Greek Timeline• 8000 BCE• Mesolithic Period (8300-7000)• Earliest evidence of burials found in Franchthi Cave in the Argolid, Greece 7250 BCE• Evidence of food producing economy, simple hut construction, and seafaring in mainland Greece and the Aegean 7000 BCE• Neolithic Period (7000-3000 BCE)• First "Megaron House" at Sesclo, in central Greece 5700 BCE• Evidence of earliest fortifications at Dimini, Greece 3400 BCE
• 3000 BCE• Aegean Bronze Age or Early Bronze Age (3000-2000)• Minoan Prepalatial or: EMIA, EMIB (3000-2600 BCE)• Early Cycladic Culture (3200-2000)• Early Helladic Period (3000-2000)• 2600 BCE• Minoan Prepalatial Period or: EMIIA, EMIIB, MMIII (2600-2000 BCE)• Destruction of Minoan settlements 2000 BCE• Minoan Protopalatial Period or: MMIA, MMIB, MMI IA, MMI IB, MMI IIA, MMI IIB, LMIA Early (1900-1700 BCE)• Early Middle Cycladic (2000-1600 BCE)• Middle Helladic Period or Middle Bronze Age (2000-1550• Destruction of Minoan palaces Settlement of Akrotiri, Thera Grave Circle B at Mycenae 1700 BCE• Minoan Neopalatial Period or: LMIA Advanced, LMIA Final, LMIB Early, LMIB Late, LMII (1700-1400)• Eruption of Thera volcano (sometime between 1627 and 1600) 1627 BCE
• Late Bronze Period or The Heroic Age (1600-1100) Tholos Tomb at Mycenae 1550 BCE• Late Helladic Period (1500-1100)• Linear B writing (1450-1180) 1450 BCE• Mycenaean Palaces Evidence of expanded Mycenaean trade at Levand 1400 BCE• Minoan Postpalatial Period (1400-1100)• Palace of Knossos destruction 1370 BCE• "Sea Peoples" begin raids in the Eastern Mediterranean 1300 BCE• Mycenaean Culture (1300-1000)• Trojan War (1250 or 1210) 1250 BCE• Destruction of many Mycenaean palaces
•• First Olympic Games 776 BCE•• Greek colonies established in Southern Italy & Sicily Invention of Greek alphabet Homeric poems recorded in writing (750-700) 750 BCE• Late Geometric (circa 760-700)• 740 BCE Orientalizing Period (circa 740-650)• First Messenian War Sparta invades Messenia (730-710) Naxos founded (734) Syracuse founded (733) 730 BCE
Minoan Civilization (2000-1400 BCE) • Site of a palace and labyrinthine maze on the Island of Crete, south of mainland Greece. • Named after King Minos whose minotaur—half man and half bull—was kept in the labyrinth and fed Athenian youths • The minotaur is killed by the Athenian hero Theseus, freeing Athens from his rule.
Minoan Site: Palace of Knossos • Archaeological evidence indicates the site was involved in seagoing trade with the Phoenicians, based in Carthage of North Africa • Knossos had a three-story palace built around a courtyard (left; see pp. 119-121 • Absence of fortress walls indicate the kingdom thought the sea as security enough
Frescos: Bull Vaulting• Frescos refer to paintings in which pigment is applied to plastered walls before the plaster is dry• This fresco depicts the sport of bull-vaulting, still practiced in Portugal; this is found in the Palace of Knossos, Crete• Woman in front holds the bull by horns; one in back waits to catch the vaulter; as in Egypt, women have lighter skin than men• Possibly an initiation rite.
Frescos: Ship Fresco from Thera • Minos was a seafaring culture • Thera, island near Crete, included a seaport • The Ship Fresco depicts the seaport of Akrotiri, Thera • This was clearly an important harbor in the sea lanes of the Mediterranean
Statuettes of Minos: Snake Goddess • This statuette depicts a bare-breasted women holding a snake in either hand • Snakes were the symbol of fertility, preceding their interpretations as depictions of evil. • The woman could be a priestess or a goddess • Style: flounced skirt, cat perching on her headdress • Technique: faïence, glazing earthenware by using a glass paste
Linear B Script• Linear B Script is the first phonetic script in Europe• Based on syllables; each symbol represents a syllable rather than a speech sound• Vowel is the peak of a syllable
Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1200 BCE) • More of a militaristic peoples with warships vying for control of the Eastern Mediterranean • The Citadel of Mycenae includes heavily fortified walls expected of a militaristic society • Storage rooms ensure the population could hold out for weeks • Peasants and townspeople were accommodated during periods of siege.
The Heroic Age (1200-750 CE)• Mycenae was conquered in 1200 CE by the Dorians whose iron weaponry proved superior• The Homeric epics were passed down by oral tradition for 300 years before being transcribed and 300 more before being reaching their present form• Little is known about Homer himself, except that if he existed, he was blind• Represents the culmination of a long tradition of oral history• The two epics represent a national symbol of present-day Greece
Iliad: Paris’s Choice • Eris, the Goddess of Discord, throws an apple with the inscription “To The Fairest” in a crowd at a wedding. • Athena, the Goddess of Wisdom, Hera, the wife of Zeus, and Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love, Sex, Beauty, and Fertility, vie for the apple • They agree to allow Paris, a moral (and Trojan) to make the judgment. • Athena promises victory against the Greeks; Hera promises dominion over the known world; • Aphrodite promises him the love of a beautiful women
Choices Have Consequences: The Trojan War • Paris gives the golden apple to Aphrodite • The spurned goddesses, Hera and Athena, conspire with other deities for revenge. • Paris kidnaps Helen. • (Daughter of Zeus and Leda) • Menaleus, King of Sparta and her husband, forms an alliance with other Achaeans (Greeks) to get his wife back • A ten-year war ensues
The Iliad: The Battle of Troy • Through an alliance of gods and mortals, war breaks out between the “Achaeans” and the Trojans of Troy, a commercial center in Asia Minor (now Turkey) • The Iliad is set in the last days of the Trojan war • The war end when the Trojan Horse, containing Achaean solders, taken to be a gift, is haled onto the fortress, and the Achaeans slaughter the Trojans in a ruse.
Iliad: Achilles as Central Character • The central figure of the Iliad is Achilles, a powerful warrior who at first refuses to join the Achaeans • He consents only after a close friend of his, Patroclus, is killed in battle by Hector, the chieftain of the Trojans • Though half-god, half man, he has a flaw: his heel which his mother Thetis held while dipping into the river Styx, which rendered him invulnerable: • Except for the heel, which any weapon could penetrate. • Note the penetration of the arrow in his heel.
Iliad: The Main Themes• The theme of Achilles that recurs in Greek thought:• Selfhood vs. community responsibility• We see it later in Socrates’s refusal to escape after being condemned to death• Heroic act to prove virtue or excellence (arête has both connotations)• Both God and Man displays a range of human emotions: anger, love, grief (over loss of friend)
Odyssey: Frustrated Homecoming• Odysseus encounters obstacles—adventures—while trying to sail home to Ithaca after the war• On one occasion, he ix within sight of Ithaca when a strong wind blow the ship out to open sea.• He has to navigate the ship between Scylla, a monster perched on a rock, and Charybdis, the monster lurking in a large whirlpool• Allows himself to listen to the Sirens, while tied to the mast and the men rowing with earplugs, so they can hear neither him, nor then; otherwise the ship would have been lost to the rocks• In the end, he does arrive home, and he slaughters the suitors trying to woo his wife Penelope because of his long absence.
The Principal Gods in theGreek/Roman Pantheon • Left: Representative Gods from the Parthenon • Zeus (Rom. Jupiter or Jove): The head of the pantheon of gods • Hera (Juno): Queen of the Gods • Ares (Mars): God of war • Aphrodite (Venus): Goddess of (erotic) love, beauty, • Athena (Minerva): Goddess of wisdom—and war • Eros (Amor/Cupid): God of (erotic) love, often portrayed as an infant • Hades (Pluto): God of the Underworld
Other Gods of the Greek/Roman Pantheon• Demeter (Ceres): Goddess of Agriculture/Grain• Persephone (Proserpina): Goddess of the Underworld• Apollo, Helios (Phoebus): God of the Sun• Hephaestus (Vulcan): God of metallurgy, fire• Herakles (Hercules): God of strength, courage• Artemis (Diana): Goddess of the hunt, the moon• Hermes (Mercury): Messenger of the gods• Nike (both): Goddess of Victory• Poseidon (Neptune): God of the sea• Hestia (Vesta): Goddess of the hearth, domestic
Gods According to Greek Theology• Origin myth: Zeus, angered by human evil, destroyed humankind by flood• Deucalion (Greek Noah), constructs boat for himself and his wife• “Bones” of Gaia thrown overboard and new humans, first of whom is Hellen (ancestors of Hellenes or Greeks), spring from the rocks
The Humanlike Qualities of the Gods • The immortals show all the human emotions: they are amorous, capricious, quarrelsome • They take sides in human wars (as they do in the Iliad. (upper left: priest and his sons are killed for revealing who were inside the Trojan Horse) • They live among humans, atop Mount Olympus • Gods seduce mortal women (Leda and the Swan, who is Zeus, lower left • They set forth no clear principles of moral conduct • Oracles (like the one at Delphi) are sources of prophecy and mystical wisdom
Two Historians: Herodotus and Thucydides• Herodotus: First known historian who combined keen observation with critical judgment• Did make errors, such as his opinion that non- Egyptian slaves built the pyramid• Thucydides:• Wrote a detailed account of the Peloponnesian wars between Athens and an alliance dominated by Sparta, which proved disastrous for Athens• He himself was a general in the conflict, so that he is a primary source, one who made the actual observations
Delphi: Site of the Oracle • Founding Myth: A sanctuary for the Titan earth goddess Gaia • Sun God (Apollo) slays the Python, the dragon who guarded the gate • Founded the Temple of Apollo, henceforth the oracle of prophesy • This is where King Laius receives the prophecy that his son will kill him and marry his wife
Layout of Delphi, including the Temple of Apollo • Upper left: amphitheater • Center: Temple of Apollo (columned building) • Other sanctuaries are set aside for Dionysius, other gods and kings
The Sphinx and Her Riddle • At the gates of Thebes, he encounters the Sphinx, who has been terrorizing Thebes for years • The Sphinx has waylaid people, ask a riddle, and murdered them all for their failure to give the right answer • The riddle: what walks on four in the morning • On two at noon, and • On three at night? • Your turn: got a good answer? • A man in the phases of infancy, adulthood, and old age
Oedipus Become King and Marries his Mother• The grateful Thebans award him with the kinship• And with the hand of Jocasta to be his wife• In so doing, he fulfils the prophecy that he will marry his mother.• The Gods, angered by his incest, send a plague to the city• After siring and bearing four children, Oedipus is told by the blind prophet Tiresias that he is the cause of the plague.• In his pride, he refuses to believe the prophet, thinking his rival Creon, Jocasta’s brother, has set him up to this.
Curse of Oedipus Rex• The chorus fills the audience in on the details of the events• A messenger conveys the news of the shepherd Polybus’s death and adds that he was only Oedipus’s adopted father.• Jocasta discovers the truth in the conversation, runs off the stage and hangs herself• The truth come slowly to Oedipus; he takes the brooch from his dead wife and blinds himself
Departure of Oedipus Rex; Fate of Antigone• He leaves Thebes with his daughter Antigone• Another play portrays Antigone herself, his daughter/sister• After Oedipus’s death, she returns to Thebes• When Creon, now king, decrees she cannot give her brother Polynices the rites of burial at his death, she does so anyway• For her defiance, she is sealed in a cave to slowly suffocate.• She commits suicide rather than suffer this fate
Incest: A Universal Taboo• Definition: A rule that forbids copulation between two persons of defined relationships• Primary kin: parent-child, siblings• Father-daughter• Mother-son• Brother sister• Exception: Egyptian, Inca, Hawaiian• Allowed only in royal line: “purity”