EMOTION (Psych 201 - Chapter 6 - Spring 2014)

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EMOTION (Psych 201 - Chapter 6 - Spring 2014)

  1. 1. + This Week’s Playlist Artist Song/Psych Concept 1. The Killers Smile Like You Mean It (Duchenne & Non-Duchenne Smiles) 2. Justin Bieber U Smile (Emotional Mimicry) 3. Flo Rida Good Feeling (Happiness = Broaden and Build) 4. Matchbox Twenty Angry (Anger = Heuristics, Stereotypes) 5. Michael Buble Feeling Good (Cultivating Happiness) 6. R.E.M. Everybody Hurts (Sadness = Attention To Situational Details) 7. Bruno Mars It Will Rain (Affective Forecasting) 8. Taylor Swift We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together (Affective Forecasting)
  2. 2. + Emotion Melanie B. Tannenbaum, M.A. Psych 201 Spring 2014
  3. 3. + What is an emotion?
  4. 4. + What is an emotion? ■ Three Key Components ■ Brief ■ Responses to Specific Events ■ Socially Functional
  5. 5. + What is an emotion? ■ Three Key Components ■ Brief ■ Responses to Specific Events ■ Socially Functional ! ■ Brief ■ Typically lasts for seconds or minutes, not days, weeks, or months
  6. 6. + What is an emotion? ■ Three Key Components ■ Brief ■ Responses to Specific Events ■ Socially Functional ! ■ Brief ■ Typically lasts for seconds or minutes, not days, weeks, or months ■ Responses to Specific Events ■ You can typically pinpoint a cause
  7. 7. + What is an emotion? ■ Three Key Components ■ Brief ■ Responses to Specific Events ■ Socially Functional ! ■ Brief ■ Typically lasts for seconds or minutes, not days, weeks, or months ■ Responses to Specific Events ■ You can typically pinpoint a cause ■ Socially Functional ■ Motivates adaptive behavior, like escaping from threats (fear), correcting an injustice (anger), or amending for wrongdoings (guilt)
  8. 8. + What is an emotion? ■ Last for seconds or minutes, not hours or days ! ■ Facial expressions of emotion last 1-5 seconds ! ■ Physiological responses (sweaty palms, etc.) last seconds or minutes 1: Brief
  9. 9. + What is an emotion? ■ Last for seconds or minutes, not hours or days ! ■ Facial expressions of emotion last 1-5 seconds ! ■ Physiological responses (sweaty palms, etc.) last seconds or minutes ! ■ In comparison... ■ Moods (e.g. “feeling blue” or “feeling irritable”) last for hours or days ■ Emotional disorders (e.g. depression) last for weeks, months, or years 1: Brief
  10. 10. + What is an emotion? ■ We feel emotions about specific people or events ! ■ When you’re angry, you usually know why 2: Specific
  11. 11. + What is an emotion? ■ We feel emotions about specific people or events ! ■ When you’re angry, you usually know why ! ■ In comparison... ■ With moods, there often isn’t a clear, specific reason (“I just feel crappy, I don’t know why!” “I just woke up on the wrong side of the bed.”) ! ■ With emotional disorders, there’s a biological underpinning that doesn’t have to do with a specific object/target of the emotion 2: Specific
  12. 12. + What is an emotion? ! ■ Emotions motivate us to act in specific ways that affect important relationships and help us navigate the social environment ■ Gratitude motivates us to reward others for good actions ■ Anger motivates us to right social wrongs ■ Guilt motivates us to make amends ! ! ■ Not all emotions are good (e.g. an outburst of anger at a traffic cop), but generally this is their purpose. 3: Socially Functional
  13. 13. + Core-Relational Themes ■ All around the world, same types of situations tend to elicit same emotions ■ Loss triggers sadness ■ Violations of rights trigger anger ■ Expressions of affection trigger love ■ Witnessing undeserved suffering triggers compassion
  14. 14. + Core-Relational Themes ■ All around the world, same types of situations tend to elicit same emotions ■ Loss triggers sadness ■ Violations of rights trigger anger ■ Expressions of affection trigger love ■ Witnessing undeserved suffering triggers compassion ! ! We construe situations and label emotions appropriately through a process known as appraisal.
  15. 15. + Emotional Appraisal How do you figure out what emotion you are feeling?
  16. 16. + Emotional Appraisal ■ Primary Appraisal Stage ■ Unconscious, fast, automatic ■ Initial flash of “positive” or “negative” feelings How do you figure out what emotion you are feeling?
  17. 17. + Emotional Appraisal ■ Primary Appraisal Stage ■ Unconscious, fast, automatic ■ Initial flash of “positive” or “negative” feelings ■ Secondary Appraisal Stage ■ Conscious, slower, more deliberate ■ Transform the initial, general “positive” or “negative” feelings into more specifically labeled emotions ■ Why do you feel the way that you do? How do you want to respond? ■ Leads to specific emotions, which trigger different reactions. How do you figure out what emotion you are feeling?
  18. 18. + Emotional Appraisal ■ Primary Appraisal Stage ■ Unconscious, fast, automatic ■ Initial flash of “positive” or “negative” feelings ■ Secondary Appraisal Stage ■ Conscious, slower, more deliberate ■ Transform the initial, general “positive” or “negative” feelings into more specifically labeled emotions ■ Why do you feel the way that you do? How do you want to respond? ■ Leads to specific emotions, which trigger different reactions. ■ “That’s unfair!” ! Anger ■ “That’s dangerous!” ! Fear ■ “That’s gross!” ! Disgust How do you figure out what emotion you are feeling?
  19. 19. + Universality vs. Cultural Specificity ■ To a certain extent, emotional responses are innate and universal ■ People from many cultures can recognize and understand certain emotions
  20. 20. + Universality vs. Cultural Specificity ■ To a certain extent, emotional responses are innate and universal ■ People from many cultures can recognize and understand certain emotions ! ■ However, different cultures have emotional accents and “display rules.”
  21. 21. + Universality vs. Cultural Specificity ■ To a certain extent, emotional responses are innate and universal ■ People from many cultures can recognize and understand certain emotions ! ■ However, different cultures have emotional accents and “display rules.”
  22. 22. + Universality vs. Cultural Specificity ■ To a certain extent, emotional responses are innate and universal ■ People from many cultures can recognize and understand certain emotions ! ■ However, different cultures have emotional accents and “display rules.”
  23. 23. + Evolutionary Approaches ■ Emotions are biologically based behavioral adaptations ! ■ They are meant to promote survival and reproduction ■ Negative emotions are stronger than positive emotions ■ Remember the negativity bias! ! ■ Principle of Serviceable Habits ■ Human expressions of emotion come from patterns of behavior that were beneficial for our evolutionary predecessors
  24. 24. + Darwin’s Three Hypotheses
  25. 25. + Darwin’s Three Hypotheses 1: Universality
  26. 26. + Darwin’s Three Hypotheses ■ Emotions are universal: All humans have the same facial muscles and express emotions similarly across cultures 1: Universality
  27. 27. + Darwin’s Three Hypotheses ■ Emotions are universal: All humans have the same facial muscles and express emotions similarly across cultures ■ There are six universal emotions! ■ 1. Happiness ■ 2. Surprise ■ 3. Sadness ■ 4. Anger ■ 5. Disgust ■ 6. Fear 1: Universality ■ People from all cultures can recognize & understand expressions of these 6 emotions.
  28. 28. + Darwin’s Three Hypotheses 2: Similarity between our expressions and other mammals
  29. 29. + Darwin’s Three Hypotheses ! ■ Human displays of emotion resemble displays of other mammals, including other primates. ■ Facial expressions of anger resemble threat displays and attack posturing used by other mammals ■ When playing, chimps have an “open mouth pant-hoot,” which resembles human laughter (Preuschoft, 1992) ■ Human embarrassment expressions resemble “appeasement displays” shown in other social mammals (Keltner & Buswell, 1997) 2: Similarity between our expressions and other mammals
  30. 30. + “Ohmigod, I’m so embarrassed...”
  31. 31. +
  32. 32. +
  33. 33. + Best Video Ever ☺ ■ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y6vgS_veb6A
  34. 34. + Darwin’s Three Hypotheses ■ Human facial expressions are not learned ! ■ People who are blind from birth show same expressions as sighted people. 3: Encoded, Not Learned
  35. 35. + Blind & Sighted Judo Athletes Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008
  36. 36. + Blind & Sighted Judo Athletes Tracy & Matsumoto, 2008 Congenitally blind athletes showed the same facial expressions as sighted judo athletes after winning and after losing, even though they had never seen another person’s emotional expressions.
  37. 37. + Spot The Fake Smile ■ People can exhibit real, genuine smiles (Duchenne Smiles) or fake smiles, usually for politeness (Non-Duchenne Smiles) ■ http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/smiles/ index.shtml ■ Do you think the smile is real/genuine or fake? (We will do the first two together) ! A. Real B. Fake
  38. 38. + Duchenne & Non-Duchenne Smiles NON-DUCHENNE DUCHENNE
  39. 39. + Duchenne & Non-Duchenne Smiles ■ Muscle that surrounds the eye does not contract ■ Corners of mouth raised, but not equally on both sides NON-DUCHENNE DUCHENNE
  40. 40. + Duchenne & Non-Duchenne Smiles ■ Muscle that surrounds the eye contracts; causes “crow’s feet,” the upper cheek to raise, and a pouch under the lower eyelid ■ Both lip corners are pulled upward equally NON-DUCHENNE DUCHENNE
  41. 41. + Duchenne & Non-Duchenne Smiles ■ Muscle that surrounds the eye does not contract ■ Corners of mouth raised, but not equally on both sides ■ Muscle that surrounds the eye contracts; causes “crow’s feet,” the upper cheek to raise, and a pouch under the lower eyelid ■ Both lip corners are pulled upward equally NON-DUCHENNE DUCHENNE
  42. 42. + Cultural Specificity ! ■ Emotion Accents ■ Culturally specific ways that particular emotions are expressed ! ■ In India, a person might show embarrassment by biting his/her tongue...this is not understood as “embarrassment” in the USA. How do cultures differ in emotional displays, even if the emotions themselves are universal?
  43. 43. + Cultural Specificity ! ■ Focal Emotions ! ■ Cultures might emphasize & frequently express some emotions more than others ! ■ Collectivists tend to express more shame and embarrassment, whereas individualists might express more pride ! ■ Some cultures might hypercognize specific emotions (have multiple words or descriptions for a particular emotion) ■ In Chinese, there are at least 113 words describing shame or embarrassment. How do cultures differ in emotional displays, even if the emotions themselves are universal?
  44. 44. + Cultural Specificity ■ Display Rules ■ Cultural rules that govern how, when, and to whom particular emotions should be expressed ■ Smile after you open your Christmas gifts...even if you’re pissed you got socks from your grandparents. How do cultures differ in emotional displays, even if the emotions themselves are universal?
  45. 45. + Test Your Knowledge ■ Which of the following is NOT one of the six universal emotions? ■ A. Fear ■ B. Surprise ■ C. Love ■ D. Sadness ■ E. Disgust ■ F. Happiness
  46. 46. + Universal Emotion Mnemonic ■ Anger ■ Disgust ■ Fear ■ Surprise ■ Sadness ■ Happiness ■ All ■ Dogs ■ Feel ■ Some ■ Special ■ Happiness
  47. 47. + Emotions and 
 Social Relationships
  48. 48. + Oxytocin ■ Oxytocin is a hormone and neurotransmitter ■ In humans, oxytocin is most notably released during human childbirth, breastfeeding, and orgasm; related to love, trust, affection, and compassion ■ Oxytocin might encourage trust between strangers ■ Kosfeld et al., 2005 ■ Participants given either oxytocin or a placebo, then asked to give some portion of money to another participant ■ Those given oxytocin were more than twice as likely to give away the full amount of money! The “Cuddle Hormone”
  49. 49. + Oxytocin ■ However...it’s not quite so clear-cut. ! ■ “Perhaps oxytocin should be called the ‘cuddle your own kind and to hell with the rest of you’hormone.” – Carol Tavris The “Cuddle Hormone”
  50. 50. + Oxytocin ■ Increases in-group conformity (Stallen et al., 2012) ! ■ Boosts envy and schadenfreude (Shamay-Tsoory et al., 2009) ! ■ Promotes ethnocentrism (in-group favoritism) (De Dreu et al., 2011) ! ■ Promotes cooperation with in-group members, but competition with anonymous strangers (Declerck et al., 2010) The “Cuddle Hormone”
  51. 51. + Oxytocin ■ The jury is still out on oxytocin. ! ■ It increases trust, love, and affection. ! ■ Released during orgasm, breastfeeding, and falling in love (awww.) ! ■ But...might promote ingroup favoritism and some “nasty” side effects. The “Cuddle Hormone”
  52. 52. + Touch ■ Touch can promote closeness in social relationships ■ NBA Basketball Study (Kraus et al., 2010) ■ In a study of NBA teams, those that are highly successful have players who touch each other more frequently ■ Soothing touch by a loved one can release oxytocin (promoting trust) and reduce cortisol (the stress hormone) Every time we touch, I get this feeling.
  53. 53. + Touch ■ 1. Provides rewards to others ■ Stimulates skin cells that trigger brain activation in “reward” areas ! ■ 2. Soothes in times of stress (reduces levels of cortisol) ■ In one study, married women anticipating an electric shock showed lower threat-related activity in “stress” areas of the brain when holding their husbands’ hands, but not a stranger’s hand (Coan et al., 2006) ! ■ 3. Encourages reciprocity/trust ■ NBA study (Kraus et al., 2010) How does touch promote closeness?
  54. 54. + Emotional Mimicry ■ Mimicking the emotional displays of others establishes similarity between people, which increases closeness & liking ■ Examples ■ Roommates’ emotional responses to film clips became more similar over the course of one year (Anderson et al., 2003) ■ Greater emotional mimicry predicted closer roommate friendships ■ There will be more on this in the section on Social Influence ■ So you might hear Justin Bieber in class again ☺ ■ Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7BKwBsPlR04 U Smile, I Smile
  55. 55. + Emotions Within Groups ■ People with different levels of power (or status) within a group tend to publicly express different emotions. ! ■ High Power = More likely to express anger ■ Conveys force and strength ■ Leaders who express anger seem more powerful to others ! ■ Low Power = More likely to express embarrassment ■ Signals submissiveness ■ People who show embarrassment construed as lower power
  56. 56. + Emotions Between Groups ■ Infrahumanization ■ The tendency for ingroup members to see outgroup members as “less human.” ■ Group members... ■ Attribute similar levels of basic emotions (like anger/disgust) to outgroup ! ■ Assume that own group members are more likely than outgroup members to experience complex, sophisticated, “human” emotions (like pride, sympathy, having a strong sense of self, or perspective-taking).
  57. 57. + Emotions and 
 Social Cognition
  58. 58. + Emotions & Social Cognition ■ Many important decisions are based on emotions ■ “Go with your gut” ! ■ How do emotions play a role in our decision-making? ! ■ 1. Emotions provide information for judgments ! ■ 2. Emotions influence reasoning
  59. 59. + Feelings-As-Information ■ Major Assumption: Many judgments are too complex to fully review all the relevant evidence, so people rely on emotions to provide them with fast, reliable information ! ■ For complex, difficult judgments, people might rely on current feelings or emotions to provide quick, easily available information ! ■ People are most likely to rely on emotions when making more complex judgments (e.g. How satisfied are you with your life in general?) than simple judgments (e.g. Is my tire flat?)
  60. 60. + Feelings-As-Information ■ People in a bad mood are more likely to make negative judgments about products, politicians, and policies (Forgas & Moylan, 1987) ! ■ People who are primed to feel happy are more likely to feel convinced by an unrelated persuasive message than those who feel sad or angry (Albarracin & Kumkale, 2003)
  61. 61. + Feelings-As-Information ■ Phoned people in Illinois on a cloudy or sunny day ■ “All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?” ■ For half of the participants, they also asked, “By the way, we’re calling from Michigan: How’s the weather in Illinois?” ■ If they didn’t ask about the weather... ■ Participants rated themselves as 20% more satisfied with life (6.5 vs. 4.5 on a 1-10 scale) if it was a sunny day ■ If they did ask about the weather... ■ No difference in ratings (they correctly attributed their affect to the weather, because they called attention to it) Schwarz & Clore, 1983
  62. 62. + Feelings-As-Information ■ Important Points: ■ If they called attention to the weather, effect didn’t happen! ! ■ ONLY happens if people don’t realize they were being influenced by the weather. ! ■ The idea is not that you use the weather to decide how happy you are...the idea is that the weather makes you happy that day, and you use that feeling as a heuristic for how you must feel in general. ■ Temporary feeling as a quick heuristic for larger, more complex judgments. Schwarz & Clore, 1983
  63. 63. + Emotions and Reasoning
  64. 64. + Processing Style Perspective ■ Emotions relate to different processing styles, lead people to reason in different ways
  65. 65. + Benefits of Positive Emotions ■ Positive emotions broaden our thoughts and actions ■ More creative thought patterns ■ Helps us build emotional and intellectual resources ■ Increases in intellectual resources build social resources ■ Friendships & social networks ■ Resources function as reserves that can be drawn on later to improve the odds of successful coping and survival ■ Positive emotions broaden thought and action repertoires, helping people build social resources Broaden-and-Build Hypothesis (Fredrickson, 1998)
  66. 66. + Benefits of Positive Emotions
 ■ Alice Isen ■ Positive Emotions are linked to... ■ More creative and flexible thinking ■ More novel word associations ■ Categorizing objects more inclusively ■ Negotiators in positive moods more likely to reach optimal agreement ■ Think more flexibly about the interests of the other side (aw!) Don’t Worry, Be Happy!
  67. 67. + Anger and Sadness ■ Anger leads people to rely on pre-existing heuristics ■ Top-Down Processing ■ More likely to use stereotypes, use availability heuristic, etc. ! ■ Sadness facilitates more careful attention to situational details ■ Bottom-Up Processing ■ Making people feel sad makes them less likely to use stereotypes ■ Sad people are more astute, careful judges of others; pay more attention to the context
  68. 68. + Processing Style Perspective ANGER SADNESS HAPPINESS Stereotypes, Heuristics, Quick Judgments Analytical, Attention to Detail, Careful Attention Creative, Flexible Thinking; Novel Ideas
  69. 69. + Theories of Emotion
  70. 70. + William James ■ Emotions are the perception of bodily changes in response to the environment ■ Emotions are responses to physical feelings, not mental ■ Assumes that each emotion is associated with a distinct physiological response ■ Each emotion makes your body feel a certain way ■ You interpret how your body is feeling ■ You decide what emotion you are feeling Early Theory of Emotion
  71. 71. + Physiological Specificity ■ Participants were asked to pose facial expressions by activating certain facial muscles ■ Example: ■ Pull your eyebrows down and together ■ Push your lower lip up and press your lips together ! ■ What emotion do you think you are imitating? ■ A. Happiness ■ B. Fear ■ C. Anger ■ D. Surprise ■ E. Sadness Directed Facial Action Task
  72. 72. + Physiological Specificity ■ Participants were asked to pose facial expressions by activating certain facial muscles ■ Example: Anger ■ Pull your eyebrows down and together ■ Push your lower lip up and press your lips together ■ Cross-cultural research found that posed facial expressions led to specific patterns of physiological arousal ■ Fear & Anger Faces: Increased heart rate ■ Fear & Disgust Faces: Higher skin conductance (sweat) ■ Finger temperature highest for anger, lowest for fear Directed Facial Action Task
  73. 73. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ Emotions are made of two components: ■ 1. Undifferentiated physiological arousal ■ 2. Cognitive explanation (construal!) of the arousal ■ What does this remind you of from earlier in the lecture? ■ Primary & Secondary Appraisals! Different Perspective Than Physiological Specificity Cognitive explanations of physiological arousal are important components of emotion.
  74. 74. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ Participants were told that researchers were testing the effects of a drug on vision. ■ In reality, the drug was epinephrine (or a placebo) ■ Epinephrine: Increases arousal, heart rate, breathing, etc. ■ Of the participants who received epinephrine... ■ Epinephrine-Informed: Half were told that they would experience shaky hands, pounding hearts, etc. as a result of the drug ■ Epinephrine-Ignorant: Half were told nothing about the drug. ■ Participants then interacted with a confederate in the waiting room who was acting either... ■ Very happy, euphoric, manic – high positive affect ■ Very angry, irritable, annoyed – high negative affect Schachter & Singer (1962) – Classic Study!
  75. 75. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion What do you think happened when the people... ! • Didn’t know their arousal was amped up because of the drug? ! • Came into contact with a euphorically happy person? ! • Came into contact with an incredibly angry person? EPINEPHRINE-IGNORANT Schachter & Singer (1962) – RESULTS
  76. 76. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ Euphoric confederate ! Participant feels very happy ! ■ Angry confederate ! Participant feels very angry ! ■ They felt high levels of arousal, and then used the confederate to label/explain ■ “He’s happy/mad, so I am too.” ■ Participants in both euphoric and angry conditions reported feeling less emotional than the placebo participants, even though they experienced the physiological arousal ■ They overattributed their arousal to the drug EPINEPHRINE-IGNORANT EPINEPHRINE-INFORMED Schachter & Singer (1962) – RESULTS
  77. 77. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ Misattribution of Arousal ■ The physiological experience of arousal is incorrectly attributed to the wrong cause ! ■ In Schachter & Singer (1962), the epinephrine caused the arousal, but uninformed participants attributed the arousal to the emotional cues in the situation (either euphoria or anger) Misattribution of Arousal
  78. 78. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ An attractive woman approached men and asked them if they would mind answering a few questions for a survey she was conducting for the Park service. ■ The catch is... She asked them right after they had crossed a bridge, which was either sturdy (safe) or shaky (terrifying) The “Shaky Bridge” Study (Dutton & Aron, 1974)
  79. 79. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ More men hit on the woman after crossing the scary bridge ■ Men who crossed the scary bridge were more likely to call her (she gave her phone number in case they had questions about the research) The “Shaky Bridge” Study: RESULTS
  80. 80. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ Why?! ■ The men felt physiologically aroused (probably from fear or exhilaration) after crossing the scary bridge ■ When trying to determine the source of their arousal, they (mis)attributed it to the woman ■ “I felt really aroused...she must have been really hot.” The “Shaky Bridge” Study: RESULTS
  81. 81. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ Going on any dates soon? ■ Planning any fraternity/sorority joint events? Not that I’m encouraging manipulation, but.....
  82. 82. + Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ Going on any dates soon? ■ Planning any fraternity/sorority joint events? Not that I’m encouraging manipulation, but.....
  83. 83. + Happiness! ■ How would you define happiness? ■ Three Determinants of Pleasure ■ 1. Peak ■ 2. End ■ 3. Duration Neglect
  84. 84. + Three Determinants of Happiness ■ The moment of maximum intensity ■ Examples: ■ The funniest moment of a movie ■ The absolute highlight of your trip to the beach 1: Peak
  85. 85. + Three Determinants of Happiness ■ The last moment of an experience ■ Examples: ■ The ending of a movie ■ The last few moments of your trip to the beach 2: End
  86. 86. + Three Determinants of Happiness ■ The length of an emotional experience has VERY LITTLE INFLUENCE on our overall evaluation of the experience ■ Examples: ■ The length of the movie ■ How long you got to spend at the beach 3: Duration Neglect
  87. 87. + Three Determinants ■ The textbook focuses on happiness, but applies to all emotions ■ How painful you remember something being depends on how painful it was at the most painful moment and how painful it was at the end, not how long the painful experience lasted. ■ How angry you remember being at someone depends on how you felt at your angriest and how you felt at the end of the fight, not how long the fight lasted. PEAK-END PHENOMENON: THE “PEAK” AND THE “END” OF AN EXPERIENCE MATTER. HOW LONG IT LASTS DOES NOT.
  88. 88. + Affective Forecasting ■ Think about something important that you want to happen by the end of this year. How upset will you be if it does not happen? ! ■ A. Not upset at all ■ B. Somewhat upset ■ C. Moderately upset ■ D. Very upset ■ E. Devastated; the most upset possible Predicting how you will feel in the future
  89. 89. + Affective Forecasting ■ People are remarkably bad at predicting how happy or unhappy we will be after positive or negative events. ■ Affective forecasting is often incorrect. ■ People often assume that they will like or dislike a future event more than they actually do when it occurs. The Truth 3 3.8 4.5 5.3 6 People In Relationships People Who Had Just Broken Up Predictions About If They Broke Up Happiness
  90. 90. + Affective Forecasting People were not actually as devastated by breakups as people in relationships assumed they would be. The Truth 3 3.8 4.5 5.3 6 People In Relationships People Who Had Just Broken Up Predictions About If They Broke Up Happiness
  91. 91. + Affective Forecasting ■ Immune Neglect ■ Tendency to underestimate our resilience during negative life events ■ Painful & difficult experiences are often less upsetting than we expect them to be ! ■ Focalism ■ Tendency to focus on only one aspect of an experience or event when trying to predict future emotions ■ Even if one “bad thing” or “good thing” happens, there are still plenty of other things going on in your life that influence your happiness Why are we so bad at this?
  92. 92. + What Influences Happiness? ■ Age and gender are relatively unimportant ! ■ Money only increases happiness to a certain point ■ Lacking money (poverty) is miserable ■ More money makes you happier, until you hit about $75,000 ■ After that, it makes a negligible (if any) difference ■ For people who have attended college, more money is not likely to lead to more satisfaction ! ■ People are happier in countries where individual rights and economic opportunities are available
  93. 93. + What Influences Happiness? ■ Social relationships are the most powerful sources of happiness ■ Married people are happier than unmarried people ■ Contact with friends is associated with more happiness ■ Happiness is good for marriages ■ 5-to-1 ratio: Partners need to express 5 positive emotions for every negative one to have a successful, happy marriage (Gottman, 1993) ■ Positive Emotions: Laughter, Gratitude, Affection, Appreciation, Love ■ Negative Emotions: Anger, Contempt, Fear, Jealousy, Snide Comments ■ Marriages with higher ratios are more likely to last.
  94. 94. + Cultivating Happiness ■ What makes up happiness? ■ About 50% of the variance in how happy people are is genetic ■ About 10% of the variance is due to environment quality ■ Neighborhood, war, rights, freedoms, opportunities ■ The remaining 40% is shaped by the activities that you choose, the patterns of thought that you develop, the ways that you handle stress, and the relationship style you cultivate with others. ■ So how can we cultivate these essential positive emotions? ■ Expressions of gratitude ■ Expressions of compassion and forgiveness
  95. 95. + Summary: Chapter 6 (Emotion) ■ Components of Emotion ■ Brief, Specific, Socially Functional ■ Appraisal Process ■ Primary: Quick flash of positive/negative feelings ■ Secondary: Identify & label the specific emotion ■ Emotions are... ■ Universal ■ Shared with other mammals/primates ■ Not learned ■ Six Universal Emotions ■ ADFSSH – Anger, Disgust, Fear, Surprise, Sadness, Happiness
  96. 96. + Summary: Chapter 6 (Emotion) ■ Universal, but culturally specific details based on... ■ Emotional Accents ■ Focalism ■ Display Rules ! ! ■ Emotions and Social Relationships ■ Oxytocin ■ Touch ■ Emotional Mimicry
  97. 97. + Summary: Chapter 6 (Emotion) ■ Emotion Influences Judgment/Reasoning ■ Feelings-As-Information: Feeling good makes you view things positively ■ Processing Style Perspective ■ Happy = Broaden-and-Build ■ Anger = Heuristics ■ Sadness = Attention to detail ■ Two-Factor Theory of Emotion ■ First feel physiological effects, then identify emotion ■ Emotions can be misattributed/misconstrued ■ Happiness ■ Peak-End Phenomenon: Emotional memory determined by how you feel at the peak moment and at the end, not the duration (duration neglect) ■ 40% of happiness depends on personal choices! ■ You can cultivate happiness through construal, relationships, etc. ■ We are bad at affective forecasting (knowing what will make us happy or sad)
  98. 98. + Ch. 6: Most Important Points ■ Universal Emotions ! ■ Judo Athlete Study ! ■ Power & Emotional Expression ! ■ Infrahumanization ! ■ Emotional Mimicry ■ Happiness & Cognition (Isen) ! ■ Anger/Sadness & Cognition ! ■ Peak-End Phenomenon ! ■ Affective Forecasting ! ■ Feelings As Information ■ Schwarz & Clore Study

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