HISTORY Ordovarian Period (425-500 million years ago) OSTRACODERMS ○ Slow, bottom-dwelling animals ○ Covered with thick bony plates and scales ○ Had very poorly developed fins and didn’t have jaws ○ Believed to be the first animal with backbone Extinct about 250 million years ago
2 Groups of Fishes with movable jaws PLACODERMS ACANTHODIANS Appeared about 395 million Appeared about 410 years ago million years ago Had thick, bony plates and paired fins Distinguished by the Their upper jaw was fused bony spines projecting in to the skull while the lower front their fins and by jaw was hinged and minute diamond-shaped movable scales Extinct about 345 million years ago Class Osteichthyes Class Chondrichthyes evolved evolved
GENERAL CHARACTERICTICS Fish are cold-blooded vertebrates that breathe with gills and move with the aid of fins. They have the most numerous vertebrates with more than 30, 000 species. All fish must maintain proper levels of salt and water in their bodies through osmosis. Freshwater fishes: Body salts are higher in concentration than surrounding water Saltwater fishes: Surrounding water has higher concentration than their bodies
Most fish are able to react to changes in water pressure, temperature, currents and sounds. Fish have taste buds in their mouth, on their lips and on their body and fins. Some are on their barbels (whisker-like projections around their mouth) Has highly developed sense of smell
Philippine island goby (Pandaka pygmea)The smallest fish.Only 1/3 or ½ inch long.
Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus)The largest fish.Average size is 25 feet long.Grows about 50 feet and weigh up to 15 tons.
EXTERNAL SOFT DORSAL FIN SPINY DORSAL FIN ANATOMY PENDUCLE LATERAL LINENOSTRILS EYEMOUTH VENT ANAL FIN PECTORAL FIN SCALESOPERCULUM CAUDAL/TAIL FIN(GILL COVER) PELVIC FIN
Scales Thin bony plates that overlap each other and provide protection. Develop from and are embedded in a pocket of the dermis. The exposed part is covered with a thin layer of epidermis.Four types of scales: 1. Ctenoid 2. Cycloid 3. Gamoid 4. Placoid
1. Ctenoid ○ Have serrations on the edges and rough surfaces2. Cycloid ○ Have smooth surfaces and edges that make the fish feel smooth and slick3. Ganoid4. Placoid
Skin it contains glands that produce a slimy mucus which makes the fish slippery and provide protection from bacteria Contains chromatophores which are pigment cells that give the fish its colors. ○ Usually allows to blend with its surroundings Sensory receptors are also contained in the skin
Anal fin Single Found on the underside near the tail Acts as rudder or keel to help steer the fish during faster motion In some species, this has adapted to become a sex organ
Fins Movable structures that aid the fish in swimming and maintaining its balance. Most have rayed fins. These fins consist of a web of skin supported by a bone or cartilage rods called rays ○ May have sharp, spiny or soft rays Very flexible
Pectoral fin generally in symmetrical pairs Found on the side just behind the head Used to stabilize, rotate and stop the fish during slower motion
Caudal fin Single; also called tail fin Together with the caudal penducle, they generate the forward thrust in most fish. These are the main release point for that forward thrust.
Pelvic fin also called ventral fins Generally in symmetrical pairs Found below and just behind the pectoral fins Used in similar fashion to the pectoral fins
Dorsal fin Found along their back Soft dorsal fin ○ Used to stabilize the fish and keep them upright ○ Has similar purpose to the anal fin. Spinous dorsal fin ○ Also used to stabilize and keep them upright ○ Spiny and sharp ○ In some species, it contains venom for protection from predators. ○ Display of an erect dorsal fin shows readiness to mate and is in prime condition therefore a good mate
Eyes Has spherical lens that focuses by moving within the eyeball, not by changing the curvature of the lens They don’t have eyelids, kept moist by the water Size usually depends on the amount of light reaching the eye ○ Fish living shallow and brightly lit waters have small eyes ○ Those that live in dimly lit water have big eyes
Lateral line Series of fluid-filled ducts/sacs with hair-like sensory apparatus that are open to the water through a series of pores located just under the scales. Neuromasts – Row of sensors that allow the fish to detect movement (vibration) around them in order to capture prey, elude predators and navigate efficiently
Mouth Have taste buds Feeding/food is based on its shape ○ Top dwellers – upturned ○ Middle dwellers – small mouths and are straight forward, neither upward nor downward ○ Bottom-dwellers – downward turned or underslung
Nostrils Used to detect odors in water and can be quite sensitive
Kidney Filters liquid waste materials from the blood then these waters are then passed out of the body Regulates water and salt concentrations within the fish’s body allowing certain fish species to exist in freshwater or saltwater and in some cases both
Liver Assists in digestion by secreting enzymes that break down fats Serve as storage area for fats and carbohydrates Destroys old blood cells Maintains proper blood chemistry Plays a role in nitrogen (waste) excretion
Muscle Provides movement and locomotion Part usually eaten and composes the fillet or fish
Spine Primary structural framework upon which the fish’s body is built Connects to the skull at the front and to the tail at the rear of the fish. Made up of numerous vertebrae (hollow which house and protect the delicate spinal cord)Spinal Cord Connects the brain to the rest of the body Relays sensory information from the rest of the body to the brain and vice versa
Stomach and Intestines Break down (digest) food and absorb nutrients Piscivorous fish (eat other fish) have fairly short intestine because such food is easy to chemically break down and digest Herbivorous fish (eat plants) require longer intestines because plant matter is usually tough and fibrous and more difficult to break down into usable components
Swim Bladder located in the abdominal cavity Filled with gases produced by blood which enables the fish to maintain a particular depth. A few bony fishes are able to breathe atmospheric air because their swim bladder is supplied with blood vessels thus allows it to function like a lung A few fish species have a part of their intestines that are modified to allow oxygen intake. ○ They rise to the surface and gulp air into their mouths ○ The air is swallowed into the digestive system, then taken to the blood.
Anabantoid fish have special rosette-shaped plates in a labyrinthine chamber behind their gills ○ These are supplied with numerous blood vessels that absorb oxygen from the atmospheric air they inhale through their mouth >>These are important adaptation for fish living in swamps or other waters that are poorly oxygenated
Flake foods Ideal for small fishes up to 4 or 5 inches long Produced from the meat of fish, fish eggs, wheat and vegetables. Usually contain additional vitamins and minerals ○ Pellet For larger fish ○ Floating fish sticks For large top-feeding fish ○ Sinking small pellets For middle feeders Sinks slowly ○ Sinking tablets For bottom-feeders
Live foods Daphnia Water fleas (small crustacean) Artemina Brine shrimp Small shrimp that live in salt lakes or brackish waters River shrimp and bloodworms For large fish Earthworms, flies, maggots, wood lice, caterpillars, crickets and grasshoppers. Parasites and diseases that they may carry can be harmful to fish.
Meat Carnivorous fish Minced or chopped ○ Beef heart, liver, Raw fish meat and Shellfish meat ○ Pieces of turkey and chicken ○ Small goldfish (for larger carnivorous fish) Vegetables ○ Chopped or shredded lettuce, spinach leaves, canned peas, wheat germ and oat flakes If not consumed within 8 hours, it should be removed or disposed.
Four types of marine invertebrates: 1. Those that feed on plankton that is filtered from the water, including stone and horny coral, tubeworms, bivalves, some species of sea cucumbers and crustaceans. ○ Commercially prepared plankton foods and frozen foods are available 2. Those that feed on plant material, including sea urchins, mollusks and sea slugs. ○ A diet of lettuce and spinach will hopefully prevent them from feeding on aquarium plants.
3. Those that are carnivorous, including crabs, sea stars, sea anemones, shrimp and lobsters. ○ Sea anemones should be fed only when their tentacles are out (in bloom). ○ Drop the food in their tentacles.4. Those that are scavengers including sea cucumbers. ○ They feed on debris and uneaten foods on the bottom of the aquarium.
REPRODUCTION Reproduce by means of fertilization of the female’s eggs by the sperm (milt) from the male
EGG-LAYERSa) Egg-Scatterers Fish that lay their eggs in a haphazard manner on the floor of an aquarium ○ Some species lay adhesive eggs that stick to the gravel on the aquarium floor/on decorations and plant materials. ○ Other species lay nonadhesive eggs No parental care of the egg/young Once the egg is laid, they are forgotten
Several steps taken to reduce the number of eggseaten by parents: 1. Cut down on the amount of light. This encourages spawning and increases the number of eggs produced. 2. Have aquarium plants so dense that adult fish will have difficulty swimming among plants to find eggs and newly hatched fry. 3. Place on or two layers of glass marbles on the floor of the aquarium. The eggs will settle among them and the adults won’t be able to get to the eggs. 4. Place spawning grass or Spanish moss or man- made grass on the aquarium floor. This material can be placed over layers of marbles also.
5. Drape a nylon curtain in the tank. The adults can swim above the curtain and as the eggs are laid, they will fall through the curtain to the floor aquarium.6. Use a large spawning tank that allows the eggs to go undiscovered and the newly-hatched fry to hide or evade the adults.
Egg-buryers Fish that lay their eggs in the mud of rivers and ponds or in the material on the floor of the aquarium. In river muds and ponds ○ Adults lay their eggs in the mud an die when the river and ponds dry up. ○ The eggs survive and hatches when the next rain comes. In aquariums ○ Annual fish lay their eggs in two or three inches of peat in the material. ○ Lives more than a year.
○ These annual fish may also lay eggs in dense plant growth or spawning grass.○ The eggs can be removed with tweezers and stored in moist peat.○ Take the peat containing the eggs, squeeze out the water, place the peat in plastic bag and seal them.○ After two or three months, place the peat in water so that the eggs will hatch.
c.) Egg-Depositors Usually select their own mate Have complex spawning routines ○ They clean off a nesting site where the female deposits her eggs and the male fertilizes them. Excellent parents ○ Take turns guarding the nest ○ They constantly fan the nest and eggs with their fins to keep them clean from dirt or silt and dust that may settle on them. ○ When they young fry hatch, they keep watch for several days to protect them from predators.
d.) Mouth-Brooders Fish that carry their eggs in their mouth until they hatch. ○ During this incubation of two to three weeks, parent does not eat. Then, the young may continue to be carried in their parents mouth until they are ready to fend. In some species ○ The young, after leaving the parent’s mouth may return if threatened
e.) Nest-Builders Constructs a nest in which the eggs are deposited Nest can be: ○ Bubble nest on the surface made from saliva-blown bubbles ○ Prepared from materials found on the floor of the aquarium. After the eggs are fertilized, the female should be removed because the male will become aggressive towards her and he then guards the nest.
LIVE-BEARERS The male’s anal fin is modified so that he can deposit milt into the vent of the female. Gonopodium – the modification which is a characteristic that helps identify the male of the species. Give birth to twenty or as many as 200 young fry. Female store the milt in their oviducts for several months, thereby several brood can be produced. In viviparous species: ○ The young are nourished from the female’s bloodstream In ovoviviparous species: ○ The young are nourished by the yolk sac
In preparing breed fish, several conditionsshould be observed: 1. Temperature of the water should be increased 2 or 3 °F. This stimulates breeding. 2. Filtration and healthy water conditions are vital to successful breeding and reproduction. However, a system that provides too much up-lift or suction may draw the young fry into the gravel on the bottom. And if aeration is too strong, the young can be injured. 3. Air-operated sponge filter and a gentle flow of air from an air stone provide adequate conditions.
AQUARIUM The term combines the Latin root aqua, meaning water, with the suffix -arium, meaning "a place for relating to“
TYPES OF AQUARIUM Community Aquarium Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Mix of fish and plants originating from different geographical areas with emphasis placed on color and hardiness Can be successful if it follows the basic rules for compatibility of its inhabitants with respect to temperature, water chemistry, aquarium size and character Planted aquariums Features emphasis on plants and limited fish populations Typical fish species are tetras or rasboras and some angelfish Lighting and attention to appropriate filtration media are important details
FILTER FILTER SYSTEMS FILTER MEDIAHEATERAIR PUMPTHERMOMETERLIGHTINGAQUARIUM DECORATIONSTEST KITS
FILTER Remove solid waste and uneaten food materials from the water For water purity and quality Takes out visible particles, breaks down toxic substances, and removes harmful chemicals in aquariums
Filter Media Is the content of a filter system which is in contact with the water flow and is the substance that actually performs the mechanical, biological and chemical filtering.
MECHANICAL FILTRATION Removal of particulate waste from the water Mechanical filter media, which is very fine, will trap greater quantities of debris and plug more rapidlyRegularly remove accumulated debris.This will help support superior oxygenlevels, stable water conditions and reducenitrate accumulations.
Foam is an excellent mechanical filter media. The porous channel structure within the foam obliges the incoming water to deviate from a straight path, maximizing contact time and giving the foam a huge holding capacity for debris. Maximum mechanical effect is achieved after approximately 10 to 14 days. It also supports essential bacteria and can be a mechanical and biological filter media, as evidenced by internal filter systems, as long as a regular water change schedule is respected. Polywool Effective mechanical filter media that will remove fine particles and prevent other filter media from being prematurely clogged. It will contribute to polishing aquarium water for ultra clear conditions.
CHEMICAL FILTRATION Active control and change of specific water characteristics. Filter media and various products exist that clarify water, eliminate odor, remove chlorine, eliminate medications after disease treatments, neutralize heavy metal ions and effect changes in hardness and pH levels. Specific chemical filter media should be used to optimize water conditions for various groups of fish and plants. This will ensure that fish and plants will look their best and stay healthy.
Accomplished with the use of activated charcoal (soaks up dissolved minerals and chemicals) Activated charcoal can be placed in box filters or return water can flow through the charcoal.Charcoal must be replaced periodically asit reaches the point where it can no longerabsorb dissolved materials.
Carbon highly adsorptive and is capable of removing odors and liquid wastes such as urine, dyes and many other impurities from aquarium water. Provides the correct pore size and selection of optimal raw ingredients to provide long lasting aquarium filtration. This is very important as there are carbons that are manufactured using raw materials which are designed for filtering air, not water, and are sold for aquarium use. Opti–Carb An advanced chemical filter media that combines a high quality carbon with both a synthetic Organic Adsorption and Ion Exchange Resin. This potent combination of ingredients will ensure that aquarium water is effectively free of dissolved protein matter, toxic heavy metals, dissolved gasses that cause odor and discoloration for a crystal clear aquarium. Both fresh and saltwater aquariums will benefit from improved water quality. Fresh and saltwater fish will thrive in ultra pure water while plants and corals will benefit from improved light availability due to ultra clear water conditions.
Phosphate Remover Phosphate is major nutrient and is undesirable within freshwater aquariums that do not contain plants and in marine aquariums in general. It’s presence is linked to undesirable aquarium conditions and can result in an unsightly appearance. Pre-Filter consists of inert, solid rings that are ideal for medium to coarse filtration. These durable rings also serve as a surface for beneficial bacteria, contributing to biological filtration. Ammonia Remover natural mineral, which safely and effectively scavenges ammonium from aquarium water. Particularly useful when chloramine is present in tap water, and in instances where ammonia can occur, such as new aquariums, fish loss, overfeeding, after disease treatment, and overpopulated installations.
Zeo-Carb Combines Ultra Grade Carbon and Ammonia Remover to protect the aquarium from build-ups of ammonia and liquefied waste, dyes and medication. It effectively controls and removes ammonia while trapping organic compounds. In addition, it also supports biological filtration. Nitrate Remover Effectively bind large quantities of Nitrate and highly toxic Nitrite. As ammonia and nitrite are continuously converted by nitrifying bacteria, there is an accumulation of nitrate. The greater the concentration of fish and other life within the aquarium the faster Nitrate will accumulate. This is a direct reflection of poor water quality as well as being a major factor in unsightly aquarium conditions. Regular use of this product is highly recommended for well stocked freshwater aquariums, especially those that do not contain live plants.
BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION Neutralize toxic substances, essentially ammonia excreted from fish during respiration and produced from decaying waste and food materials. In this system, a slotted plastic plate is placed in the bottom of the aquarium. A 2 or 3 inch layer of gravel is placed over the slotted plate; should be 0.125 inches in diameter Gravel containing large particles allows food to fall and decay while too small particles block the air pump
Aquarium Peat Highly desirable filter media which is very beneficial for aquariums containing plants, South American Cichlids, Tetras, Gouramis, Rasboras, Killifish, and many other species of fish originating from acidic waters. Peat will lightly stain the water a natural tan color, lower pH and KH values, and release natural substances, optimizing aquarium water conditions for many fresh water fish and aquatic plants. Fish that originate in acidic water will exhibit optimum coloration, improved behavior and reproduction. Peat can also have a positive effect in supporting acidic water conditions Bio-Max Perfect biological media for fresh or salt water aquariums. BioMax porous cylinders are capable of supporting huge populations of water purifying bacteria. They are composed of 85% Micro-Tunnels, ideal for hosting the beneficial bacteria which consume toxic ammonia and nitrite. The remaining 15% are micro-cavities, ideal for hosting other species of beneficial bacteria that can contribute to biological filtration.
Air pump Achieves aeration (air or gas passing through) Pumps are either: Vibrator-diaphragm type Rotary-vane type
Waste and ammonia Fish excrete waste and an unestablished (or uncycled) aquarium is not capable of processing these waste materials efficiently, so this creates toxic conditions for the fish. The result is fish loss. Your aquarium water must be free of toxic compounds in order for fish to survive and thrive. Ammonia, perhaps the most notorious toxin, is introduced into your aquarium through fish waste, respiration, and other biological processes. It is extremely toxic and fish will show signs of stress, such as erratic swimming behavior, when ammonia is present. High levels of ammonia attack the gills first, causing fish to gasp at the surface. Continued exposure affects their fins and skin, and eventually their entire system is under attack.
Factors contributing to the increase of ammonia and nitrites: Increase in waste material and uneaten food on the bottom of the aquarium Dirty filters Failure to change water at regular intervals ( ¼ to 1/5 of the water should be changed every 3 to 4 weeks) Overfeeding Overpopulation of fish
In an established aquarium, ammonia is promptly converted into less toxic substances by beneficial bacteria through a natural process called the nitrogen cycle. New aquariums do not have established colonies of beneficial bacteria to adequately process these toxins.
Cycling The process of establishing and maturing biological filtration. The nitrogen cycling process that all new aquarium setups go through when they first start is what leads to the birth of the aquariums biological filtration. From start to finish, this cycle usually takes around 30 to 45 days to complete. Importance: In order to establish efficient biological filtration capable of breaking down these toxic compounds.
Nitrification Growth of colonies of aerobic bacteria Most efficient at a pH of 9 Nitrosomonas ○ Coverts ammonia into nitrites Nitrobacter ○ Converts nitrites into nitrates pH scales read: 0 = very acidic 14 = very alkaline 7.0 = neutral
Importance The nitrogen cycle of an aquarium is a natural chain of events resulting in the colonization of various types of nitrifying bacteria, each with their own job to do. Without a strong, healthy biological filter, an aquarium will never be able to support a healthy population of fish and invertebrates.
What does toxic ammonia convert into during the nitrogen cycle? First, oxygen-loving bacteria, called Nitrosomonas, feed on ammonia and through biological processes they excrete nitrite, a less toxic but still dangerous chemical. Another oxygen-utilizing bacteria, called Nitrobacter, feeds on the nitrite, converting it into relatively harmless nitrate. Nitrate can be used by plants in the aquarium, or can be removed with water changes.
HEATERS Warms water to maintain water temperatures preferred by tropical fish Stabilizes the water temperature for the health of the fish There are two types of heaters: Submersible Electronic
THERMOMETER To monitor water temperature and heater accuracy
LIGHTING Brings out extraordinary colors in the aquarium and facilitates the growth of live plants For viewing aquarium inhabitants or for healthy live plants
TYPES OF LIGHTING Fluorescent Incandescent LED
Factors that influence the typeand quantity of light required: Size of aquarium Fish species and other aquatic inhabitants Plant life Aesthetics
Lighting tips: Most plants require approximately 12 hours per day of light from a fluorescent fixture. Sudden changes in light may stress fish. When turning canopy lights on or off, it is beneficial to have room lights on for at least 30 minutes. Fish fed during the day should be allowed 30 minutes of light before and after feeding. Use timers when possible. Plants and fish will respond better to consistent lighting periods. Plants and fish will adapt to gradual light changes. When changing bulbs in a multiple bulb installation, change 1 to 2 weeks apart.
A remote ballast should be mounted in an area where there is adequate ventilation to efficiently dissipate heat. This is especially important in ballast types that generate more heat. Electrical wiring leading to the ballast should always incorporate a drip loop. Consider a GFI (Ground Fault Interrupter) power bar as an inexpensive insurance to avoid unpleasant circumstances surrounding any potential electrical mishaps. Do not leave lights on 24 hours a day. As in nature, fish and plants require dark periods as well.
AQUARIUM DECOR To make it attractive Also provide shelter and hiding places for inhabitants Plants can be added for attractiveness and to provide a means of using carbon dioxide while releasing oxygen
Success Begins with Research1. What aquarium inhabitants are appealing to you and what others can be housed with them?2. What size and shape of aquarium is recommended for them?3. What types of filtration, lighting, decorative structure, and accessory equipment are needed in order for the aquarium inhabitants to thrive?4. What feeding and maintenance is required to keep them healthy?5. Most importantly, are you willing to invest the time and money necessary for ongoing maintenance?
Rules of the thumb Generally, the larger the aquarium the better, unless it will be too heavy for the flooring to hold it. A tank that is filled with gravel and water will weigh at least 10 lbs. per gallon. That adds up quickly, if you consider that a seemingly small 20-gallon tank will weigh 200 pounds . . . and that does not account for the stand, lighting, or filtration! It is imperative to choose a sturdy stand to hold the tank. If you choose to setup your tank in an environment frequented by small children, choose a stand that cannot be climbed on or pulled over. Choose a filter appropriate to the type of inhabitants you are keeping and water capacity of the tank. Buy the best filter that you can afford. At minimum, a filter should provide mechanical and biological filtration. Next, youll need a heater and a good thermometer. Make sure the heater is at least 3-5 watts per gallon. For example, a 50-gallon tank would require a 150-250 watt heater.
You will need to choose an aquarium cover or hood. If the inhabitants require special lighting, youll want to purchase a fixture that can accommodate it. A water conditioner will be needed to remove chlorine and heavy metals if they are present in your water supply. Dont forget a net! Now, youre ready to decorate. Its essential to choose decorations that provide fish with structure and hiding places to relieve stress. Plants and decorations can also be used to conceal filter parts. Gravel in the bottom of the tank holds plants and decorations while hiding wastes. If you will be using an under gravel filter, the gravel should be about 2 inches thick. Dark colors will make the fish color appear more vibrant. A gravel cleaner and algae cleaner will be needed within 30 days so you can begin regular maintenance. Before you place the items in the tank, rinse them off and rinse gravel thoroughly until water drained off is clear.
Choose a sturdy, level area to set up the tank. Set up the stand, then the tank. Pour in cleaned gravel. Fill the tank with tap water about 3/4 full, then put in decorations, set up filtration, heater, and thermometer. Continue filling aquarium to 1/2" from bottom of rim. This allows extra space for when you put your first batch of fish in to acclimate. Now, youre ready to start up filtration, heater, and add any water conditioners needed. Assemble lighting/cover. Then, wait until tank heater has adjusted the water to the correct temperature (75°F for most fish) and maintains it. Finally, you can purchase your fish and acclimate them to their new home; remember not to put too many in at one time.
10 BASIC TIPS FOR A SUCCESSFULAQUARIUM1. AVOID OVERCOMPENSATINGInstead: Assess the situation and determine a prudent course of action. Many situationsbenefit from patience rather than misguided action.2. AVOID ADDING TOO MANY FISH TOO SOONInstead: Allow two to three weeks between each introduction of new fish. Also, use abiological additive with every addition. Adding too many fish too quickly taxes the biologicalfilter. The subsequent spike in ammonia level can often result in fish loss.3. AVOID SKIPPING QUARANTINEInstead: Always house new fish in a separate quarantine aquarium for a minimum of 2weeks for observation and treatment of potential illness.4. AVOID NEGLECTING WATER TESTSInstead: Test aquarium water regularly to make sure water parameters are within acceptablelevels. Many common aquarium pollutants are invisible. Regular water testing is the onlyaccurate way to detect toxins such as ammonia or nitrite.5. AVOID OVER-CLEANINGInstead: Stagger water changes and perform partial gravel cleaning to preserve vitalbeneficial bacteria. Aggressive cleaning can upset established biological filtration byremoving beneficial bacteria. An imbalance may result where ammonia levels exceed theprocessing capacity of the diminished bacterial population.
6. AVOID UNDER-CLEANINGInstead: Perform routine partial water changes and follow the manufacturersrecommended schedule for replacing filter media. Lax maintenance habits have acumulative negative effect on overall water quality. Not only do pollutants accumulateto unhealthy levels, it becomes more difficult to bring aquarium conditions withinacceptable parameters.7. AVOID SKIPPING RESEARCHInstead: Research care requirements of the species you are interested in first. Resistimpulse purchases. Make sure you are able to properly provide for the species andthat your aquarium is capable of supporting the new addition. Also, confirmcompatibility of existing aquarium inhabitants.8. AVOID "GENERIC" EQUIPMENT SELECTIONInstead: Purchase equipment that satisfies the specific needs of YOUR aquariuminhabitants. Each aquarium setup is unique, so research and customizefiltration, lighting, water movement, and aeration requirements.9. AVOID IMPROPER NUTRITIONInstead: Offer a wide variety of foods, including flake foods, freeze-dried foods, andfrozen foods. Avoid over-feeding by following the manufacturers feeding instructions.Adjust feeding amount so fish are able to finish the dispensed portion within a coupleminutes.10. AVOID IMPROPER USE OF BOTTLE REMEDIESInstead: Always read and follow the manufacturers label completely beforedispensing any medications, water conditioners, or algaecides. More does not alwaysmean better results.
Fish pond a controlled pond, artificial lake, or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is used in aquaculture for fish farming, or is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes.
STEP-BY STEP1. MAKING CONTOURS2. THE DIGGING3. THE LINER • 1st layer – polyester • 2nd layer – rubber4. INSTALLING EQUIPMENT Filter system5. ADDING STRUCTURE
THINGS TO CONSIDER:1. LOCATION A place with a good mixture of sun and shade. Build on a natural hill so we could put a waterfall using a terrain.2. STYLE/SIZE Depth Levels Most comfortable way of enjoying and feeding the fish3. MAINTENANCE COMMITMENT4. SELECTING FISH5. PLANT6. WATERFALL
Water hardness Hardness – caused by a dissolved magnesium and calcium salts can be diluted by removing some of the hard water and adding soft water 2 types: Temporary ○ can be removed by boiling the water Permanent ○ Removed by chemical means or distillation
Measured by: German scale measure (°DH) Clark or English scale measure (°H) ppm (parts per million of either CaCo3 or CaO) gpg (grains per gallon) Conversion factors: 1 °DH = 17.9 ppm CaCo3 1 °H = 14.3 ppm CaO
Selecting Healthy Fish Clear Eyes (not cloudy). Erect, undamaged fins. Scales should be intact, parallel with body (not sticking outwards) and no red blotches. No holes, ulcerations, or lumps. Species with translucent bodies, no inner appearing whitish areas. Active, lively, normal swimming patterns (some species are naturally shy and reclusive). No white spots (salt grain size) or white cottony growths on the fins or body. Respiration rate should be regular and steady (in unstressed circumstances). Gills should be red inside, not faded or discolored, and not distended or puffy. Actively feeding. Avoid selecting fish from a system that contains any sick specimens.
ACCLIMATION OF NEW FISH Close the aquarium lights during the acclimation period. Float the bag in the aquarium for approximately 20 minutes to equalize water temperatures. Open the bag and gently pour in some aquarium water (approximately 1/3 the bag volume), wait 10 minutes. Repeat this water introduction twice more at the same interval. Carefully net the fish out of the bag and place them in the aquarium. Dispose of the water in the bag, DO NOT release this water into the aquarium. If the newly introduced specimens are the only ones in the aquarium, wait 24 hours before initial feeding.
To determine the number of fishcan be put in a tank One should multiply the length by the width to determine the square inches of surface area Rule of thumb: Tropical Freshwater aquarium – no more than 1 inch of fish for every 10 square inches of surface area Cold Freshwater aquarium – 1 inch of fish for every 30 square inches of surface area Marine aquarium – 1 inch of fish for every 48 square inches
SUBORDER CHARACOIDEI FAMILY CHARACIDAE FAMILY GASTEROPELECIDAE FAMILY ANOSTOMIDAE FAMILY HEMIODONTIDAESUBORDER CYPRINOIDEI FAMILY CYPRINIDAE FAMILY GYRINOCHEILDAE FAMILY COBITIDAE
Family Characidei Large family containing 1,300 species: about 1,000 are found in Central America and the remaining are found in Africa Most are brightly colored and have narrow dorsal fin and small adipose fin. Most are omnivorous and consume all types of food while few are carnivorous Inhabit shallow, slow-moving rivers of the rainforest and live among sand and ground shoal areas. Most are sociable and do well in the aquarium community
TETRA Native to the underground caves of Mexico Grows about 3 ½ inch long Primarily flesh colored and fins are colorless The young has eyes but as they mature skin grows on them thus nonfunctional Uses their sense of smell to seek out and consumeBlind Cave Fish foodAstyanax mexicanus
Grows about 5 ½ inch in lenth Very aggressive and should be kept in thickly planted aquariums with fish that are able to protect themselves Gold-colored with reddish orange fins Feed on vegetation and fruit Native to South AmericaBucktoothed TetraExodon paradoxus
Grows slightly less than 5 inches in length Silver gray with dark edges to the scales on the upper body Upper part of the eyes is red There is a yellow band around the penducle and a black band at the base of the caudal finRed-eyed or Glass TetraMoenkhausia oligolepis
PIRANHA Most widespread among the piranha species Found in South America Grows about 12 inches in length Disc-shaped, muscular and very powerful Eats young fish, lean meat, meat-based flake foods and insects Primary color is steel gray, darker blue-gray color back and red underside with numerous black spots Must be kept in an aquariumRed Piranha by themselvesSerrasalmus nattereri Temperature should be maintained at about 78 F
Family Gasteropelecidae Commonly referred as hatchet fish have distinctive hatchet shaped, deep, narrow bodies and are small fish 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches long Elongated pectoral fins used to fly short distances across the water’s surface Aquariums should be fitted with cover lid to prevent them from flying out Temperature control: 79 F Native to South America Top-feeders
Black-wing hatchet fish Marbled hatchet fishCarnegiella marthae Carnegiella strigata
Family Anostomidae Native to South America Reach 3 to 5 inches length During rest, these fish position themselves vertically among plants and rocks Middle to bottom dwelling fish, feed on all types of food Do well in community aquariums Good jumpers Water should be soft, slightly acidic, filtered through peat and maintained at 79 F
Family Hemiodontidae Native to South and Central America Distinguished by having no teeth in its lower jaw Have small pointed mouths; some have adipose fin and some swim at an oblique angle Take on different coloration at night than during the day Top to middle dwellers Water should be soft, slightly acidic, filtered through peat and 76 F, plus or minus 6
Common pencil fish Dwarf pencil fishNannostomus eques Nannostomus marginatus
One-lined or golden pencil fish Three-lined pencil fishNannostomus unifasciatus Nannostomus trifasciatus
Family Citharinidae Native to Africa Sometimes referred to as moon fish
Primary color is orange with silver or gold iridescence; white with dark edge adipose fin and other fins have a reddish tinge, caudal fin is bright red with dark edges Does well in community aquarium Grows up to 10 inches, may be aggressive to smaller fish Feed on all types of food; young and tender shootsSix-banded Distichodus Water should be maintainedDistichodus sexfasciatus at 78 F, plus or minus 3 F
Grows about 2 ½ inches long Upper parts are brown and lower parts are yellow with white belly Dark striped run from the mouth through the eye to the base of the caudal fin and above this is a golden iridescent strip Does well in aquarium communityOne-striped African Characin Water temp.: 78 FNannaethiops unitaeniatus Feed on all types of food
Grows about 6 inches Very thin, narrow fish with long beak-like jaws. Both upper and lower jaws habe two rows of teeth Has large caudal fin; others are small Very aggressive should be kept only in a species aquarium Eats insects and other fish Water temp: 81 F, plus orPike Characin minus 2 FPhago maculatus
Grows to about 1 ½ inches long Primary color is dark blue with white underside and red fins Overall blue-gold iridescence Bottom-dwellers Does best in shoals (group of fish) of its own kind Feed on all types of food Water temp.: 78 F, plus or minus 5 FAfrican RedfinNeolebias ansorgii
Family Cyprinidei Commonly referred to as carps and minnows Doesn’t have teeth in its jaws, but uses pharyngeal teeth in its throat (pharyngeal teeth) to grin and break up food Some have barbels at the corner of the mouth while none have adipose fin Most are bottom-dwellers; do well in aquarium community Water temperature: 75 F, plus or minus 2 F Feed on all types of food
Kept and developed by Chinese for centuries Most grow from 3 ½ to 8 inches long Occupy all levels of aquarium Single-tail varieties: easiest to keep and water temp. between 32 and 68 F Two-tail varieties: more delicate and require more care, water temp between 46 to 68 FGoldfish Feed on all types of foodsCarassius auratus Water must be kept clean
Originated in Japan Grow to 3 feet can be worth thousand of dollars Small koi are usually kept indoors and then moved outdoor pools when they reach 5 inches Occupy all levels Water temp.: between 32 and 68 F Water must be well filteredKoi Consume all types of foods.Cyprinus carpio
Three main varieties: Single-colored = yellow or orange Two-colored = white with red markings (Kohaku) gold and silver (Hariwaki) Three-colored = light blue with orange and black markings (Asagi); white with red and black markings (Taisho Sanke); black with red and white markings (Showa Sante) Divided with type of scales: Doitsu – few large scales Matsuba – pinecone scales Kin-rin – gold metallic speckled scales Gin-rin – silver metallic speckled scales
BARB Native to Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia Grows up to 7 inches long Primary color is greenish gold, darker on the back getting lighter downsides with silver underside. 2 large vertical bars run from back to belly & 1 dark horizontal bar through penducle to the caudal fin Occupies all levels Should be kept with similar size fishSpanner Barb Consumes all types of foodBarbus lateristiga Water temp.: 71 F, plus or minus 5
Native to Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia Grows to 12 inches long Primary color is silver with gold or blue irdescence Fins are red, dorsal fin has black tip and caudal tip has black edges Does well in community aquarium but should be kept with similar size fish Diet: vegetation, lettuce leaves along with otherTinfoil barb or goldfoil barb or types of foodSchwanenfeld’s barb Water temp: 72 F, plus orBarbus schwanenfeldi minus 5 F
Native to Singapore and Borneo Grows to 6 inches long Primary color is reddish brown with orange tinge & silver/gold iridescence; fins are light red Does well in community aquarium but should be kept with similar size fish Consumes all type of food Water temp.: 79 F, plus or minus 2 FClown barb or Everett’s barbBarbus everetti
Arulius Barb Dwarf or Pygmy barbBarbus arulius Barbus phutunio
MINNOW Native to China Grows to 1 ¾ inches Olive brown back with green iridescence and white underside Thin dark blue stripe runs the length of body and bordered above with golded iridescent stripe and reddish band below Reddish with silver blue tip fins Does well in community aquarium Feeds on all types of food Very hardy fish, tolerates wide variety of aquariumWhite Cloud Mountain Minnow temperatures from 61 to 72 FTanichthys albonubes
DADIO Native to Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, Sri Lanka & Thailand Grows to 1 ¾ inches Primary color is golden brown, with blue stripe runs the length of the body and yellow fins Does well in community tanks Top-dwellers Feeds on all types of foodDadio Water temp. : 75 FLaubaca dadiburjori
Family Gyrinocheilidae Native to Thailand Grows to 10 inches long Primary body color is gray- brown with dark blotches along its sides and back Has large, fleshy lips on the underside of the snout and can cling to vegetation, rocks and to glass side of aquarium Feed primarily on algae and other vegetation Do well in community aquariumChinese algae eater or Sucking Water temp: 75 F, pus orLoach minus 5 FGyrinocheilus aymonieri
Family Cobitidae Native to Indonesia Distinguished by their flat underside mouths on lower side of their snout and three pairs of barbels Nocturnal and hide among vegetation and rocks during the day Several grow from 2 ¼ to 12 inches long Most do best in community aquariums Feed on all types of food Water temp.: 80 F, plus or minus 5 F
LOACH Most colorful and popular Primary color is bright orange, 3 dark bands encircle the body Front portion of dorsal and anal fins are orange; others are red Does well in community aquariumClown loachBotia macracantha
Orange-finned loach Chain or dwarf loachBotia modesta Botia sidthimunki
FAMILY SILURIDAEFAMILY SCHILBEIDAEFAMILY MOCKOKIDAEFAMILY PIMELODIDAEFAMILY CALLICHTHYIDAEFAMILY LORICARIIDAE
Family Cichlidae Most are native to South America and Africa Have one pair of nostrils Dorsal fin has a long base and the first three rays form spines The anal fin is short and the first three rays are also spines; caudal fin is usually rounded 2 main spawning patterns: Some lay egg their eggs on rocks, leaves, logs or on holes dug by male Shelter-breeders, lay their eggs in spawning areas out in the open that have been cleared
From South America Narrow, disc-shaped with large fins Dorsal, pelvic and anal fins are usually elongated Grows about 6 inches Peaceful fish that do well in community aquarium Consume all types of food Water temp. : 79 F, plusAngelfish or minus 7 FPterophyllum scalare
Grow to 14 inches Coloration varies considerably Usually gray with black, vertical blotches along the sides; some have reddish orange scales along lower sides Aggressive & should be kept in a species aquarium Water temp. : 75 F, plus or minus 3 F Consume all types of foodOscar including chopped meat, liveAstronotus ocellatus minnows and small fish