Computer: <ul><li>Computer is an electronic machine that accepts information, process it according to specific instructions, and provide the result as new information. </li></ul>
<ul><li>An Abacus , also called a counting frame , is a calculating tool used primarily for performing arithmetic processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Pascaline invented a complicated set of gears which could only be used to perform addition. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Analytical engine </li></ul><ul><li>Difference engine </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Babbage began working on the Difference Engine, but it was not successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Babbage then began working on the Analytical Engine. This machine performed calculations by following a set of instructions, or "programs" entered into it using punched cards. </li></ul><ul><li>It to was not successful, however, its design was to serve as a model for the modern computer. </li></ul>
<ul><li>ENIAC: The First Electronic Computer </li></ul><ul><li>1943, John Mauchly and J. Proper Eckert began to work on the Electronic Numerical Integration and Calculator or ENIAC </li></ul><ul><li>ENIAC only occupied 1500 square feet, and weighs about 3tons. It was made up of 18000 vacuum tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>It runs single program which means it requires rewiring for every program, so they discovered another machine EDSAC that can store programs on punch cards that are much easier to manage. </li></ul>
The first Stored Program Computer: <ul><li>In the late 1940's, John von Neumann considered the idea of storing computer instructions in a central processing unit, now known as the CPU. Together with Mauchly and Eckert, von Neumann designed and built the EDVAC & EDSAC (Electronic Discrete Variable/Storage Automatic Computer). </li></ul><ul><li>Next was the UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer (made by Mauchly and Eckert). It weighed 35 tons, did 1000 calculations per second, </li></ul>
Computers -present: <ul><li>Two inventions that change the way of computer now built: </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors : </li></ul><ul><li>The most significant invention of modern era. It was invented by three scientists at At& T’s bell labs. It replace the vacuum tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>2.IC’s(integrated circuits): </li></ul><ul><li>The IC revolutionized entire electronic technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: pentium contains 3.1million transistors in 1.5 inch square. </li></ul>
Personal computer <ul><li>A personal computer ( PC ) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Portable computer, Tablet computer, Wearable computer </li></ul>
Personal computers: <ul><li>A Tablet PC is a slate-shaped mobile computer, equipped with a touchscreen which allows the user to operate the computer with a stylus or digital pen, or a fingertip, instead of a keyboard or mouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Wearable computers are computers that are worn on the body. </li></ul>
Embedded computers: <ul><li>A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. </li></ul><ul><li>The software written for embedded systems is often called firmware. </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded computers are small, simple devices that are used to control other devices — for example, they may be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and children's toys. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A chemical computer is an unconventional computer based on a semi-solid chemical "soup" where data is represented by varying concentrations of chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The computations are performed by naturally occurring chemical reactions. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of distinctively quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. In a classical (or conventional) computer, information is stored as bits; in a quantum computer, it is stored as qubits ( qu antum bi nary digi ts ). </li></ul>
<ul><li>DNA computing is a form of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>An optical computer is a computer that uses light instead of electricity (i.e. photons rather than electrons) to manipulate, store and transmit data. </li></ul>
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