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  1. 1. CPR: Cardiopulmonary ResuscitationAn Overview:<br />By: Melanie Jenkins<br />As outlined by The American National Red Cross (2001)<br />
  2. 2. What is CPR?<br />Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is defined as chest compressions and rescue oriented breathing to take over the normal functions of the heart and lungs.<br />Cardia: Heart<br />Pulmonary: Lung<br />Resuscitation: regaining life functions<br />*The American National Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />
  3. 3. Who Needs CPR?<br /> Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is needed when a victim or patient has gone into cardiac arrest. <br />Cardiac arrest is characterized by:<br /><ul><li> No heart beat or a very irregular/weak heart beat.
  4. 4. Circulation of blood to the vital organs ceases or is not adequate to sustain life sustaining functions.
  5. 5. No heartbeat results in lost of the function of breathing.
  6. 6. Clinical death results when there is no heartbeat present and breathing has stopped.</li></ul>*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />Examples:<br /> No Heartbeat<br />Source: http://www.circulation.or.kr/info/case/case_32_s_2.jpg<br /> Normal Heartbeat<br />Source: http://meds.queensu.ca/courses/assets/modules/ts-ecg/Normal_ECG.bmp<br />Irregular, Weak Heartbeat<br />Source: http://ems12lead.com/files/2010/12/2010_12_19_Awm.jpg<br />
  7. 7. Background and Definition<br />Signs of Cardiac Arrest<br />No Breathing<br />No pulse<br />No signs of movement<br />No response to stimuli<br />Terms and Devices<br />Biological death: brain cell death after 4 to 6 minutes of going without oxygen<br />Defibrillator: a device to regain heart beat through electric shock <br />*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />
  8. 8. CPR: For Adults<br />*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br /> Facts<br />Quick<br />
  9. 9. *American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />The First Step of CPR<br /><ul><li>Position yourself over the victim.
  10. 10. Kneeling at the victims chest.
  11. 11. After checking for Cardiac Arrest (no breathing, unconscious, no pulse), open the airway of the victim.
  12. 12. There are two ways to do this:
  13. 13. Head/tilt, chin/lift (top right)
  14. 14. Jaw Thrust (bottom right)
  15. 15. After opening the airway, the first two rescue breaths can be given. These must be done in </li></ul> the proper way with the proper technique. <br />Source: http://www.sutree.com/upload/thumbnails/28565.gif<br />Source: http://charlydmiller.com/RA/images03/jawthrust.jpg<br />
  16. 16. Rescue Breathing <br />Technique<br />Special Considerations<br />Pinch the nose of the victim with the thumb and index finger and only use enough pressure to seal the nostrils.<br />Position your mouth over the mouth of the victim and make a tight seal.<br />If available use a resuscitation mask (mask for CPR, used to protect against disease transmission).<br />Slowly give two breaths (2 seconds each).<br />The victims chest should rise and fall.<br />Pay attention to any injuries to assure that you will not harm the victim.<br />Check for presence of air in the stomach, vomiting, dentures or other mouth devices.<br />If the chest does not rise and fall, reposition head.<br />The air you breath into the victim is only 16% oxygen, but this is enough to keep someone alive.<br />*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />
  17. 17. Conclusion of Step One: CPR<br />If the breaths go in (you see the chest rise and fall) check for a pulse.<br />To check for a pulse, place fingers over an artery in the neck next to the “Adam’s Apple.”<br />A beat or thud is a pulse.<br />If there is no pulse, continue to step two.<br />*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />Source: http://janeheller.mlblogs.com/pulse.jpg<br />
  18. 18. *American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />The Second Step of CPR<br /><ul><li>After giving the first two rescue breaths, and checking the pulse: if no pulse is evident, start chest compressions.
  19. 19. The position of the hands iscrucial in ensuring the safety of the victim.</li></ul>Tip<br /><ul><li>Count out loud during chest compressions to keep track and pace yourself</li></li></ul><li>Chest Compressions: How To<br />*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />
  20. 20. Chest Compressions<br /><ul><li>Each Chest compression should depress the chest by 1 ½” to 2” (left).
  21. 21. Avoid the Xiphoid Process (right). </li></ul>*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />Source: http://www.cc.utah.edu/~mda9899/Image18.gif<br />Source: http://images.brighthub.com/fd/f/fdf9580d330b7f3c567ee33dff5ab42f4157db37_small.jpg<br />
  22. 22. The Cycle of CPR<br />*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />
  23. 23. To Continue or Not to Continue?<br />To continue:<br />If no signs of breathing or pulse are evident.<br />Not to Continue:<br />The victim regains a pulse and beings breathing.<br />A defibrillator becomes available<br />Someone trained to use it is present as well.<br />If you can no longer continue due to exhaustion or other physical constraints.<br />*American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />
  24. 24. *American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />What if the victim has a pulse but is not breathing?<br />
  25. 25. *American Red Cross: Emergency Response (2001) <br />Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Participating in this presentation will in no way legally certify anyone to administer Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in any state of the US.
  26. 26. Use of these techniques, without being certified by a state agency could result in legal action.
  27. 27. This demonstration was based on adult CPR, not child or infant CPR. Any use of these methods on a child or infant can cause serious injury or death.
  28. 28. If you are in a situation where you think someone is in need of CPR, call 9-1-1 immediately. Proceed with caution to aid the victim.
  29. 29. If you want to become certified, go to: </li></ul>http://www.redcross.org/en/takeaclass<br />