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Central dogma

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  • 1. PROTEIN Transcription Translation DNA RNA
  • 2.
    • Transcription of DNA to RNA to protein : This dogma forms the backbone of molecular biology and is represented by THREE major stages.
    • 1. Replication.
    • 2. Transcription .
    • 3. Translation .
  • 3.
    • Unwinding of DNA to produce a copy during a cell division.
    • The enzymes involved were helicase,polymerase,
    • RNA primase,ligase.
    • The leading strand operate in a continous fashion
    • Whereas the lagging strand is not in a continous fashion (okazaki fragments)
  • 4.
    • Copying of part of DNA strand (base pair of a gene)
    • by complementary base pairs.
    • Only one strand of DNA (the template strand) is transcribed.
    • RNA polymerase opens the part of the DNA to be transcribed.
  • 5.  
  • 6. codon=3 base pairs= responsible for amino acid building blocks of amino acid=protein
  • 7.
    • The ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon (AUG)
    • During this stage, complexes, composed of an amino acid linked to tRNA, sequentially bind to the appropriate codon in mRNA by forming complementary base pairs with the tRNA anticodon .
  • 8.
    • 2 subunits (large and small) form a 3D groove
    • 2 major sites:
    • P site---holds the growing polypeptide
    • A site---new amino acids enter here
  • 9.
    • The ribosome moves from codon to codon along the mRNA. Amino acids are added one by one, translated into polypeptidic sequences dictated by DNA and represented by mRNA.
    • At the end, a release factor binds to the stop codon, terminating translation and releasing the complete polypeptide from the ribosome.
  • 10.  

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