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  1. 1. COALBROOKDALE BY COALBROOKDALE BY NIGHT (1801) NIGHT (1801) by Philippe de Loutherbourg Coalbrookdale: an important iron-producing centre. It had many im factories, furnaces and foundries. The painter Philippe de Louthenboug was fascinated by the industrial landscape and the ‘terrible’ forces produced by the new forms of energy. Like other painters he was interested in portraying the ‘sublime’ that which inspires both terror and delight. In the late eighteenth century industrial themes were considered a source of this kind of feeling.
  2. 2.  Massive social, economic, and technologicalchange in the 18th century and 19th centuryGreat Britain which changed the country from arural and agricultural country into an urban andindustrial one. In the 19th Century it spread throughoutWestern Europe and North America, eventuallyimpacting the rest of the world.
  3. 3. CAUSES OF FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION  country rich in coal and iron  colonial expansion of the 17th century and consequent development of international trade  industrial raw materials come from British colonies  British colonies provide markets for manufactured products  England rich in rivers  many canals are built (transport of goods and materials)  British merchant fleet most efficient in the world  British merchant fleet covers all trading routes  important inventions
  4. 4. AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION 16th century to about 1820• before 18th century system essentially post-feudal• some open fields enclosed into individually owned field• smallest farmers cannot survive as independent farms• villagers lose their land and grazing (pascolo) rights• Enclosure Act -1801 - Act of Parliament which encloses common land in the country• new scientific approaches to farming• increasing mechanization of farming• lots of workers lose their jobs• most workers forced to move to cities and find work in factories
  5. 5. The Enclosure Movement
  6. 6. “Enclosed” Lands Today
  7. 7.  1770 - 1830 Britain changes from an agricultural to an industrial country new inventions change the way goods are made. steam engine facilitates the growth of new industries new coal mines are opened (coal is the new power source) roads and canals are built to transport coal and other heavy goods all over the country methods of producing iron improve iron bridges and ships were built steam locomotion is invented
  8. 8. Metals, Woolens, & Canals
  9. 9. Early Canals Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
  10. 10. Mine & Forge [1840-1880]ù More powerful than water is coal.ù More powerful than wood is iron.ù Innovations make steel feasible.  “Puddling” [1820] – “pig iron.” (ghisa)  “Hot blast” [1829] – cheaper, purer steel (acciaio).  Bessemer process [1856] – strong, flexible steel.
  11. 11. Coalfields & Industrial Areas
  12. 12. Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-19141800 1 ton of coal 50, 000 miners1850 30 tons 200, 000 miners1880 300 million tons 500, 000 miners1914 250 million tons 1, 200, 000 miners
  13. 13. Young Coal Miners
  14. 14. Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
  15. 15. British Pig Iron Production
  16. 16. Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame”
  17. 17. Factory Production) Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor].) Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].) Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor.
  18. 18. Textile Factory Workers in England1813 2400 looms 150, 000 workers1833 85, 000 looms 200, 000 workers1850 224, 000 looms >1 million workers
  19. 19. The Factory System Rigid schedule. 12-14 hour day. Dangerous conditions. Mind-numbing monotony.
  20. 20. Textile FactoryWorkers in England
  21. 21. British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812
  22. 22. John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle”machine that accelerated the speed of weaving- spoletta volante
  23. 23. The Power Loommachine for weaving operated mechanically- telaio meccanico
  24. 24. James Watt’s Steam Engine
  25. 25. Steam Tractor
  26. 26. Steam Ship
  27. 27. An Early Steam Locomotive
  28. 28. Later Locomotives
  29. 29. The Impact of the Railroad
  30. 30. “The Great Land Serpent”
  31. 31. Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia.
  32. 32. Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits
  33. 33. Crystal Palace:American Pavilion
  34. 34. TIMELINE1733 1765 1770 1785 1800 1825 1879 1894 1733 – John Kay invents the flying shuttle 1765 – Watt invents the steam engine 1770 – Arkwright invents the water frame and the Factory Production starts 1785 – Cartwright patents the first power loom 1880 – Volta invents the voltaic pile 1825 – the first public railroad is opened in England 1879 - Edison invents the incandescent bulb 1894 - Marconi pioneers wireless telegraphy
  35. 35. SIDE EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION• social conflicts and problems• many skilled men lose their jobs• demand for traditional craft declines• farms change• fewer jobs for farm workers• wives weaving craft work replaced by machines in mills• people from countryside forced to leave home and move to industrial towns
  36. 36. SOCIAL CHANGES SOCIAL CHANGES change from domestic to factory system of production before Industrial Revolution : 10% of people live in cities, after 75% live in cities two new social classes:  middle class made of powerful and wealthy merchants and manufacturers  working class made of factory workers in conditions of poverty  (old social classes: aristocracy and farmers) 46% of workers are women, 15% children under the age of 13
  37. 37. 19c Bourgeoisie:The Industrial Nouveau Riche
  38. 38. Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie
  39. 39. Stereotype of the Factory Owner
  40. 40. “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life
  41. 41. Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wages under 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d. 11 - 16 4s. 1d. 4s. 3d. 17 - 21 10s. 2d. 7s. 3d. 22 - 26 17s. 2d. 8s. 5d. 27 - 31 20s. 4d. 8s. 7d. 32 - 36 22s. 8d. 8s. 9d. 37 - 41 21s. 7d. 9s. 8d. 42 - 46 20s. 3d. 9s. 3d. 47 - 51 16s. 7d. 8s. 10d. 52 - 56 16s. 4d. 8s. 4d. 57 - 61 13s. 6d. 6s. 4d.
  42. 42. Industrial Staffordshire
  43. 43. Problems of PollutionThe Silent Highwayman - 1858
  44. 44. The New Industrial City
  45. 45. Early-19c London by Gustave Dore
  46. 46. Worker Housing in Manchester
  47. 47. Factory Workers at Home
  48. 48. Workers Housing in NewcastleToday
  49. 49. The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare!
  50. 50. Private Charities: Soup Kitchens
  51. 51. Private Charities:The “Lady Bountifuls”
  52. 52. LIFE IN CITIES terrible working conditions in factories factories dirty and noisy people work up to 16 hours a day low wages many die of disease and starvation factory owners employ women and children and pay them very little young children work for long hours in factories and even in mines during 19th century industrial towns grow and living conditions become worse towns not prepared to receive so many people people forced to live in slums in houses built quickly and cheaply without sanitation people live in unhealthy conditions plagued by disease, poverty and overcrowding in some towns average age at which workers die is twenty
  53. 53. The Luddites: 1811-1816 Attacks on the “frames” [power looms].Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest]
  54. 54. The Luddite Triangle
  55. 55. The Luddites
  56. 56. The Neo-Luddites Today
  57. 57. Peterloo Massacre, 1819 BritishSoldiersFire on BritishWorkers:Let us die like men,and not be sold like slaves!
  58. 58. The Chartists Key Chartist settlements Centres of Chartism Area of plug riots, 1842
  59. 59. The “Peoples’ Charter”V Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.V Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform (These reforms allowed the middle classes to share power with the upper classes. Some historians argue that this transfer of power achieved in England what the French Revolution achieved in France )  Votes for all men.  Equal electoral districts.  Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.  Payment for Members of Parliament.  Annual general elections.  The secret ballot.
  60. 60. The Chartists A female ChartistA physical force—Chartists arming forthe fight.
  61. 61. Anti-Corn Law League, 1845(The Corn Laws were import tariffs designed tosupport domestic British corn prices . theirabolishment marked the beginnings of free trade.) 4 Expand employment. 4 Lower the price of bread. 4 Make British agriculture more efficient and productive. 4 Expose trade and agriculture to foreign competition. 4 Promote international peace through trade contact.
  62. 62. Thomas Malthus  Population growth will outpace (sorpassare) the ( food supply.  War, disease, or famine could control population.  The poor should have less children.  Food supply will then keep up with population.
  63. 63. David Ricardo “Iron Law of Wages.” When wages are high, workers have more children. More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages.
  64. 64. The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number. There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net.
  65. 65. Jeremy Bentham
  66. 66. The Socialists:Utopians & Marxists People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals. Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few. Tried to build perfect communities [utopias].
  67. 67. Government Responsek Abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].k Sadler Commission to look into working conditions  Factory Act [1833] – child labor.k New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.  Poor houses.k Reform Bill [1832] – broadens the vote for the cities.
  68. 68. British Reform Bill of 1832
  69. 69. British Reform Bills
  70. 70. By 1850:Zones of Industrializationon the European Continentù Northeast France.ù Belgium.ù The Netherlands.ù Western German states.ù Northern Italyù East Germany  Saxony
  71. 71. Industrialization By 1850
  72. 72. Railroads on the Continent
  73. 73. Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750-1900
  74. 74. Bibliographic Sources) “Images of the Industrial Revolution.” Mt. Holyoke College. /ind_rev/images/images-ind-era.html) “The Peel Web: A Web of English History.” eight/primary.htm)
  75. 75. •••
  76. 76. • When did the Industrial Revolution start?• Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in England?• What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution?• What changed with the Industrial Revolution?• What were the negative consequences of the Industrial Revolution?