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generations of computer

generations of computer



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computer Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Computer:
    • Computer is an electronic machine that accepts information, process it according to specific instructions, and provide the result as new information.
  • 3.
    • An Abacus , also called a counting frame , is a calculating tool used primarily for performing arithmetic processes.
    • Pascaline invented a complicated set of gears which could only be used to perform addition.
  • 4.
    • Analytical engine
    • Difference engine
    • Charles Babbage began working on the Difference Engine, but it was not successful.
    • Babbage then began working on the Analytical Engine. This machine performed calculations by following a set of instructions, or "programs" entered into it using punched cards.
    • It to was not successful, however, its design was to serve as a model for the modern computer.
  • 5.
    • ENIAC: The First Electronic Computer
    • 1943, John Mauchly and J. Proper Eckert began to work on the Electronic Numerical Integration and Calculator or ENIAC
    • ENIAC only occupied 1500 square feet, and weighs about 3tons. It was made up of 18000 vacuum tubes.
    • It runs single program which means it requires rewiring for every program, so they discovered another machine EDSAC that can store programs on punch cards that are much easier to manage.
  • 6. The first Stored Program Computer:
    • In the late 1940's, John von Neumann considered the idea of storing computer instructions in a central processing unit, now known as the CPU.  Together with Mauchly and Eckert, von Neumann designed and built the EDVAC & EDSAC (Electronic Discrete Variable/Storage Automatic Computer).
    • Next was the UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer (made by Mauchly and Eckert). It weighed 35 tons, did 1000 calculations per second,
  • 7. Computers -present:
    • Two inventions that change the way of computer now built:
    • Transistors :
    • The most significant invention of modern era. It was invented by three scientists at At& T’s bell labs. It replace the vacuum tubes.
    • 2.IC’s(integrated circuits):
    • The IC revolutionized entire electronic technology.
    • Ex: pentium contains 3.1million transistors in 1.5 inch square.
  • 8. Personal computer
    • A personal computer ( PC ) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator.
    • E.g: Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Portable computer, Tablet computer, Wearable computer
  • 9. Personal computers:
    • A Tablet PC is a slate-shaped mobile computer, equipped with a touchscreen which allows the user to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse.
    • Wearable computers are computers that are worn on the body.
  • 10. Embedded computers:
    • A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM.
    • The software written for embedded systems is often called firmware.
    • Embedded computers are small, simple devices that are used to control other devices — for example, they may be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and children's toys.
  • 11. Future Computers:
    • Quantum computer
    • Chemical computer
    • DNA computing
    • Optical computer
    • Spintronics based computer.
  • 12.
    • A chemical computer is an unconventional computer based on a semi-solid chemical "soup" where data is represented by varying concentrations of chemicals.
    • The computations are performed by naturally occurring chemical reactions.
  • 13.
    • A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of distinctively quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. In a classical (or conventional) computer, information is stored as bits; in a quantum computer, it is stored as qubits ( qu antum bi nary digi ts ).
  • 14.
    • DNA computing is a form of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies.
    • An optical computer is a computer that uses light instead of electricity (i.e. photons rather than electrons) to manipulate, store and transmit data.
  • 15.