PROTEIN Transcription  Translation  DNA  RNA
<ul><li>Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein : This dogma forms the backbone of molecular biology and is represented by ...
<ul><li>Unwinding of DNA to produce a copy during a cell division.  </li></ul><ul><li>The enzymes involved were helicase,p...
<ul><li>Copying of part of DNA strand (base pair of a gene) </li></ul><ul><li>by complementary base pairs. </li></ul><ul><...
 
codon=3 base pairs= responsible for amino acid building blocks of amino acid=protein
<ul><li>The ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon (AUG)  </li></ul><ul><li>During this stage, complexes, composed ...
<ul><li>2 subunits (large and small) form a 3D groove   </li></ul><ul><li>2 major sites:  </li></ul><ul><li>P site---holds...
<ul><li>The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypepti...
 
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Central dogma

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Central dogma

  1. 1. PROTEIN Transcription Translation DNA RNA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein : This dogma forms the backbone of molecular biology and is represented by THREE major stages. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Replication. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Transcription . </li></ul><ul><li>3. Translation . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Unwinding of DNA to produce a copy during a cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>The enzymes involved were helicase,polymerase, </li></ul><ul><li>RNA primase,ligase. </li></ul><ul><li>The leading strand operate in a continous fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas the lagging strand is not in a continous fashion (okazaki fragments) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Copying of part of DNA strand (base pair of a gene) </li></ul><ul><li>by complementary base pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Only one strand of DNA (the template strand) is transcribed. </li></ul><ul><li>RNA polymerase opens the part of the DNA to be transcribed. </li></ul>
  5. 6. codon=3 base pairs= responsible for amino acid building blocks of amino acid=protein
  6. 7. <ul><li>The ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon (AUG) </li></ul><ul><li>During this stage, complexes, composed of an amino acid linked to tRNA, sequentially bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complementary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon . </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>2 subunits (large and small) form a 3D groove </li></ul><ul><li>2 major sites: </li></ul><ul><li>P site---holds the growing polypeptide </li></ul><ul><li>A site---new amino acids enter here </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptidic sequences dictated by DNA and represented by mRNA. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end, a release factor binds to the stop codon, terminating translation and releasing the complete polypeptide from the ribosome. </li></ul>
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