Message Characteristics • Quality, clarity, what’s being said
  42. 42. Message Characteristics • Message Quality ! • Higher quality messages are more persuasive • Convey desirable and novel consequences of attitude change • Appeal to core values of the audience • Straightforward, clear, logical
  43. 43. Message Characteristics • Information Vividness • More vivid messages are more persuasive ! • Identifiable Victim Effect: Messages that focus on a single, vivid individual are more persuasive than fact-based messages
  44. 44. Test Your Knowledge • You have just been hired to raise money for Save The Children. Which of these pamphlets do you think will work better? A. Lucky’s Story B. The Horrors of Poverty
  45. 45. Message Characteristics
  46. 46. Message Characteristics
  47. 47. Fear Appeals • Fear can increase or decrease the persuasiveness of a message ! • Moderate fear combined with instructions for what to do in response to the fear increases persuasion ! • Extreme fear causes people to disengage from the message and leads to decreased levels of persuasion ! • This is what I research!!! So I am going to share some of my findings with you ☺
  48. 48. Fear Appeals • Leventhal et al., 1967 • Anti-Smoking fear appeal campaign • Participants either... • 1. Watched a graphic (scary) film about lung cancer • 2. Read a pamphlet about how to quit smoking • 3. Watched the film and read the pamphlet !
  49. 49. Fear Appeals
  50. 50. Extreme Fear
  51. 51. Extreme Fear • Extreme fear simply causes people to tune out the message, which results in a lack of persuasion ! ! • Montana Meth Project: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=QYlwSepW7Bs
  52. 52. Test Your Knowledge • We just watched a disturbing video from the Montana Meth Project. Why was this video less effective than it could be? ! • A. Fear-based persuasion is always ineffective ! • B. Vivid images make people ignore the commercial ! • C. Fear-based persuasion is more effective if it is combined with instructions for how to prevent negative outcomes ! • D. People are immune to graphic images
  53. 53. The Whom • Audience Characteristics • Age • Young people are more persuadable than old people
  54. 54. The Whom • Audience Characteristics • Mood • Feeling negative or positive mood increases persuasion ! • Emotion acts as a cue that something is important and needs attention. So mood + strong message = more persuasion.
  55. 55. The Whom • Audience Characteristics • Need for Cognition (Cacioppo et al., 1996) • The degree to which someone thinks deeply about things • High NFC people are persuaded by central cues • Low NFC people are persuaded by peripheral cues
  56. 56. • Ivan and Nate are co-workers who both see the following exercise ad. In his free time, Ivan enjoys doing crossword puzzles, writing poetry, and thinking long and hard about new solutions to problems. Nate prefers playing video games, zoning out while watching TV, and putting as little thought into things as possible. Who is more likely to go for a run after seeing this ad? ! • A. Ivan • B. Nate Test Your Knowledge
  57. 57. Summary:
 Persuasion and Attitude Change • The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) • Central route vs. peripheral route • Different features of the persuasive attempt matter under different circumstances • Who said what to whom • Source Characteristics • Message Characteristics • Audience Characteristics • The Bottom Line • Match the persuasive attempt to the audience
  58. 58. Persuasion And The Media
  59. 59. Is Media Persuasion Effective? • Example – Old Spice • This 2010 commercial became extremely popular in the US after its release • As of July 2012, the original commercial had over 41 million views on YouTube, and it had spawned dozens of spin-off commercials and fan spoof videos. • This is an example of a successful commercial • It’s an ad that consumers liked, that people shared with friends (e.g., via YouTube), and that increased the public’s attention to the brand
  60. 60. Is Media Persuasion Effective? ! ! ! ! ! • Is this a good advertisement? • A. Yes • B. No
  61. 61. Is Media Persuasion Effective? ! ! ! ! ! • Did you buy Old Spice products as a result of this ad? • A. Yes • B. No
  62. 62. Is Media Persuasion Effective? ! ! ! ! ! • Do you think others bought Old Spice because of this ad? • A. Yes • B. No
  63. 63. Is Media Persuasion Effective? ! ! ! ! ! • Does this commercial need to change behavior to be successful? • A. Yes • B. No
  64. 64. Is Media Persuasion Effective? • Third Person Effect • Most people assume that persuasive messages (especially ads) have a strong influence on other people, but not themselves.
  65. 65. Is Media Persuasion Effective? • What actually happens? ! • Media campaigns are rarely effective at changing specific behaviors (buying a specific product, voting for Politician X) ! • However, the media can reinforce already existing behaviors… so an Old Spice campaign may increase attitudes and brand loyalty without gaining new customers
  66. 66. Is Media Persuasion Effective? • What actually happens? • Media campaigns are rarely effective at changing specific behaviors (buying a specific product, voting for Politician X) ! • However, the media can reinforce already existing behaviors… so an Old Spice campaign may increase attitudes and brand loyalty without gaining new customers
  67. 67. Is Media Persuasion Effective? • What actually happens? • Media campaigns are rarely effective at changing specific behaviors (buying a specific product, voting for Politician X) ! • However, the media can reinforce already existing behaviors… so an Old Spice campaign may increase attitudes and brand loyalty without gaining new customers
  68. 68. Is Media Persuasion Effective? • What actually happens? • Even though most The Daily Show viewers supported Obama already and most The O’Reilly Factor viewers supported Romney already, it probably strengthened those already-existing attitudes and encouraged viewers to vote! ! • Strong, consistent attitudes are better predictors of behavior!!
  69. 69. Is Media Persuasion Effective? • What actually happens? • Media coverage changes our perceptions of reality ! ! • Topics that are covered frequently are thought to be prevalent • More crime coverage = we think there is more crime • More war coverage = we think the current wars are an important issue ! ! • This is known as agenda control.
  70. 70. The Media and Politics • Most studies show no significant correlation between the amount a candidate spends on an election and success in the election • Political ads have a very small effect on voting behavior • This doesn’t mean they aren’t important… many elections are very close, and small effects can make the difference • These ads mainly influence late-decision voters • Negative ad campaigns are associated with low voter turnout (Ansolabehere & Iyengar, 1995) • Example: For 1992 US senate campaigns, the campaigns that heavily used negative ads had lower turnout (49.7%) than campaigns that used little-to-no negative ads (57%)
  71. 71. The Media and Politics • Hostile Media Phenomenon • Most people believe that their own beliefs are reasonable and reflect an objective assessment of reality. • Because most news outlets try to present both sides of an issue, most people believe that the media is biased against their stance.
  72. 72. The Media and Politics • Three days before the 1980 presidential election, respondents were called and asked if the media favored one candidate or the other leading up to election day. • 83% of Carter supporters felt that the media favored Reagan • 96% of Reagan supporters felt that the media favored Carter
  73. 73. Test Your Knowledge • A public health organization tested the following ad with a focus group. Right after seeing the ad, the focus group’s attitudes toward drunk driving was unchanged. This means... • A. The organization SHOULD NOT run this ad. • B. The organization SHOULD run this ad. • C. We can’t tell from this information alone.
  74. 74. Resistance to Persuasion
  75. 75. Class Activity • Is a vegan or vegetarian diet a healthy diet? • Only answer the following if you are NOT and have never been vegan/vegetarian • Do you believe the claims in this video are credible? ! A. Yes B. No
  76. 76. Class Activity • Is a vegan or vegetarian diet a healthy diet? • Only answer the following if you ARE or have ever been vegan/vegetarian • Do you believe the claims in this video are credible? ! A. Yes B. No
  77. 77. Selective Attention • Schemas (pre-existing knowledge) guide attention • Thus, attitudes guide attention • Selective Attention • People seek out and tune into information that supports their pre-existing attitudes • People avoid and tune out information that contradicts their pre-existing attitudes • Selective attention leads us to maintain current attitudes
  78. 78. Selective Attention 
 On Facebook
  79. 79. Selective Attention 
 On Facebook
  80. 80. Selective Evaluation • Selective Evaluation • People like things that support their current attitudes and dislike things that contradict their current attitudes • Think of self-verification theory
  81. 81. Selective Evaluation • Selective Evaluation • People like things that support their current attitudes and dislike things that contradict their current attitudes • Think of self-verification theory
  82. 82. Selective Evaluation 
 On Facebook
  83. 83. Selective Evaluation 
 On Twitter
  84. 84. Selective Evaluation • Ziva & Kunda (1990) • Participants read a New York Times article that described how caffeine consumption in females is associated with an increased risk of disease
  85. 85. Selective Evaluation • Lord, Ross, & Lepper (1979) ! • All participants read two studies about the death penalty • Study 1: “The death penalty has a deterrent effect” • Study 2: “Murder rates are higher in capital punishment states” ! • Thus, all participants read mixed evidence
  86. 86. Selective Evaluation • Those in favor of the death penalty thought Study 1 was a more rigorous scientific study than Study 2 • Those against the death penalty thought Study 2 was a more rigorous scientific study than Study 1 ! ! ! • At the end of the study, each side was MORE EXTREME • Mixed evidence should have led them to be more moderate!
  87. 87. Thought Polarization • “Tell me one thing about the death penalty.” ! • Was the first thing that came to your mind... • A. Something that supported your attitude? • B. Something that did not support your attitude?
  88. 88. Thought Polarization • Thought Polarization: Simply thinking about an issue tends to produce more extreme, resistant attitudes. • Tesser & Conlee (1975) • Measured attitudes toward various social issues • Participants sat and thought about the issue for a few minutes • Later, participants reported attitudes again, and they were more extreme. • Why does this happen? • When you are free to think about something, you naturally think about the arguments you already know – this will reinforce your current attitude.
  89. 89. Public Commitment • Publically committing to an attitude or intended behavior increases resistance to change. • Telling other people about our likes/dislikes and intentions “binds” us to those things. • If you tell your friends “I’m going to run a marathon,” you now have a new source of motivation for running the marathon; if you don’t run, your friends may think less of you • The same thing happens with attitudes • Most people want to maintain a consistent self-image • #1 political diss in the past few years? Flip-flopper.
  90. 90. Attitude Inoculation • Attitude Inoculation: Resisting a “small” attack on our attitude makes us better able to resist “larger” attacks later on.
  91. 91. Attitude Inoculation • McGuire & Papageorgis (1961) • Had participants evaluate cultural truisms on a 15 point scale • “It’s a good idea to brush your teeth after every meal, if possible” ! • Researchers came up with attacks for each truism • “Brushing too frequently can damage gums & make teeth vulnerable” ! • 3 Groups: • 1. Control Condition • 2. Received an attack on this truism; told to argue against the attack • 3. Received an attack on this truism; told to ignore the attack ! • After a few days, participants given a strong 1-page argument against the truism and asked to evaluate the truisms again.
  92. 92. Attitude Inoculation
  93. 93. Attitude Inoculation If participants got nothing to prepare them for the huge, long attack, it lowered their support a LOT.
  94. 94. Attitude Inoculation If participants had practice defending against the first mini-attack, they were “inoculated” against the stronger attack.
  95. 95. Attitude Inoculation If participants saw the first mini-attack but hadn’t gotten practice arguing against it, their support still dropped.
  96. 96. Test Your Knowledge • You just saw The Lego Movie and you thought it was awesome. Identify the correct phrase for each reaction that you might have. ! • When you read a negative review of The Lego Movie, you decide that the reviewer is biased and uninformed. • A. Selective Attention • B. Selective Evaluation • C. Thought Polarization • D. Attitude Inoculation
  97. 97. Test Your Knowledge • You just saw The Lego Movie and you thought it was awesome. Identify the correct phrase for each reaction that you might have. ! • After reading a weak, negative review of The Lego Movie, you attack it. Later, you aren’t swayed by a stronger negative review. • A. Selective Attention • B. Selective Evaluation • C. Thought Polarization • D. Attitude Inoculation
  98. 98. Test Your Knowledge • You just saw The Lego Movie and you thought it was awesome. Identify the correct phrase for each reaction that you might have. ! • When you think about the times that you have heard about The Lego Movie, you can only remember hearing positive reviews. • A. Selective Attention • B. Selective Evaluation • C. Thought Polarization • D. Attitude Inoculation
  99. 99. Test Your Knowledge • You just saw The Lego Movie and you thought it was awesome. Identify the correct phrase for each reaction that you might have. ! • The more reviews you read about The Lego Movie, the more you think about it and the more you like it. • A. Selective Attention • B. Selective Evaluation • C. Thought Polarization • D. Attitude Inoculation
  100. 100. Summary:
 Resistance to Persuasion • Automatic Processes • Selective Attention • Selective Evaluation • Thought Polarization ! • Things You Can Deliberately Do To Increase Resistance • Thought Polarization • Public Commitment • Attitude Inoculation
  101. 101. Chapter 8 Summary • Persuasion and Attitude Change • Elaboration-Likelihood Model (ELM): Very important!!!! • Who said what to whom • Sleeper Effect • Persuasion and The Media • The media is not very good at persuasion in the service of a specific behavior, but the media does influence perceptions of reality • Resistance to Persuasion • Can occur automatically as well as deliberately
  102. 102. Top 10 Things To Know • Sleeper Effect • ELM • Central/Peripheral Routes • When would you use each one? • What are examples of each one? • Who said what to whom? • Source Characteristics • Message Characteristics • Audience Characteristics • Fear Appeals • The “Third-Person” Effect • Agenda Control • Selective Attention • Selective Evaluation • Ziva Kunda study • Confirmation Bias • Resistance to Persuasion • Attitude Inoculation • Thought Polarization

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