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  • 1.  Carbonniferous period  340 million years ago ○ Fossils of reptiles  315 million years ago ○ Fossils of other agile, lizard-like animals Permian into Triassic periods  Evolution continued  Reptiles became the dominant group of terrestrial vertebrates inhabiting the earth  Continued their dominance for about 160 million years Cretaceous period  Reached their greatest number  Only 4 orders existed from the 15
  • 2.  Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates that possess lungs and breathe air. Also have bony skeleton, scales or horny plates covering the body Has a heart with two auricles and in most species only has one ventricle Most are found in tropical areas where they can function day and night Outside tropical areas, they must spend a great amount of their time basking in the sun to obtain the body warmth they need
  • 3.  Sunlight is important not only as heat source but also absorb the ultraviolet (UV) rays that are needed in calcium metabolism, formation of pigment and Vitamin D synthesis When temperature gets cool, they seek places to hibernate to survive the cool weather There are approx. 6,500 species of reptiles belonging to four orders:  Testudines (Chelonia)– turtles, tortoises and terrapins  Serpentes – snakes, pythons and boas  Squamata – iguanas and lizards  Crocodilia – crocodiles, alligators, caimans and gharials
  • 4. Three body types:1. Long-bodies and clearly defined tails2. Long bodies that taper into tails3. Short, thick bodies encases in shells
  • 5. SKIN Reptiles covered by thick, dry, scaly skin that prevents water loss through evaporation Scaly covering develops as surface cells fill with keratin Lipids and proteins in skin help make watertight Tough skin also protects against infections, injuries, wear and tear
  • 6. Crocodile and Lizard Forms a hard, continuous covering of scales These scales lie beneath the outer layer of epidermis so the body can grow This layer sheds allowing further growth Have bony dermal scales covered with a horny epidermal layer
  • 7. Turtle and Tortoise Doesn’t molt or shed the epidermal skin rather a new one is formed beneath the old one allowing growth These epidermal scales or scutes form rings that can be counted and from the rings, an estimate of the animal’s age can be obtained. The horny epidermal layer forms an exoskeleton
  • 8.  2 parts of exoskeleton  Plastron  Carapace ○ Part of the vertebrae 3 types of scutes:  Marginal ○ Around the outer edges of the shell  Central ○ Down the center  Coastal ○ Between marginal and central scutes
  • 9. Snake Covered in scales that protect them from abrasion or dehydration. The scales on the top and sides of the snake are smaller and thinner than those found on the belly side. The thick, large scales on the belly are called "scutes," and they help to protect and support the tissues that are in contact with the ground. The scales can be very colorful and organized into interesting patterns.
  • 10.  Snake scales can be:  Keeled ○ Has ridges  Granular ○ Rough  Smooth
  • 11. LimbsCrocodile and Lizard Usually paired and attached to the body at right angles Enables them to lift its body up off the ground when moving Crocodiles and alligators: strong and powerful Most lizards: weak with some having very short, stump-like limbs
  • 12. Snake Don’t have limbs Their movement is a result of undulating movements of the body Their scales on the underside of the body project outward as the muscles are contracted and relaxed; these scales exert pressure on the surface and move the animal outward
  • 13. Turtle and Tortoise Few have modified limbs that enable them to walk o land. Some has webbed limbs that is primarily adapted for swimming and mve on land by creeping or crawling motions
  • 14. TeethCrocodile Their teeth are set in sockets and are similar to the teeth of mammals
  • 15. Lizard and Snake Have teeth that are fused to the jaw bones; some snakes also have teeth fused to the palate bones In some species of snakes and two species of lizards, the teeth are connected to poison glands
  • 16. Turtle and Tortoise Do not have teeth Their jaws form sharp crushing plates The front part of the jaws form a horny beak
  • 17. Tongue Vary considerably Some have short, fleshy tongues that have little movement Others have tongues that are long, slender, and forked like in some lizards and snakes
  • 18. EyesSnake They cannot close their eyes. Instead of eyelids, they have a transparent layer or brille that permanently cover the eye During shedding process, this layer is shed or replaced with a new covering
  • 19.  4 types of eyes  Vertical pupils ○ Nocturnal species ○ Opens very wide in dim light ○ Close a small slit or a pinhole in bright light  Round pupils ○ Diurnal species  Horizontal pupils ○ Some arboreal species ○ Large protruding and tapered snouts which give them a binocular vision  Opaque scale covering ○ Burrowing species ○ For protection ○ Almost blind
  • 20. LungLizard Most are the same in size Some has reduced size left lung with the right lung being very long and lying between internal organs
  • 21.  The combination of reduced lung size and three-chambered heart allows the animal to have greatly reduced metabolic rate Low metabolic rate means that not much heat is produced within the body therefore, they may function at the same temperature as their surroundings Thus, they are ectothermic
  • 22. Habitat1. Terrestrial habitats those that live on land2. Semi – aquatic habitats those that live on land or in trees but spend part of their time in the water3. Aquatic habitats those that live in the water4. Arboreal habitats those that live in trees
  • 23. TURTLE & TORTOISE Aquatic turtles  primarily carnivorous or omnivorous  In captivity, they soon learn to eat pieces of meat, liver and canned dog or cat food. (dry can be used) Land turtles  Primarily herbivores, feeding on grasses and plants  In captivity, they feed on canned dog or cat food  Along with the canned food, pieces of spinach, lettuce, grapes alfalfa and clover should be given  May also eat ground meat  Strawberries, cantaloupe and other fruits
  • 24. SNAKE All are carnivorous Small snakes in captivity feed on earthworms, mealworms, crickets and other insects Larger snakes feed on baby mice and rats Big snakes feed on full-grown mice rats, baby chicks, guinea pig and rabbits  If the snake doesn’t eat the rodent within a few minutes, the rodent should be removed.  A rat or mouse left in with the snake can bite and injure the snake Snakes can learn to feed on canned dog and cat food, raw hamburger or pieces of meat or fish All foods should be supplemented with vitamins and minerals
  • 25.  If several types of food have been offered to a snake and it has not eaten in four weeks or more, the snake should be force-fed  On small snakes: place a piece of food in it and hopefully swallows it. If it is stressed or frightened it may spit the food  For larger snakes: use forceps and place a piece of meat in the mouth and then try massaging the meat down to their stomach  Liquids: beat an egg into a liquid, place a plastic tube down the throat into the stomach (usually 1/3 of the snakes length) and place the beaten egg in a plastic squeeze bottle and gradually squeeze ○ If successful, snakes should be returned in the vivarium and shouldn’t be handled often because it can regurtitate Snakes that are about to molt (when their eyes are clouded over) don’t eat
  • 26. LIZARD In captivity, feeding is fairly easy Most are insect eaters Feed on crickets, mealworms and earthworms (readily available from bait shops) Larger lizards and Iguanas eat mealworms, earthworms, lettuce, flower blossoms, fresh fruit, vegetables, ground meat and dog or cat food If reptile captured from the wild refuses to eat, return it to the wild instead of letting it die of starvation Purchased reptile: enlist help of veterinarian
  • 27. Crocodile Smaller crocodiles appear to feed throughout the year, reducing their intake during cooler periods. Larger crocodiles are affected more by cool weather and their food intake is greatly reduced or can stop altogether. They can live for months at a time without feeding as they carry extensive energy supplies in the form of fat. The wet season seems to be the period when growth and feeding are maximised in crocodiles of all sizes. Young crocodiles eat small animals such as crabs, prawns, fish, frogs and insects. Larger crocodiles take bigger prey including pigs, birds, reptiles, turtles, wallabies and even other crocodiles. This cannibalistic behaviour is believed to be an important population controlling mechanism.
  • 28. TURTLES AND TORTOISE Mating  The male climbs onto the carapace of the female  The claws on the front limbs are used to grasp onto the front edge of the female’s carapace ○ The large domed shell of box turtle presents problems because it is impossible for the male to hold onto the female’s carapace  To complete copulation, the male falls backward off the female’s carapace
  • 29. Oviparous ( lays egg that hatch later) The female deposits eggs in a nest cavity that she digs in the soil The eggs are covered and then left unattended Eggs varies:  Number laid ○ 1 – 3 or to as many as 200  Size  Shell texture ○ Soft leather shells ○ Hard-shelled eggs  Shape
  • 30.  Incubation depends on the temperature of the soil Incubation period varies:  Average period is 60 – 90 days  soft – shelled eggs hatch in about 30 days  Eggs of land tortoise may take up to 18 months When the young hatch, they are on their own relying on their inherited survival instincts
  • 31.  Determining the sex  Almost impossible for young turtles  Adult male: ○ On some species, plastron becomes concave (helps on the mounting during mating) ○ Tail becomes thicker and longer ○ Cloacal opening located further down the tail  Adult female: ○ Tail is thick and short ○ Cloacal opening is located near the edge of plastron
  • 32. Snakes Mating  The male and female entwine themselves until their two cloacas are together ○ Cloaca is modified to form double penis or hemipenes ○ Often contains recurved spurs that aid the male in holding onto the female’s cloaca  The male moves forward until their two cloacas are together then inserts one or both hemipenes  The female may store the sperm in the oviduct for several months before fertilizing the eggs
  • 33.  Determining the sex  May be difficult, very little difference exists between the male and female  Females: ○ Usually have shorter tail ○ Spurs or claws is short ○ Heavier and longer  Males: ○ Spurs or claws are longer ○ Light in weight and short
  • 34. May be oviparous, ovoviviparous or viviparous Most are oviparous: ○ Laying their eggs in shallow holes covered with a thin layer of soil ○ Some lay their eggs under or around rocks, in hollow logs, or around the stumps of trees  Most egg-laying snakes leave the eggs unattended after laying them  Some, like Pythons, coil themselves around their eggs and brood them until they hatch  Lay their eggs from 30 – 85 days after mating, with the eggs incubating 40 – 90 days  The number of eggs laid varies from 1 to as many as 60  The young free themselves from the eggs with the aid of a sharp egg tooth on the tip of their snout and slice open a hole
  • 35.  Temperature is important on the development of eggs  Should not get too hot during the day or too cool at night Those that are ovoviviparous: ○ Retain their eggs within their bodies until they hatch and then give birth to the young ○ The young receive no nourishment from the female, only the nourishment contained in the egg ○ E.g. garter snake Few species are viviparous:  The young are retained in a preplacental sac that allows exchange of oxygen and nutrients  E.g. pit vipers
  • 36.  For live bearing snakes gestation period varies from 90 – 150 days  The number of live young varies from 2 to as many as 100 Most young are on their own as soon as they are born or hatch  Pythons may stay near the mother for 2 or 3 days before they move off on their own  Some species of rattlesnakes may stay with their young and defend them for several days  Most snakes show no interest in their young  Some may even eat at their own young
  • 37. LIZARDS AND IGUANAS Prior to mating:  Males may take on bright body colors, display brightly colored dewlaps or engage in a series of ritual head bobbing or body movements to entice a female into mating  If an interested female is found, he may grasp or bite the female by the neck in an effort to hold onto her  The male moves his cloaca as close as possible to the female cloaca During mating:  When the two cloacas are together, one of the male’s hemipenes is inserted  The sperm flows into the female’s cloaca, where it the enters the oviduct  In some species, sperm can be retained or stored for long before fertilization  In some cases, several fertilization from one mating may occur
  • 38.  Determining the sex:  Many species of lizards show definite differences. This is called dimorphism thus making it fairly easy however only if they reach sexual maturity  Lizards ○ The young male’s hemipenes, when not being used for copulation, is withdrawn into the cloacal vent.  this gives a larger or swollen appearance to the area of the cloaca and tail base ○ The young female has thinner tail base  Anoles ○ Male has two large scales behind the cloaca  Geckos ○ Male has anal or preanal pores forward of the cloaca  Agamas and some Iguanas ○ Male has femoral pores on the inside of the rear thighs
  • 39. May be oviparous, ovoviviparous or viviparous Most are oviparous:  The female lay their eggs in holes they dig in the soil ○ May dig several holes before finding one that meets their approval  Time for hatching varies: ○ For smaller anoles and geckos: 30 days or less ○ Larger monitor lizards: as many as 120 days  Incubation period vary depending on environmental factors  Anoles usually lay single eggs  Some iguana species lay as many as 50 soft-shelled eggs  Geckos lay 2 hard-shelled eggs which are attached by an adhesive substance to cracks in tree bark  Most young lizards have a sharp egg tooth on the end of their snout  Most lizard females don’t stay after laying, the young are on their own
  • 40.  Live bearing species, mother shows no motherig instincts The young are left to fend for themselves as soon as they are born
  • 41. CROCODILIANS Mating habits are similar to that of lizards, except they usually mate in the water All are oviparous  Lay hard-shelled eggs usually deposited in nests  Nests may be ○ Cavities that are dug into the soil  Eggs are laid into the cavity and then covered with soil ○ Built into mounds from soil and vegetation  Eggs are deposited in the center
  • 42.  Number of laid eggs vary  Female crocodiles lay between 16 and 100 eggs  Female alligators and caimans lay between 20 and 30 eggs  Depends on the age and size of the female Female crocodiles stay within the vicinity of the nest to guard it against predators After 90 days, the young star making high- pitched sounds that alert the female to begin digging the top away from the nest so the young can emerge as they hatch Some species gather the young in their mouth and carry them to the water
  • 43.  Terrarium  Cage for keeping land or terrestrial reptiles Vivarium  A cage in which the environment is duplicated as close as possible to the original environment of the species Aquarium  Water environment for aquatic animals A combination of two of these would be needed for animals that are semiaquatic.
  • 44.  Glass aquariums  Commonly used material  Easily obtained from pet stores or discount stores PlexiglassBoth are definitely needed for aquatic, semiaquatic orrainforest habitat Cover lid  To keep the animals from escaping  Can be purchased or constructed from wood and wire mesh screen ○ Wood and wire mesh screen  Can be used to construct cages for dry habitats
  • 45.  Lighting  Heat source  Incandescent light ○ Should be with a reflector shield makes good light and heat source ○ The wattage of the bulb depends on the amount of heat needed ○ Distance is placed above the vivarium  Fluorescent lamp ○ Used to provide the needed ultraviolet rays ○ Should not be placed on top of a piece of glass because the glass will filter out UV rays
  • 46.  Thermometer  Important to monitor the temperature and maintained between 65 and 85 °F  Temperature under the heat lamp may need to be as high as 100°F Timer  May need to be added with heat lamp so that it can be turned off at night  Therefore, maintaining higher temp. during the day and cooler temps. during the day Hygrometer  Monitors relative humidity  Should be maintained from 50 to 70 percent
  • 47.  Aquarium heaters  Aquatic and semiaquatic vivariums need method of heating the water  Should be maintained at about 75 to 85 °F  Should be placed between couple of clay bricks to prevent damaging the unit Heating cable or mat  For additional heating (if needed)  Heating cables ○ Run through the substratum in the bottom of the vivarium ○ Place piece of wire mesh screen over the cable will prevent the reptiles from digging and causing burns
  • 48.  Heating mats ○ Placed under the vivarium  Artificial rocks with heating elements With the use of more than one heat source, the animals can move to the area they find most desirable
  • 49.  Sprinkler or misting system  For tropical rainforest species  Duplicate the daily rainfall of their original habitat  Need to be on a timer  Heat and humidity requirement will differ Circulation pump and filter system with aeration system  Alternative to changing of water  Help maintain water quality Water in aquatic and semiaquatic vivariums should be changed every 3 to 7 days to prevent buildup of bacteria and harmful wastes
  • 50. Turtles Most found in pet shops can easily be handled Small turtles  Picked up by the shell with the fingers and thumb and placed in the hand Larger turtles  May take both hands, placing the fingers under the lower shell (plastron) and the thumbs on the top shell (carapace)
  • 51.  If a hissing sound is heard, don’t be alarmed. This is usually a rush of air being expelled from the lungs as the turtle withdraws its head and limbs Very few problems will be encountered in the wild However, snapping turtles and some soft- shelled turtles have long necks and can reach around and bite Place in a cardboard box if being transported
  • 52. Snakes If have not been handled they will be frightened and their reaction is to bite for self-defense In the first few times, a pair of soft, leather gloves should be worn The bite of small snaked is not very painful but sharp teeth can tear the skin as the hand is pulled back in a reflex action Once the snake has been handled a few times, the gloves won’t be needed
  • 53.  Picking up small snakes  Grasp it firmly just behind the head  Usually coils up around the hand and allows itself to be lifted Picking up larger snakes  May need their body to be supported and lifted with the other hand  Should be held close to the handler’s body  Most enjoy being held up because of the warmth generated
  • 54.  Removing from its cage  The handler should let the snake know their presence an let the snake come  The snake may not like an intrusion and may defend themselves  Should never be grabbed by its tail  This will possibly cause injury and break off part of the tail Transporting a snake  Place it in a cloth bag, pillowcase (porous and allows air)  If weather is cool, place the bag in styrofoam or cooler. Holes must be punched or drilled to allow circulation  If necessary, place hot-water bottle
  • 55. Lizard Temperature may vary considerably Some may tame easily and allow themselves to be handled Others may remain wary and aggressive forever Lizards obtained at a young age are probably the easiest to work with
  • 56.  Small lizards  Picked up by grasping them with the thumb and forefinger behind the head and holding the animal around the body with the rest of the hand Larger lizards  Held the same way but the other hand should be used to support the rear of the lizard Large iguanas, tegus and monitors  Picked up using one hand to grasp the animal around the neck and the other hand to support the mid- and rear section  Tail can be held close to the body with the arm and elbow
  • 57.  Small lizards  Bites are most likely won’t cause any pain or injury  Usually not strong enough to break the skin Larger lizards  Capable of causing serious bites  Some have powerful jaws and may clamp down and not let go Handlers should wear gloves to pick up animals that usually bite Some are capable of inflicting serious scratches from sharp and powerful claws Any bites or scratches should be cleaned with soap and water and treated by a doctor
  • 59. Family Kinosternidae Made up of mud and musk turtles Small-sized turtles that are found in North America, Mexico and Central America Aquatic turtles that live in rivers, swamps, and ponds where they feed on insects, worms, small fish and plants
  • 60.  Have flattened shells and are able to completelyCommon mud turtle retract their head, tail and webbed feet into their shells
  • 61.  Get their name from the strong, musky smelling liquid they produce from glands between their upper and lower shells  Their lower shell does not hinge like that of mud turtlesCommon musk turtle
  • 62. Family Chleridae  Most widespread turtle in North America  Can reach over 12 inches long  Weigh up to 60 pounds  Feeds on fish, frogs, small ducks, geese and small mammals  Usually live in ponds and swamps but will venture out to find food  Very aggressive  If threatened, they open theirCommon Snapping Turtle mouths and snap theirChelydridae serpentina powerful jaws
  • 63.  Found in parts of the Southwestern United States  Largest of all freshwater turtles, reaching length of 5 feet and weighing 200 lbs.  Usually lies motionless on the bottom of ponds and slow-moving streams where it waits for prey  Attached to its tongue is a red, worm-like growth that lures small fish close soAlligator Snapping Turtle they are captured by theirMacroclemys temminckii powerful jaws
  • 64. Family Platysternidae  Native to streams of China, Thailand and Burma  Has huge head and is out of proportion with the rest of the body  Feed primarily on shellfish, also fish and small animals  Can climb trees and will emerge to sun itself  Has long tail that is almost as long as its shellBig – headed turtlePlatysternon megacephalum
  • 65. Family Emydidae Largest family having approx. 30 diff. genus groups and 85 diff. species Commonly called pond and river turtle Found in parts of Europe, North Africa, Asia, South America, Central America and North America Primarily found in freshwater habitats, spend warm, sunny days basking on logs and rocks, but also live in brackish habitats or on land Vary from about 4 inches up to 2 feet in length Noted for their bright colors and distinct patterns Makes up most of the turtles that are traded as pets and used for research
  • 66.  Size is at 4 inches  May be the smallest of all turtles  Found in shallow bogs along the East coast of USBog turtleClemmys muhlenberg
  • 67.  Largest Emydidae turtle  Reaches 2 feet in length  Weighs 50 to 60 pounds  Found in Sumatra, Burma and ThailandBatagurBatagur baska
  • 68. Genus Terrapene: BoxTurtle Easily recognized by their domed shell and hinged plastron Can withdraw their head, tail and limbs and hinged plastron closes completely sealing the animal from outside predators Long – lived; may easily live 40 to 50 years
  • 69.  Usually found in Illinois and Mississippi eastward  Brown to black with yellow or orange markings; plastron is dark brown to yellow  Males have right red eyes  Usually found in open woodland areas, may be also near water but rarely enter water few inches deep  Adults are usually 4 to 5 inches longCommon or Eastern box turtleTerrapene carolina carolina
  • 70. Florida box turtle Terrapene carolina bauriGulf coast box turtleTerrapene carolina major
  • 71. Genus Graptemys: Map andSawback Turtle Deepwater, diving turtles Recognized by their striped heads and limbs, serrated rear shell margins, and center scutes that have raised or pointed projections Adults are wary and hard to capture Females may be twice as large as males Develop heads with large jaws
  • 72. Genus Clemmys: Spotted andWood turtles  Common in the Eastern US  Small turtle that reaches 4 inches long  Easily recognized by the yellow spots found on the black carapace  Young turtles don’t have spots, it develops as they mature  Yellow spots are alsoSpotted turtle found on the head, neckClemmys guttata and limbs
  • 73.  Found in the Eastern US, southern Ontario and northern Wisconsin  Usually reaches 6 to 7 inches long  Easily recognized by its rough carapace and orange throat and limbs  Primarily terrestrialWood turtleClemmys insculpta
  • 74. Genus Malaclemys:Terrapins The term terrapin is applied to turtles found in fresh and brackish water that are considered excellent eating  Very popular as a gourmet food before World War I Females are larger range in size from 6 to 7 inches long Males are usually 4 to 5 inches long
  • 75.  Largest specie  Found along the Gulf Coast from Florida to LouisianaMississippi diamondbackMalaclemys terrapin pileata
  • 76. Northern terrapin Southern terrapinMalaclemys terrapin terrapin Malaclemys terrapin centrata
  • 77. Diamond terrapin Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarumOrnate diamondback terrapinMalaclemys terrapinmacrospilota
  • 78. Family Trionichidae Consists of soft – shelled turtles Commonly found in freshwater habitats of North America, Africa, Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines Have flat, flexible shells that lack scutes and three claws on each foot Settle on bottom of streams, ponds and lakes Most have snorkel – shaped snouts that enable them to breathe while they remain beneath the water’s surface They are able to exchange oxygen through their shell and skin which allows them to remain submerged longer than other turtles Often seen sunning themselves on streams, ponds and lakes Most are carnivorous; feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, insects, worms, frogs and fish
  • 79.  Largest species  Found throughout mostFlorida soft – shelled turtle of FloridaTrionyx ferox  Females are approx. 12 to 15 inches long  Males are somewhat smaller
  • 80.  Most widespread species  Has cone – shapedSpiny soft – shelled turtle projections along theTrionyx spinifer front margin of the carapace
  • 81. Smooth or spineless soft – shelled turtlesTrionyx muticus  Common in the Central United States
  • 82. Family Testudinidae: Tortoises Terrestrial and primarily herbivorous Vary in size from 6 to more than 50 inches
  • 83.  Smallest specieEgyptian tortoiseTestudo kleinmanni
  • 84.  Largest speciesAldabra tortoiseAldabrachelys elephantina
  • 85.  Most famous speciesLarge island tortoise  Found on the GalapagosChelonoids elephantopus Islands
  • 86. Family Dermochelyidae  Largest species of turtle in the world  Average carapace length is about 61 inches and weighs about 800 lbs.  Some are 8 – 9 feet in length and weigh more than 1,000 lbs  Primarily black with numerous white spotsLeatherbak sea turtle or  Carapace has no scutesLeathery turtle and is somewhat flexibleDermochelys coriacea
  • 87. Family Cheloniidae: Hard – shelledsea turtlesHawksbill turtle Loggerhead turtleEretonochelys imbricata Caretta caretta
  • 88. Flatback turtle Green sea turtleChelonia depressa Chelonia mydas
  • 89. Family Dermatemyidae  Found in Belize, Guatemala and Southern Mexico  Carapace of both male and female reaches about 18 in. long  Shell scutes are very thin  Spend most of its time in the water. It floats and doesn’t climb on logs or river banks to bask in the sun  Has excellent meat ergoCentral American river turtle hunted for human consumptionDermatemys mawii
  • 90. Family Carettochelyidae  Found in remote areas of New Guinea and Northern Australia  Carapace reaches about 18 inches long; doesn’t have scutes but consists of a layer of skin  Upper surface is gray and underside is white  Tail is covered with a series of crescent –Plateless river turtle/ Pig- shaped scalesnosed turtleCarettochelys insculpta
  • 92. Family Leptotyphlopidae Commonly referred to as thread snakes Among the smallest in the world and range from 3 to 16 inches long Found in arid areas of Africa, Arabia, North America, Central America and South America Has very small eyes and they spend most of their time in tunnels Feed on insects, primarily termites and ants Light brown to pink in color
  • 93. Western blind snake Leptotyphlops humilisTexas blind snakeLeptotyphlops dulcis
  • 94. Java wart snake or Elephant’s Family Acrochordidae trunk snake Acrochordus javanicus  Commonly referred to as wart snakes  Aquatic and found in streams, canals and rivers in Asia and Australia  Feed primarily on fish  Reaches 6 ft. longIndian wart snake or Asianfile snakeChersydrus granulatus
  • 95. Family Aniliidae Commonly referred to as pipe snakes All species are found in Asia and Indonesia except one specie in with brilliant  Ringed South America scarlet and black that resembles the poisnous Shape of their bodies are almost the coral snakes same circumference from head to tailCoral pipe snake or face coralsnakeAnilius scytale
  • 96. Family Xenopeltidae  Grows about 3 ft. long  Burrows under leaves and decaying matter  Primarily active at night  Brown, and its smooth scales shimmer in the sunlightSunbeam snake or sunbeampythonXenopeltis unicolor
  • 97. Family Boidae: Pythons and Boas  Found in Southeast Asia and the Philippines  Has a network of pattern of brown, buff, yellow and reddish brown  Feed on mammals: deer, pigs and poultry  Reaches 33 ft. longReticulated pythonPython reticulatus
  • 98. Ball pythonPython regius Rock python Python sebae
  • 99. Black – headed python Aspidites melanocephalusBlood pythonPython curtus
  • 100.  Semiaquatic found in river basins of the Amazon and Orinco rivers of South America  Reaches 33 ft. long  Grayish – brown with large black markings  Excellent swimmers; their nostrils are located on the top of their snout  Feed in trees, on land and in the water  Feeds on birds, peccaries, caiman, tapirs, capybara, fish and turtleAnaconda  Don’t adapt well inEunectes murinus captivity
  • 101. Emerald tree boa Boa constrictorCorallus caninus Boa constrictor
  • 102. Yellow anaconda Eunectes notaeusRainbow boaEpicrates cenchris
  • 103. Central american dwarf boa Ungaliophis panamensisRubber boaCharina bottae
  • 104. Rosy boaLichanura trivirgata
  • 105. Family Colubridae Largest family of snakes having 300 genus groups consisting of 1,562 species Commonly referred to as harmless snakes Found on all the five continents and as far as the Arctic Circle and south to the tip of South America Rear – fanged snakes: Have grooved fangs at the rear of their jaws that can inject venom into their prey
  • 106. Boomslang Dispholids typusTwig snakeThelotornis kirtlandii
  • 107. Subfamily Natricinae Consists of common water snakes and garter snakes Found in North America Ranges in length from 24 in. to more than 6 ft
  • 108. Water snakes Semiaquatic and are seldom found far from water; spends a lot of their time basking in the sun Most, although hermless, are aggressive Feed on fish, frogs, salamanders and toads Gray – brown with darker cross - bands
  • 109. Water snakes Semiaquatic and are seldom found far from water; spends a lot of their time basking in the sun Most, although harmless, are aggressive Feed on fish, frogs, salamanders and toads Gray – brown with darker cross – bands Ranges from 24 inches to more than 6 ft long To keep in captivity, they must have an aquatic environment; cleaning and maintaining can be difficult and time consuming
  • 110. Red – bellied water snake Nerodia erythrogasterNorthern water snakeNerodia sipedon
  • 111. Brown water snake Nerodia taxispilotaGreen water snakeNerodia cyclopion
  • 112. Garter snakes Most widespread in North America Can be found among leaves, under logs and under rocks Young: earthworms, mealworms and other insects Larger: rodents and frogs Can be tamed and adjust readily to captivity Most are easily recognized by their vivid stripes running the length of their body on a dark background Some have a checkered pattern, others may be solid black
  • 113. Common garter snakeThamnophis sirtalis
  • 114. Giant garter snake Thamnophis couchi gigasButler’s garter snakeThamnophis butleri
  • 115. Genus Elaphe: Rat snakesBlack rat snake Corn snakeElaphe obsoleta obsoleta Elaphe guttata
  • 116. Yellow rat snake Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittataGray rat snakeElaphe obsoleta spiloides
  • 117. Genus Lampropeltis: King snakes and Milksnakes Common king snake Eastern milk snake L. getulus L. pyromelano
  • 118. Sonoran Mountain king snakeL. pyromelano
  • 119. Genus Diadophis: Ring – necksnakes Common ring – neck snake D. punctatus
  • 120. Genus Pituophis: Pine snakes and Bull snakesPine snake Bull snakeP. melanoleucus melanoleucus P. melanoleucus sayi
  • 121. Genus Opheodrys: Rough and SmoothGreen snakeRough green snake Smooth green snakeO. aestivus O. vernalis
  • 123. Family Gekkonidae Commonly referred to as geckos Found in tropical and semitropical regions Have 4 limbs with toes on each limb; toes in most geckos have adhesive pads called lamellae Most are nocturnal and have vocal cords Don’t have eyelids but have transparent covering; cleans with their large, flat, fleshy tongues Most are insect eaters; others feed on the nectar of plants, small mammals and birds Some eat their skin after shedding
  • 124.  One of the largest reaching 12 inches long  Found in the rainforests of Southeastern Asia, India, and New Guinea  Body is grayish – blue with small orange spots  Have large yellow eyes with slit pupils and feed on insects and small rodents  In captivity, feed on insects baby mice and are especially fond of bee mothsTokay geckoGekko gecko
  • 125.  Commonly referred to as chitchat gecko  Found around human dwellings in Southeast Asia and on many Pacific Islands  Reaches 6 ft long nad has slit pupils and adhesive lamellae  Feed on insects, spiders and small rodents  Sandy – brown with darker spots and blotchesHouse geckoHemidactylus frenatus
  • 126. Leopard gecko Eublepharus macularusGold Dust Madagascar DaygeckoPhelsuma laticauda
  • 127. Banded geckoColeonyx variegatus
  • 128. Family Iguanidae Most are found in the Americas, with a range from Southern Canada to the tip of South America Few are found on the islands of Fiji and Tonga in the Pacific Ocean, the wetlands of Madagascar and the Galapagos Islands Active during the day and most lay eggs; few give birth to live young Great variation in body size and body shape
  • 129. Genus Anolis: Anole  Largest species  Found in Cuba  Reaches about 18 in long  Green with white markings; eyes have blue markings around  Feeds on insects but is large enough to feed on mice and small birdsKnight anoleA. equestric
  • 130. Genus Iguana  Common in pet trade  Found in Central and South America  Arboreal; reaches 6 ½ ft long  Young: 8 in long, feed on insects and earthworms; when they get older: feed on rodents, birds and fish  Mature: eat fruits, leaves, blossoms and buds  Green and has a crestCommon green iguana running from the neck to the tailIguana iguana
  • 131. Genus Amblyrhynchus  Live near seawater  Feeds only on certain types of seaweeds  Dark green to black  Grows to about 4 ½ ftGalapagos Islands marine iguana longA. cristatus
  • 132. Family Agamidae Referred to as chisel – teeth lizards Their teeth are fused at the base on the ridge of the upper and lower jaws, and the front are long and chisel – like Found in Africa, the Middle East, South and Central Asia and Australia Very few are available in the pet trade Several live in special habitats
  • 133.  Largest species, reaching more than 3 ft long  Found on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi  Has a large crest that runs from head to tail  Brown and is a tree – dwelling species that takes to the water when alarmed; excellent swimmer  Feeds on insects, earthworms, fish, birds,Sail – tailed water lizard small rodents and fruitHydrosaurus amboinensis
  • 134.  Found throughout Africa  Most are very colorful; several change color during the day  In the morning: dark brown coloration becomes lighter as they absorb the sun’s raysCommon house agamaAgama agama
  • 135. Genus Physignathus  Commonly found in pet stores  Native to tropical forest areas of Southeast Asia  Reach 30 in (2/3 of it is the tail) long  Green with light bands around the body and tail  May be light blue-green patches on the throat  Feed on insects, earthworms, fish and smallAsian Water dragon/ Chinese water rodentsdragon/ Oriental Water dragon  More carnivorousP. cocincinus
  • 136. Family Scinidae Made up of 85 genus groups consisting of more than 1,275 species Found in tropical areas throughout the world Consists of the skinks  most are small, but the largest member may reach 2 ft  Usually terrestrial and burrow under leaves and debris on the forest floor  Almost round in cross section, and they have indistinct necks and short limbs ○ Some have short limbs that they are unable to lift their bodies off the gorund ○ Some may not have limbs
  • 137. Five – Lined skink Eumeces fasciatusAustralian Blue – tonguedskinkTiliqua sciniondes
  • 138. Solomon’s Giant skinkCornucia zebrata
  • 139. Family Varanidae Made up of one genus group consisting of 31 species Commonly referred to as monitor lizards Most are found in Australia and Southeast Asia Vary greatly in size from 8 inches to 10 ft. All have long necks, powerful limbs, strong claws and powerful tails and all are egg layers Most are large animals and can be dangerous ergo not recommended as pets
  • 140. Short – tailed pygmy monitorVaranus breicauda
  • 141. Komodo dragonVaranus komodonis
  • 142. Lace monitor V. variusYellow monitorV. flavescens
  • 143. Sand monitorV. gouldii
  • 144.  Sometimes found in pet trade  It can reach an adult length of more than 6 ft and become hard to handle  Feeds on mice, rats, small birds, eggs and raw meat  In captivity, feeds on dog and cat foodSavannah monitorV. exanthematicus
  • 145. Family Chamaeleonidae Consists of true chameleons Most are found in Africa and Madagascar, few in Europe and Asia Have the ability to change color quickly may be controlled by their surroundings, the temperature and the animal’s mood Have tongues as long as 5 ½ in and the tip is covered with mucus Have excellent eyesight Most are arboreal with opposing toes that allow them to grasp branches and limbs; most have prehensile tails Delicate and are hard to raise in captivity
  • 146.  Grows about 10 inches longCommon chameleon  Found along the coastsChamaeleo chamaeleon of North Africa and Southern Europe  Feeds on mealworms, flies and spiders
  • 147.  One of the largest speciesMeller’s chameleonChamaeleo melleri  Growing up to 2 ft long
  • 149. Family Alligatoridae: Alligatorsand Caimans Their teeth fit into their jaws: 4th tooth of the lower jaw fits into sockets in the upper jaw, when the mouth is closed, the tooth is not visible
  • 150.  Found along the east coast of the US from North Carolina south and across the Gulf of Mexico to Texas  Black and reach 14 ft long  Once endangered for they were hunted for meat, skins and as pets  Small alligators feed on insects, snails, & small aquatic life  Adults feed on larger fish, small mammals, turtles andAmerican alligator birds Chinese alligatorAlligator mississippiensis Alligator sinensis
  • 151. Caimans Found from Central America southward to the central parts of South America Commonly find their way into the pet trade Heavily protected by an armored underside made up of overlapping bony plates Tropical animals and must have temperatures of 78 to 85°F Carnivorous  In the wild: earthworms, snails, minnows, frogs, and small animals  In captivity: small pieces of meat sprinkled with vitamins and bone meal to provide adequate nutrition
  • 152.  Largest member ofBlack caiman caiman familyMelanosuchus niger  Can reach 15 ft long
  • 153. Common caiman Caiman crocodilusLarge/broad – snoutedcaimanCaiman latirostis
  • 154. Genus PaleosuchusDwarf caiman Smooth – fronted caimanP. palpebrosus P. trigonatus
  • 155. Family Crocodylidae Range in size from 4 ft. to the giant crocodiles, which may reach 25 ft long Weigh more than 2,000 lbs Their 4th teeth is visible even when the mouth is closed  Found in extreme southern FloridaAmerican crocodile  Survives in brackishCrocodylus acutus waters
  • 156. Family Gavialidae Gharials have very long, narrow snouts that are used for catching fish (main diet) Seldom exported and are not considered part of the pet trade
  • 157. False gharial True gharialTomistoma schegelii Gavialis gangeticus