ARCH 4070 - June 27 2012 (APFM)
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  • Highlights: LRC Hours AskON Library Catalogue Explore Your Topic E-Resources Contact Us
  • ·         To survey the most significant research done on a topic and discover what has and has not been investigated.  ·         To provide guidance on a topic for those who don’t have time to do the research themselves but need an overview. ·         To bring the reader up-to-date on research and issues in the topic area.  ·         To show relationships between and among research conducted in the topic area. 
  • Currency The timeliness of the information. Are there dates on the page to indicate: when it was written? when it was first placed on the Web? when it was last revised? Is it the most recent revision or version of the document? Are all the links on the site current and working, i.e. are there outdated or "dead" links? Are there any other indications that the material is kept current? Relevancy The importance of the information for your needs. Does it relate to my topic? Does it help me answer a question or solve a problem? Does it fill in background information or provide specific information? Could it help to form my central argument? Will it help me locate other information? Does it provide evidence or support my ideas? Does it provide a good example? Is it new information or am I just restating what I have already said? What does it add to my work? Would my assignment be just as good without it? Authority The source of the information. Is it clear who produced or sponsored the site or what institution or organization its author(s) is affiliated with? Is there a link describing the purpose of the sponsoring organization? Is this organization recognized in the field in which you are studying? Is it clear who wrote the material? And what the author's qualifications are? Is there an address to contact for more information? If the material is protected by copyright, is the name of the copyright holder given? Accuracy The reliability, truthfulness and correctness of the informational content presented. Are sources of any factual information listed in a clear and complete manner so that they can be verified if necessary? Is the information free of grammatical, spelling, and other errors? If statistical data is presented in graph or chart form, is it legible and clearly labeled? Purpose The reason the information exists. Is the information provided as a public service? Does the point of view appear to be objective and impartial? Does it acknowledge other perspectives or conflicting information? If there is any advertising on the page, is it clearly differentiated from the informational content? Are the authors' biases (if any) clearly stated i.e. is it an opinion piece? A political message? A product advertisement? Be alert to political, religious, ideological, cultural, institutional or personal biases Is it meant to inform? Teach? Or is it meant to entertain? Persuade? Sell a product, an idea, or way of thinking? Is the information fact? Or is it propaganda? Opinion?
  • Use evidence In the example above, the writers refer to several other sources when making their point. A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid. Be selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the review's focus, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Use quotes sparingly Falk and Mills do not use any direct quotes. That is because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow for in-depth discussion or detailed quotes from the text. Some short quotes here and there are okay, though if you want to emphasize a point, or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. Notice that Falk and Mills do quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor. Summarize and synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. The authors here recapitulate important features of Hamilton's study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to their own work. Keep your own voice While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice (the writer's) should remain front and center. Notice that Falk and Mills weave references to other sources into their own text, but they still maintain their own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with their own ideas and their own words. The sources support what Falk and Mills are saying. Use caution when paraphrasing When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. In the preceding example, Falk and Mills either directly refer in the text to the author of their source, such as Hamilton, or they provide ample notation in the text when the ideas they are mentioning are not their own, for example, Gastil's. For more information, please see our handout on  plagiarism .
  • Shows that you have done the research Backs up your argument (makes your paper legit!) Giving credit where credit is due Avoid the dreaded plagiarism!!
  • Basic search, then search with quotes, view all results
  • Getting Full Text
  • Getting Full Text


  • 2. TODAY YOU’LLLEARN . . .• What a Literature Review is and why you should do one• How to work through the Literature Review process• Review of two research databases/tools
  • 3. Rem inde r!PIN NUMBERSYou can use your PIN to: • Access resources from Off-Campus • Renew a book, place a hold • Review your account
  • 4. Rem inde r!YOUR RESEARCH GUIDELRC Homepage  Research Help  Engineering  APFM
  • 6. WHAT IS ALITERATUREREVIEW? "that theThe aim of a literature review is to show writer has studied existing work in the field with insight" (Haywood and Wragg, 1982).
  • 7. WHAT IS ALITERATUREREVIEW?An effective review analyses and synthesizes material, and it should meet the following requirements: (Caulley, 1992)• Compare and contrast different authors views on an issue• Group authors who draw similar conclusions,• Note areas in which authors are in disagreement,• Highlight exemplary studies,• Identify patterns or trends in the literature• Highlight gaps in and omissions in previous research or questions left unanswered• Conclude by summarizing what the literature says. Source:
  • 8. SELECTING A TOPIC• Consider the scope of your selected topic and the timeframe you have for this project.• Narrow down the topic if it is too broad.• Establish your research interest questions and organize your literature into logical categories around the subject and sub topic areas.
  • 9. SEARCH THELITERATURE• VARIETY! • Books, Journals, Theses, Conference Papers, Government or Industry Reports • Reference sources such as dictionaries can assist in defining terminology, and encyclopedias may be useful in introducing topics and listing key references.• REVIEW • Review literature and analyze. • You may need to go back to find additional information on your different sub-topics.
  • 10. SEARCH THE Thin gs t con oLITERATURE side rThe literature review relates to your topic so think of the key concepts/issues surrounding them.• Establish terminology and key words. Thesauri can assist. Mind spelling variations• Construct a search strategy. Use Boolean operators (OR, AND, NOT)• The absence of research in the literature may help confirm that this is an area which needs further research. You may need to broaden your search by looking for literature in related fields.• Decide whether to be comprehensive or selective in your coverage? What is your rationale? What is your interest? There are inherent difficulties in attempting to be comprehensive• How far back you should search may depend on the topic/subject? You might only include historical landmark studies while including a broader approach to more current research• Start with the most recent sources and search backwards (Hint – check the bibliographies of current studies for referenced works)• You may read articles only to decide to exclude them• It is worth thinking laterally to other fields given the multidisciplinary nature of research. Source:
  • 11. CRITICAL READING Use the CRAAP test. • Currency • Relevancy • Authority • Accuracy • PurposeSee Tutorials for more information:
  • 12. WRITE THELITERATURE REVIEW• Use evidence• Be selective• Use quotes sparingly• Summarize and synthesize• Keep your own voice• Use caution when paraphrasing Source:
  • 13. WRITE THELITERATURE REVIEWYour literature review should include:• an introduction which explains how your review is organized.• a body which contains the headings and subheadings that provide a map to show the various perspectives of your argument.• the body contains the evaluation or synthesize of the materials you want to include on your topic.• a summary. Source:
  • 15. REFWORKS & APA
  • 16. AVOIDINGPLAGIARISM• Keep organized.• Take good notes – this will help you write your review and clearly give credit to your sources. • Look for: • Major concepts • Conclusions • Theories • Arguments • How are they the same or different from other literature you have found.• Citations, Citations, Citations • Use RefWorks! • You can add notes to each citation to keep track of where it fits, etc.
  • 18. EMERALD BUILT ENVIRONMENTBuilding information modelling
  • 19. GOOGLE SCHOLARLibrary Databases vs. Google ScholarArticles are not necessarily:• Scholarly (you can filter in library databases)• Full Text (you may be linked to the publishers website where they want you to pay)Searching is by keyword only:• You cannot filter by subject or controlled vocabulary• We don’t know exactly what is in Google Scholar
  • 20. GOOGLE SCHOLAR Off Campus? Click Setting icon to set your library links to include Conestoga resources. Click Full-Text to access items available through Conestoga.
  • 21. GOOGLE SCHOLAR• Think of Google Scholar as a quick look to "see whats out there." Conestoga offers a variety of journal and eBook databases that can be more effective when searched individually.• Relying on just one source is not usually the best search strategy. You will want to search across relevant databases, varying your search strategy and taking advantage of the specialized databases.• Google Scholar can be a helpful starting point for a search before you focus you topic and begin looking comprehensively for the highest quality information.• Remember, searching within a databases offer search features that Google Scholar doesn’t.
  • 22. HOW TO GET HELP . . .Email, Call, or Visit in Person Melanie Parlette, APFM Liaison Cambridge (South Campus) LRC Service Desk Hours: Monday – Friday 8AM – NOON Office Hours: Tuesday 12:30 PM – 3:30 PM, or by appointment Or try askON on the LRC Homepage (Instant Messaging Research Help)