 Theatron: literally,  the “watching  place” Orchestra: literally,  the “dancing  place” Skene: “scene,” or  backdrop
 Daylight Class issues Women Comfort Sound effects
The modern word“theater” comes fromthe Greek wordtheatron meaning"seeing place"
Challenges:  Size  Distance from   audience  Holding interest
 Behind  orchestra Served as  backdrop, house Decorative in  later years Holds mechane
 Parodos: passageways (pl.paradoi) Ekkykleme: “the thing that rolls”  the small wagon platform, was wheeled in   to sho...
 Staging was accomplished simply with  the use of pinakes, or scenery painted  on boards and placed against the  skene. ...
…In anamphitheatre…With achorus whodescribedmost of theaction.…With masks
•   The theater of ancient Greece, flourished between c. 550 and    c. 220 BCE.•   The city-state of Athens, was it’s cent...
   The chorus was    trained and    costumed at state    expense through a    choregos (a    wealthy citizen)    who chos...
   Members of the chorus    were chosen from the    general population.   Chorus members were    unpaid volunteers    do...
• DRAMA: a literary composition  written to be performed by actors• central character called a tragic  protagonist or hero...
The  modern word “drama” comes from the Greek word dran meaning "to do” The Greeks understood the role of action in plays.
 Comedy Tragedy Satyr   Comedy and tragedy were   the most popular types of   plays in ancient Greece.   Hence, the mo...
The word “comedy” comes from the Greek word “komos” which means “band of revelers.”
 These were short plays  performed between the  acts of tragedies. They  made fun of the plight of  the tragedys characte...
The Satyr and theSatyr playsspawned themodern word“satire”.
   used a chorus   The choric dithyrambs (choral    songs) were originally about    the death and resurrection of    Dio...
 The first function of the chorus was    as narrator (telling stories, providing information).  to bridge the gap betwee...
    The chorus could punctuate    the action of a play with bursts    of song and dance, which    enlarged the dramatic a...
 As the number of  actors increased  from one to  three, the size of  the chorus, which  originally  numbered 50,  was re...
TheChorus could play theworshipers of a God, or asin Oedipus, the villagers andTheban elders (townleaders).
The   modern word “thespian” comes from the name Thespis, the first actor credited with separating from the chorus to hol...
 Choruses did  not rehearse in the  theatres, they probably rehearsed in a  closed room so that the spectators  would not...
 Consisted of standard Greek attire Chiton: a sleeveless tunic belted below   the  breast the himation: draped around t...
3 Actors, all menElaborate gestures, “over-acting”Women were not allowed to participate.
 to masks  bring the characters face closer to  the audience. to enable an actor to play in several different  roles, t...
 Another adaptation that the Greeks developed for their theatre masks were special mouths that acted like megaphones to a...
Actors wore masks with exaggerated facial featuresand expressions to make it easy for all viewers to identify a  particula...
 Greek actors originally started wearing  masks that were very human like that just  covered part of the face Eventually...
 usually made by the people that who  wore them in the play from consisted of cloth, leather, and  wood with animal hair...
AeschylusSophoclesEuripidesAristophanesMenander
Medea is a princess from Colchis. She marries Jason, who ison a quest for the Golden Fleece. Medea betrays her fatherand m...
 Son of wealthy Athenian          495 B.C.E. :Born in  merchant                          Colonus, in Attica Lived durin...
 Delphic Oracle,  prophecy Corinth and Thebes Sphinx riddle Self-punishment Children: Eteocles,  Polyneices, Ismene, ...
•   Sphinxs riddle: "What is the creature that walks on four legs in    the morning, two legs at noon and three in the eve...
From Aristotle’s Poetics       The Six Aspects of Tragedy       1. PLOT       2.   CHARACTER*      3.   SPECTACLE       4....
1.       PLOT: Plot is the way the incidents are presented         to the audience     •    Must be “whole” –beginning/ mi...
2. CHARACTER   • Personal motivations connected to cause/ effect aspect of     plot   • Protagonist should be renowned and...
1.        He must be a man who is superior to the average man in          some way.     1.     Oedipus is smart he is the ...
3. THOUGHT• Reference to theme4. DICTION• Word choice is proper and appropriate• Emphasis on style and use of literary dev...
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
Ancient greek theater
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Ancient greek theater

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  • #6 SPECTACLE: Staging The mechane was a large crane which could swing a platform containing one or more actors from behind the stage building up over the heads of the actors and chorus, creating the illusion of flying. The earliest known use of this device was in Euripdes’ Medea (431 BCE), when Medea flew off with the bodies of her children in a dragon-chariot supplied by the sun-god. The Latin expression deus ex machina (“the god from the crane”) refers to inferior playwrights’ practice of suddenly having a god fly in to resolve all the difficulties of the plot, but clever dramatists could use the crane very effectively without marring the unity of their plays, as indeed Euripides did in Medea . Note: Gods who intervene in fifth century tragedies probably appeared through a trap-door on the roof of the skene to address mortals from a higher level. http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/dunkle/comedy/intro19.htm
  • In this tragedy a prophecy told by the Delphic Oracle comes true even though the protagonists try to avoid it. The main character, the tragic hero Oedipus leaves his home to avoid a terrible fate, runs into some men at a crossroads, kills them. Arrives in a town beleaguered by a mythical violent beast the Sphinx and correctly answers her riddle and slays it. The prophecy comes true and Oedipus ends up punishing himself to save his people/city. His children Eteocles and Polyneices, Ismene and Antigone also suffer in future plays.
  • Aristotle's Poetics and Oedipus His favorite play and the one he used as a model for the POETICS is OEDIPUS, so the following should apply: 1. CATHARSIS: Pity and fear Pity alone is not enough to make a play a tragedy. The kind of drama that depends solely on its capacity to provoke pity are likely to be "tear-jerkers." Pathos requires humour, irony, or something more disturbing, which we may call fear (or "admiration"), to prevent it from lapsing into sentimentality. Fear alone is similarly inadequate. An average suspense-thriller may hold attention, but if we know the ending or have seen it already we rapidly become aware that the thriller is simply melodramatic. Melodrama is to tragedy what farce is to comedy: the plot is all-important, and the characters tend to be stereotyped, fitting into prearranged roles (goodies and baddies). 2. HAMARTIA: Good men ought NOT to be shown passing from prosperity to misfortune, for this does not inspire either inspire pity or fear, but only revulsion; NOR evil men rising from ill fortune to prosperity.. neither should a wicked man be seen falling from prosperity into misfortune.. We are left with the man whose place is between these extremes. Such is the man who on the one hand is not preeminent in virtue and justice, and yet on the other hand does not fall into misfortune through vice or depravity. He falls because of some mistake or imbalance in his character :'[often mistranslated as a tragic (moral) flaw] and Anagnorisis (an-ag-nor-ee-sis) Protagonist BECOMES AWARE OF HIS ERROR (therein lies the tragedy itself– memory) In Aristotelian definition of tragedy it was the discovery of one's own identity or true character 3) Universality: Tragedy is BASED in history (real events, settings, circumstances) HOWEVER, dramatic poetry's function is.. not to report things that have happened, but rather to tell of such things that might happen.. .to express the universal." CAPITAL “T” truth privileged over little “t” truth.
  • Ancient greek theater

    1. 1.  Theatron: literally, the “watching place” Orchestra: literally, the “dancing place” Skene: “scene,” or backdrop
    2. 2.  Daylight Class issues Women Comfort Sound effects
    3. 3. The modern word“theater” comes fromthe Greek wordtheatron meaning"seeing place"
    4. 4. Challenges:  Size  Distance from audience  Holding interest
    5. 5.  Behind orchestra Served as backdrop, house Decorative in later years Holds mechane
    6. 6.  Parodos: passageways (pl.paradoi) Ekkykleme: “the thing that rolls”  the small wagon platform, was wheeled in to show a corpse to the audience.  All killing had to occur off stage and be reported to the audience by the chorus or a messenger. Mechane: crane used for special effect
    7. 7.  Staging was accomplished simply with the use of pinakes, or scenery painted on boards and placed against the skene. Also periaktois, triangular prisms, that could be revolved for scenery changes. Properties were also used. Drums were sounded for thunder.
    8. 8. …In anamphitheatre…With achorus whodescribedmost of theaction.…With masks
    9. 9. • The theater of ancient Greece, flourished between c. 550 and c. 220 BCE.• The city-state of Athens, was it’s centre.• It was part of a festival called the Dionysia, which honored the god Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and revelry with altars generally on stage.• Banks would shut down for days, people would travel from all around to see the drama competitions—even prisoners were temporarily released to see the plays• Tragedy means “goat song” (relates to Dionysian sacrificial rituals)
    10. 10.  The chorus was trained and costumed at state expense through a choregos (a wealthy citizen) who chose this job as his way of paying taxes and raising his standing in the community.
    11. 11.  Members of the chorus were chosen from the general population. Chorus members were unpaid volunteers doing their civic duty. The rehearsal period for a chorus was likely four months or more.
    12. 12. • DRAMA: a literary composition written to be performed by actors• central character called a tragic protagonist or hero suffers some serious misfortune• the misfortune is logically connected with the heros actions.
    13. 13. The modern word “drama” comes from the Greek word dran meaning "to do” The Greeks understood the role of action in plays.
    14. 14.  Comedy Tragedy Satyr  Comedy and tragedy were the most popular types of plays in ancient Greece. Hence, the modern popularity of the comedy and tragedy masks to symbolize theatre.
    15. 15. The word “comedy” comes from the Greek word “komos” which means “band of revelers.”
    16. 16.  These were short plays performed between the acts of tragedies. They made fun of the plight of the tragedys characters. The satyrs were mythical half-human, half-goat servants of Dionysus. They served the function of comic relief.
    17. 17. The Satyr and theSatyr playsspawned themodern word“satire”.
    18. 18.  used a chorus The choric dithyrambs (choral songs) were originally about the death and resurrection of Dionysus (the god of wine and revelry). Chorus reflects what the audience is thinking ▪ “color commentary” ▪ Provides background and spectacle
    19. 19.  The first function of the chorus was as narrator (telling stories, providing information).  to bridge the gap between the audience and the players by making responses and asking questions  to intensify the emotion and establish a lyric mood through rhythmic chanting and dance  to maintain a sense of ceremony and ritual
    20. 20.  The chorus could punctuate the action of a play with bursts of song and dance, which enlarged the dramatic action and relieved tension. Instruments used to accompany choric songs and dances included flutes, lyres, horns, drums, and bells. The ‘Parados’ (chorus entrance) marks the beginning of the play, and the exodus (its exit) the ending. Singing Dancing Strophe Antistrophe
    21. 21.  As the number of actors increased from one to three, the size of the chorus, which originally numbered 50, was reduced. 12-15 men
    22. 22. TheChorus could play theworshipers of a God, or asin Oedipus, the villagers andTheban elders (townleaders).
    23. 23. The modern word “thespian” comes from the name Thespis, the first actor credited with separating from the chorus to hold a call and response with them.
    24. 24.  Choruses did not rehearse in the theatres, they probably rehearsed in a closed room so that the spectators would not see the drama before the performance. Early dramatists (Aeschylus and probably Sophocles and Euripides) taught their own choruses.
    25. 25.  Consisted of standard Greek attire Chiton: a sleeveless tunic belted below the breast the himation: draped around the right shoulder the chlamys, or short cloak, worn over the left shoulder elaborately embroidered patterns Masks were used. If playing a female role, the male actor in want of a female appearance wore the prosternida before the chest and the progastrida before the belly
    26. 26. 3 Actors, all menElaborate gestures, “over-acting”Women were not allowed to participate.
    27. 27.  to masks bring the characters face closer to the audience. to enable an actor to play in several different roles, to help the audience to distinguish sex, age, and social status, in addition to revealing a change in a particular character’s emotions and appearance. a mask—called a “persona” Masks contained “megaphone” to amplify their voices
    28. 28.  Another adaptation that the Greeks developed for their theatre masks were special mouths that acted like megaphones to amplify their voice for everyone in the huge theatre to hear.
    29. 29. Actors wore masks with exaggerated facial featuresand expressions to make it easy for all viewers to identify a particular character because theatres were very large.
    30. 30.  Greek actors originally started wearing masks that were very human like that just covered part of the face Eventually with the increase in theatre size the mask changed as well The mask then began to cover the whole head and resembled legends from Greek mythology not humans
    31. 31.  usually made by the people that who wore them in the play from consisted of cloth, leather, and wood with animal hair and painted or died different colors with flowers and other plants attached to them. Famous actors in bigger plays may have had jewels and other ornate items placed on their masks
    32. 32. AeschylusSophoclesEuripidesAristophanesMenander
    33. 33. Medea is a princess from Colchis. She marries Jason, who ison a quest for the Golden Fleece. Medea betrays her fatherand murders her brother for her love of Jason. Medea hasmagical powers. Jason takes Medea back to his homelandIolcus. They are rejected for fear of Medea’s power and moveto Corinth, where they have children. Jason takes another wife, the king of Corinth’s daughterGlauce. Medea, betrayed, sends a bewitched gown toPrincess Glauce, Jason’s new bride, it kills her and her father.Jason returns to find Medea has killed their sons. Medealeaves with the bodies of her children in a dragon ledchariot. Jason, a shadow of a man, no longer protected byHera, dies when a timber from the Argo crushes him in hissleep.
    34. 34.  Son of wealthy Athenian  495 B.C.E. :Born in merchant Colonus, in Attica Lived during golden age  441: Writes Antigone of Athens  431-404:  Center of democracy Peloponnesian War Important figure in (Athens v. Sparta) society  429: Writes Oedipus  Becomes cultural spokesperson Rex  406: Sophocles dies  Noted playwright  Wrote primarily tragedies  Witnessed decline of Athens
    35. 35.  Delphic Oracle, prophecy Corinth and Thebes Sphinx riddle Self-punishment Children: Eteocles, Polyneices, Ismene, Antigone
    36. 36. • Sphinxs riddle: "What is the creature that walks on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon and three in the evening?"• To this Oedipus answered "Man”.• Oedipuss name means "swollen foot”. His ankles were pinned as a baby. Here is the baby of which the Sphinx speaks, crawling on four feet.• Oedipus the adult man, standing on his own two feet.• Oedipus will leave Thebes an old blind man, using a cane.• Oedipus himself proves to be that same man, an embodiment of the Sphinxs riddle.• Oedipus is solver of the Sphinxs riddle, and the answer.
    37. 37. From Aristotle’s Poetics The Six Aspects of Tragedy 1. PLOT 2. CHARACTER* 3. SPECTACLE 4. SONG 5. DICTION 6. THOUGHT
    38. 38. 1. PLOT: Plot is the way the incidents are presented to the audience • Must be “whole” –beginning/ middle and end • Incentive moment- begins cause and effect • Climax • resolution• Must be complete and have “unity of action” • No “deus ex machina” • No “episodic plots”• Plot can be simple or complex • Catastrophe (cata/strophe): change in fortune • Perepetia: a reversal • Anagnorisis: recognition
    39. 39. 2. CHARACTER • Personal motivations connected to cause/ effect aspect of plot • Protagonist should be renowned and prosperous change from good to bad • Hubris – arrogance, overconfidence • Hamartia: a tragic flaw• Characters should have the following qualities: • Good or fine • Fitness of character • True to life • Consistency • Necessary or probable • Idealized/ ennobled
    40. 40. 1. He must be a man who is superior to the average man in some way. 1. Oedipus is smart he is the only person who could solve the Sphinxs riddle.2. Must evoke both pity and fear, must be a character with a mixture of good and evil. Oedipus is a hero with a violent streak, clever man, but is blind to the truth.3. Hamartia, often translated as "tragic flaw" but really means "error in judgement.”4. Dramatic irony The audience knows the outcome of the story already, but the hero does not, making his actions seem ignorant or inappropriate in the face of what is to come.
    41. 41. 3. THOUGHT• Reference to theme4. DICTION• Word choice is proper and appropriate• Emphasis on style and use of literary devices (metaphor)5. SONG• Musical element of the play• Use of the chorus6. SPECTACLE* Production for effect

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