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   LEED Green Associate Flash Cards for Exam    Preparation.   Primary Source of Slides: LEED Green    Associate Study G...
INTRODUCTIONLEED Rating Systems
   Passive design: taking advantage of the sun    and wind.   Regenerative Projects: support the health,    generate ele...
   Built Environment: buildings, land use and    transportation systems.   Credit Categories for LEED:    ◦   Sustainabl...
   Adaptive Reuse: reusing a building for a purpose    other than which it was built or designed for.   Net-Zero: where ...
   Water Balance: using no more water than    what is received by collecting precipitation.   Zero Waste: produce no was...
   Energy Star: U.S. Environmental Protection    Agency EPA program focuses on improving    energy performance in buildin...
   Commissioning:    ◦   Reduces energy use.    ◦   Lower operating costs.    ◦   Reduced contractor callbacks.    ◦   Be...
   U.S. Green Building Council USGBC, 1993, committee    based, member driven, consensus focused.   Green Building Certi...
   Building that don’t primarily serve K-12    educational, retail, or designated healthcare    uses.   High rise (7+sto...
   Buildings made up of core and ancillary    learning spaces on K-12 school grounds.   Buildings made up of core and an...
   Buildings that serve individuals who seek    medical treatment.   Buildings with other kinds of medically-    related...
   Buildings or interiors dedicated to the sale of    goods and commodities directly to    consumers who come into the pr...
   Homes:    ◦ Low rise (1-3) stories residential buildings.    ◦ The LEED for Homes Multi-Family Midrise rating      sys...
   Rating system appropriate for 40% of gross    area of LEED project, should not be used.   Rating system appropriate f...
   Buildings under NC, CS or schools may also    be certified under EB O&M.   Buildings certified under CS may also be  ...
   Site Selection:    ◦   Type of land.    ◦   Location relative to neighborhood.    ◦   Density and mass transit.    ◦  ...
   The use and disposal of building water by:    ◦ Reduce indoor potable water consumption.    ◦ Provide water efficient ...
   Relating to building energy consumption.   Reduce energy required for operations.   Use more environmentally friendl...
   Materials Selection.   Waste Disposal.   Waste reduction by:    ◦ Select sustainable materials.    ◦ Reduce waste at...
   Indoor Environmental Quality.   Occupants health.   Safety and Comfort.   Energy Consumption.   Air change effecti...
   Incorporate innovative and sustainable building    features that improve performance above and    beyond the LEED rati...
   Offer incentives for the achievement of    credits that address geographically specific    environmental priorities.
   Innovation and Design Process.   Location and Linkages.   Sustainable Sites.   Water Efficiency.   Energy and Atmo...
   Smart Location and Linkages.   Neighborhood pattern and design to create    compact, walkable and integrated communit...
   Prerequisites (Mandatory), Credits (Non-    Mandatory).   All prerequisites plus some of optional credits    to becom...
   Federal, state and local laws or codes will    always trump LEED required standards, if    more stringent.   Declaran...
   Give clear guidance to the customer.   Protect the integrity of the LEED program.   Reduce complications that occur ...
   Must comply with environmental laws.   Must be a complete, permanent building or    space.   Must use a reasonable s...
   The boundary that may not unreasonably    exclude sections of land to create boundaries    in unreasonable shapes for ...
   For new construction and Core& Shell:    minimum of 1000 square feet (93 square    meter) of gross floor area.   For ...
   One or more FTE (full time equivalent).   All certified projects must commit to sharing    whole-project energy and w...
   The gross floor area of the project building    must be no less than 2% of the gross land    area within the LEED proj...
   Wingspread principles on a U.S. response to    global warming: a set of propositions signed    by organizations and in...
   USGBC identifies and prioritizes LEED credits    based on their relative value for greenhouse    gas emissions reducti...
   LEED Online automatically determines a    project’s regional priority credits based on its    ZIP code.   Six credits...
   LEED Technical Advisory Groups (TAGs): provide    technical advice with respect to LEED.   LEED Pilot credit Library ...
   All LEED rating systems (except LEED for    homes) have 100 base points+ 6 ID+    4RP=110 points.   LEED for homes ha...
   Register at GBCI which provide access to    LEEDonline.   Project certification is a 6-step process, 5    formal step...
   Initially registers the project via LEEDonline.   Main contact with GBCI.   Can be replaced after registration.   P...
   Project Checklist forms by GBCI, can determine    which LEED rating system and level of    certification would be best...
   Only the LEED project administrator is eligible to submit an application for review.   Two options for application re...
   Authorities permit occupancy prior to receipt    of certificate of occupancy during substantial    completion.   Cert...
   Stage one projects: review prior to    completion of entitlement as conditionally    approved LEED ND plan.   Stage t...
   By LEED for Homes Provider (NOT GBCI).   The only communication between the project and    USGBC is during project re...
   Allow project team to obtain technical and administration    guidance on how LEED requirements, including MPRs,    pre...
   Developed to honor and recognize    distinguished LEED AP who have made a    significant contribution to the field of ...
   Earn Continuing Education CE hours.   LEED GA 15 CE hours biennially (every 2    years).   LEED AP 30 CE hours bienn...
   Credits Harmonization: the credits and    prerequisites are consistent across all LEED    2009 rating system.   Credi...
SUSTAINABLE SITES
   Transportation accounting for 33% of the    greenhouse gas emissions 2008.   Sustainable Sites addresses environmenta...
   Energy and Atmosphere then sustainable    sites categories offer the most points to the    project in order.   For an...
   Building Footprint: area of the building structure.    Pavement and landscaping are not included.   Development Footp...
   Two options to achieve credit for urban    redevelopment:   Development Density:    ◦ Previously developed or infill ...
   Average density of project and surrounding    community should be of min. 60000 sf/acre.   Restore Brownfield sites....
   Prime farmland as defined by the U.S department of agriculture    USDA.   Less than 5 feet above areas defined by FEM...
   Community Connectivity:    ◦ Previously developed site AND within ½ mile of a      residential neighborhood with an av...
   Prevents loss of soil, sedimentation and    pollution. Using mulching, erosion control    blankets, straw bales, berms...
   Minimize water usage    ◦ Use water efficient irrigation systems.    ◦ Use native or adaptive landscaping.   Use refl...
   Access to mass transit networks    ◦ Commuter rail, light rail, or subway system.    ◦ Public, campus or private bus l...
   Encourage car pooling and van pooling.   Provide reserved parking spaces located near    building entrances for build...
   Promote alternative or incentives to single-    occupancy vehicle commuting.   Provide secured spaces and changing ro...
•Use pervious hardscape.•Minimize impervious surfaces.•Grid pavers.•Vegetated roof.•Control Stormwater: redirect the flow ...
   Retention and detention ponds.   Rain Garden.   Bioswales.   Vegetated strips.   Capture rainwater for reuse in su...
   Rainfall and snow onto impervious surfaces    doesn’t filtrate back into the earth and    aquifer, but rather washes t...
   An urban area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding    areas by 2 to 10 degrees.   Evapotanspiration: th...
   Reduce area of hardscape.   Shading: of 50% of the total hardscape area.    ◦ Shade from exisiting tree canopy or, fo...
   Cool roof: use roofing materials for 75% of the    roof surface with controlled SRI value “ 78 for low    slope roofs ...
   Sky Glow: Reduction in observation in night skies.   Strategies for reducing Light Pollution:    ◦ Utilize indirect i...
   Full cut off lighting prevents wasteful up-lighting    above a horizontal plane, reduces glare and helps    prevent li...
   LZ1- Dark (Park and rural settings)   LZ2- Low (residential areas and    neighborhood business districts)   LZ3- Med...
   Zero Emission Vehicle is defined by the    California Air Resources Board ( CARB).
WATER EFFICIENCY
   Indoor Water use reduction.   Outdoor water use reduction.   Process water use reduction.   Innovative Wastewater T...
   Water Efficiency measure in commercial buildings can reduce    water use by 30% or more.   Mandates a 20% reduction o...
 Outdoor water uses account for 30% of 26  billion gallons of potable water used daily.Strategies:    o Use landscaping t...
   Reducing wastewater conveyance by using    water conserving flush and flow fixtures.   Using non-potable water for us...
   Process water: applies to building equipment.   Reduce it.   Consider compositing food waste for garbage    disposal...
   For new construction: total number of building    occupants of the following types:    ◦   Full time staff.    ◦   Par...
   Regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week    in the project building.   Multiple shifts are included for...
   Gallons per flush (gpf): measurement of water used by flush    fixtures (water closets and urinals) per EPAct 1992, ba...
   Standard plumbing fixtures used today are regulated    by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct).   Water Balance Appr...
   Install water efficient plumbing fixtures.   WaterSense: is an EPA sponsored partnership    program that promotes wat...
   Zoned Landscaping according to the irrigation requirements.   Install locally adaptive landscaping or native.   Xeri...
   Use water conserving fixtures, nonpotable    water or municipality treated wastewater.   Treat on-site wastewater to ...
ENERGY     &ATMOSPHERE
   Buildings consume 39% of the energy and    74% of electricity produced in U.S.   Nonrenewable fossil fuels found in t...
   Owner’s Project Requirements   Basis of Design.   Project Program.   Design and Construction.   EPA’s Energy Star ...
   Two key elements of energy efficiency:    ◦ Verifying the building and building systems.    ◦ Monitoring of these syst...
   Regulated Energy (the Major): powers    lighting, HVAC and service water heating.   Process Energy (the Minor): runs ...
   Photovoltaic.   Wind Energy.   Solar Thermal: active and passive.   Biofuels: from organic materials such as wood  ...
   Generate onsite renewable energy based on    energy costs not energy consumption.   Purchase offsite renewable energy...
   Open Electricity Market: Governing Utility    company may be able to select a Green-e    certified provider.   Closed...
   Two major criteria for Green-e certification:    ◦ The energy source meets the requirements for      renewable resourc...
   RECs, Green Tags, Renewable Electricity    Certificates or Tradable Renewable    Certificates (TRCs).   Tradable, non...
   Interactive tool that allows the owner or    project team to track and assess energy and    water consumption across a...
   Should be initiated at the beginning of the    project.   Systems to be commissioned are:    ◦   HVAC&R systems and r...
   Fundamental Commissioning For projects less than    50,000 ft2, the CxA may be involved in the project as    an associ...
   Pre-design, Design:    ◦   Designate the Commissioning Authority.    ◦   Document Owner’s Project Requirements.    ◦  ...
   Energy Star Portfolio Manager: A score of 50 in    Energy Star means the average performance.   Calibrated Simulation...
   CFC: Stable and long life, Greatest Ozone Depletion    Potential, banned in 1995.   HCFC: Stable and short life not a...
   International Treaty that designed to protect the    ozone layer by phasing out the production of a    number of subst...
   Existing CFC based HVAC&R and fire suppression    systems must be replaced or retrofitted to phase out    the use of C...
MATERIALS    &RESOURCES
   Material Selection   Waste disposal   Waste reduction   Embodied Energy: the amount of energy    required to for ex...
   Source Reduction: reduce demand for    products.   Reuse: reusing of existing buildings and or    salvaged materials....
   Materials and Resources credit characteristics    used to determine the compliance are    measured by area, weight or ...
   Building reuse: Maintain existing walls, floors and    roof: window assemblies and remediated    hazardous materials a...
   Preconsumer: generally from Industry.   Postconsumer: consumer waste left at curbside for    recycling programs.   I...
   FSC certified wood for a minimum 50% of the    wood based materials and products for all    permanently wood building ...
   A reduced building size will produce less waste.   Develop a policy that establishes a target diversion rate for the ...
INDOORENVIRONMENTAL   QUALITY
   Asthma and Sick building Syndrome SBS: illness    attributed to poor air quality.   Common Organic pollutants are 2 t...
   Improved ventilation.   Managing contaminants.   Low VOC material selection.   Occupant controllability of systems....
   Mechanical Ventilation (active).   Natural Ventilation (passive).   Mixed mode ventilation (active and passive).
   Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS):    ◦ No smoking in the building or within 25 feet of      entrances, operable windo...
   Size ventilation system to provide adequate    outside air to building occupants.   ASHRAE 62, Ventilation for accept...
   Construction activities.   Moisture.   CO2.   Asbestos.   Radon.   Material off-gassing from VOCs.   Second hand...
   Regulate interior finish materials within the    building envelope in an effort to promote    materials and products t...
   Temperature and ventilation control for 50%    of the building occupants.   Provide operable windows for individuals ...
   Increase day lighting.    ◦ Skylights, roof monitors, light tubes, light shelves      to reflect light in the building...
   Effective acoustic design for better student to    teacher communications.   Reduce background noise level to 40DBA o...
   ASHRAE 90.1-2007: energy efficiency.   ASHRAE 52.2-1999: ventilation air filters MERV.   ASHRAE 55-2004: Thermal Com...
INNOVATION IN DESIGN          &  REGIONAL PRIORITY
   Exemplary performance: exceed credit’s available    requirements (not for all credits and not available for    prerequ...
   Educational Outreach Program.   Use greenhouse gas budget to demonstrate    carbon neutral design and operations.   ...
   If the credit threshold percentage    requirements are 10% and 20%, ID point may    awarded if we achieved 30% level....
   Based on Project Zip Code.   Max 4 points can be achieved.   Eligible for outside US projects.
   Any credit that involves tracking cost will almost always be by the Contractor.   Prerequisite earn no point.   The ...
Leed Green Associate Study Slides
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This is my own study notes for LEED Green Associate Exam which i'd like to share it with you, I passed the exam in Oct-16-2012

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  1. 1.  LEED Green Associate Flash Cards for Exam Preparation. Primary Source of Slides: LEED Green Associate Study Guide, Second Edition, Studio4LLC. Based on LEED V3 Rating SystemsPrepared by: Melad Alaqra, PMP
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONLEED Rating Systems
  3. 3.  Passive design: taking advantage of the sun and wind. Regenerative Projects: support the health, generate electricity and send back to the grid. Its goal to achieve “net zero”. The triple bottom line: People (Social), Planet (Environmental), Profit (Economic).
  4. 4.  Built Environment: buildings, land use and transportation systems. Credit Categories for LEED: ◦ Sustainable Sites. ◦ Water Efficiency. ◦ Energy and Atmosphere. ◦ Materials and Resources. ◦ Indoor Environmental Quality. ◦ Innovation in Design. ◦ Regional Priority.
  5. 5.  Adaptive Reuse: reusing a building for a purpose other than which it was built or designed for. Net-Zero: where projects use no more resources than they can produce. Net Zero Carbon Footprint (Carbon Neutrality): by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference.
  6. 6.  Water Balance: using no more water than what is received by collecting precipitation. Zero Waste: produce no waste by reuse, recycle, or compositing all waste generated. Retro-commissioning: Commitment to reevaluate the building systems. It is analogous to taking our car back to the dealer or mechanic for periodic, scheduled inspections and tune-ups.
  7. 7.  Energy Star: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA program focuses on improving energy performance in buildings as a method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy Star buildings consumes 35% less energy than their non-Energy Star counterparts. Space heating consumes 38% of energy which is the largest consumer of energy. The lighting consumes 20% of energy produces.
  8. 8.  Commissioning: ◦ Reduces energy use. ◦ Lower operating costs. ◦ Reduced contractor callbacks. ◦ Better building documentation. ◦ Improved occupant productivity. ◦ Verification that the systems perform in accordance with the owners project requirements.
  9. 9.  U.S. Green Building Council USGBC, 1993, committee based, member driven, consensus focused. Green Building Certification institute GBCI, 2008. LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design 1998. ◦ Certifications for projects. ◦ Accreditation for individuals. ◦ Companies or products are neither accredited nor certified. Organizations can obtain membership to USGBC national organization. Individuals can become members of USGBC regional chapters.
  10. 10.  Building that don’t primarily serve K-12 educational, retail, or designated healthcare uses. High rise (7+stories) residential buildings.
  11. 11.  Buildings made up of core and ancillary learning spaces on K-12 school grounds. Buildings made up of core and ancillary learning spaces on non K-12 school grounds. Non-academic buildings on school campuses.
  12. 12.  Buildings that serve individuals who seek medical treatment. Buildings with other kinds of medically- related uses, such as medical, dental and veterinary offices and clinics, assisted facilities and medical education and research centers.
  13. 13.  Buildings or interiors dedicated to the sale of goods and commodities directly to consumers who come into the premise for the purpose of obtaining those goods or commodities, such as banks and restaurants.
  14. 14.  Homes: ◦ Low rise (1-3) stories residential buildings. ◦ The LEED for Homes Multi-Family Midrise rating system is appropriate for midrise (4-6 stories) residential buildings. Commercial Interiors: ◦ Interiors dedicated to functions other than retail.
  15. 15.  Rating system appropriate for 40% of gross area of LEED project, should not be used. Rating system appropriate for 60% of gross area of LEED project, should be used. Not fall into above scenarios, team must access their situation and decide which rating system is most appropriate.
  16. 16.  Buildings under NC, CS or schools may also be certified under EB O&M. Buildings certified under CS may also be certified under CI. LEED Neighborhood Development may earn additional points for construction or retrofit of certified buildings which are part of the development.
  17. 17.  Site Selection: ◦ Type of land. ◦ Location relative to neighborhood. ◦ Density and mass transit. ◦ Regulating vehicle parking and use. Site Design: ◦ Impact on land consumption. ◦ Ecosystems. ◦ Natural resources. ◦ Energy use.
  18. 18.  The use and disposal of building water by: ◦ Reduce indoor potable water consumption. ◦ Provide water efficient landscaping. ◦ Reduce amount of energy consumption for both production and use of potable water.
  19. 19.  Relating to building energy consumption. Reduce energy required for operations. Use more environmentally friendly ways to produce energy.
  20. 20.  Materials Selection. Waste Disposal. Waste reduction by: ◦ Select sustainable materials. ◦ Reduce waste at its source. ◦ Reuse and recycling.
  21. 21.  Indoor Environmental Quality. Occupants health. Safety and Comfort. Energy Consumption. Air change effectiveness. Air contaminant management.
  22. 22.  Incorporate innovative and sustainable building features that improve performance above and beyond the LEED rating system requirements. Exemplary performance and innovative performance. Having LEED AP involved in project team. No prerequisite offer exemplary performance points.
  23. 23.  Offer incentives for the achievement of credits that address geographically specific environmental priorities.
  24. 24.  Innovation and Design Process. Location and Linkages. Sustainable Sites. Water Efficiency. Energy and Atmosphere. Materials and Resources. Indoor Environmental Quality. Awareness and Education.
  25. 25.  Smart Location and Linkages. Neighborhood pattern and design to create compact, walkable and integrated communities, mixed use. Green Infrastructure and Buildings, promotes sustainable communities and not just a project. Innovation in design and Regional priority.
  26. 26.  Prerequisites (Mandatory), Credits (Non- Mandatory). All prerequisites plus some of optional credits to become certified. Each have one or more requirements to be achieved.
  27. 27.  Federal, state and local laws or codes will always trump LEED required standards, if more stringent. Declarant responsible for signing off on the prerequisite or credit.
  28. 28.  Give clear guidance to the customer. Protect the integrity of the LEED program. Reduce complications that occur during the LEED certification process.
  29. 29.  Must comply with environmental laws. Must be a complete, permanent building or space. Must use a reasonable site boundary. Must comply with minimum floor area requirements. Must comply with minimum occupancy rates. Must commit to sharing whole building energy and water usage data. Must comply with a minimum building area to site area ratio.
  30. 30.  The boundary that may not unreasonably exclude sections of land to create boundaries in unreasonable shapes for the sole purpose of complying with prerequisites or credits.
  31. 31.  For new construction and Core& Shell: minimum of 1000 square feet (93 square meter) of gross floor area. For Commercial Interiors: 250 square feet (22 square meter) of gross floor area.
  32. 32.  One or more FTE (full time equivalent). All certified projects must commit to sharing whole-project energy and water usage for a period at least 5 years starts from typical physical occupancy or date of certification for EB O&M certified buildings.
  33. 33.  The gross floor area of the project building must be no less than 2% of the gross land area within the LEED project boundary.
  34. 34.  Wingspread principles on a U.S. response to global warming: a set of propositions signed by organizations and individuals declaring their commitment to addressing the issue of climate change. Call for reducing greenhouse gas emissions 60%-80% below 1990 levels by mid century.
  35. 35.  USGBC identifies and prioritizes LEED credits based on their relative value for greenhouse gas emissions reduction. Carbon Overlay: quantitative index of the relative importance of individual credits. Building’s carbon footprint is the total greenhouse gas emissions associated with its construction and operation.
  36. 36.  LEED Online automatically determines a project’s regional priority credits based on its ZIP code. Six credits with specific priority. Max of four points can be earned. USGBC website contains a searchable database of regional priority credits.
  37. 37.  LEED Technical Advisory Groups (TAGs): provide technical advice with respect to LEED. LEED Pilot credit Library is intended to facilitate the introduction of new credits to LEED and is an important tool for advancing LEED. LEEDuser.com posted the official language for it. Projects can participate.
  38. 38.  All LEED rating systems (except LEED for homes) have 100 base points+ 6 ID+ 4RP=110 points. LEED for homes have 125 point scale+11ID. Certification Levels: ◦ Certified: 40-49 points. ◦ Silver: 50-59 points. ◦ Gold: 60-79 points. ◦ Platinum: 80+ points.
  39. 39.  Register at GBCI which provide access to LEEDonline. Project certification is a 6-step process, 5 formal steps not including the process of determining if LEED is right for the project.
  40. 40.  Initially registers the project via LEEDonline. Main contact with GBCI. Can be replaced after registration. Provides project information when registering via LEEDonline. Invites team members for access to LEEDonline. Assigns credit responsibility to team members.
  41. 41.  Project Checklist forms by GBCI, can determine which LEED rating system and level of certification would be best suited for the project. Also called LEED credit Scorecard. Credit Templates and calculators can be accessed only by the project administrator and invited project team members via LEEDonline. The documentations required for submittal must be signed by Declarant.
  42. 42.  Only the LEED project administrator is eligible to submit an application for review. Two options for application review: ◦ Split review: credits and prerequisites can be submitted during design. And must be submitted during construction. Each reviewed prerequisite and credit is designated as anticipated or denied, and is accompanied by technical advice as deemed appropriate by the review team. All project information forms are designated as approved or not approved, and are accompanied by technical advice as deemed appropriate by the review team ◦ Combined review: all prerequisites and credits are submitted at or after the completion of construction. Each reviewed prerequisite and credit is designated as awarded, or denied, and is accompanied by technical advice as deemed appropriate by the review team. All project information forms are designated as approved or not approved, and are accompanied by technical advice as deemed appropriate by the review team• If, however, the GBCI reviewer denies approval, the project team for a fee can appeal the decision.
  43. 43.  Authorities permit occupancy prior to receipt of certificate of occupancy during substantial completion. Certificate of occupancy: official notice by building authorities having jurisdiction that the project conforms to applicable building and safety codes.
  44. 44.  Stage one projects: review prior to completion of entitlement as conditionally approved LEED ND plan. Stage two projects: certification of an approved development plan. Pre-certified. Stage three projects: review of an approved development plan, a formal certificate as: LEED Certified Neighborhood Development.
  45. 45.  By LEED for Homes Provider (NOT GBCI). The only communication between the project and USGBC is during project registration. LEED for Homes Provider is a third party verification. Green Raters: subordinate to providers and perform the field inspections and performance testing.
  46. 46.  Allow project team to obtain technical and administration guidance on how LEED requirements, including MPRs, prerequisites and credits pertain to their projects. CIR: specific issue, 5000 characters including spaces 600 words, no attachments, no cut sheets, no plans or drawings. Exception for LEED for Neighborhood projects which are allowed to submit site plan. Not letter format.220$. LEED interpretations: can be applied to multiple projects and ratings systems. LEED Interpretations approval takes longer than CIR.
  47. 47.  Developed to honor and recognize distinguished LEED AP who have made a significant contribution to the field of green building and sustainability. Nominees must be nominated by their peers.
  48. 48.  Earn Continuing Education CE hours. LEED GA 15 CE hours biennially (every 2 years). LEED AP 30 CE hours biennially as well as additional hours for additional specialties. 50$ biennial renewal fee for all. Report CE hours earned during the 2 year reporting cycle.
  49. 49.  Credits Harmonization: the credits and prerequisites are consistent across all LEED 2009 rating system. Credit Weightings: LEED awards more points for strategies that will have greater positive impacts on what matters most Energy Efficiency and CO2 reductions, each credit was evaluated against a list of 13 environmental impact categories.
  50. 50. SUSTAINABLE SITES
  51. 51.  Transportation accounting for 33% of the greenhouse gas emissions 2008. Sustainable Sites addresses environmental concerns related to both site selection and site development. Smart Growth: an urban planning and transportation theory that concentrates growth in compact walkable urban centers to avoid sprawl.
  52. 52.  Energy and Atmosphere then sustainable sites categories offer the most points to the project in order. For any registered LEED project, two pieces of information to be submitted: LEED Boundary and Full Time Equivalents FTEs.
  53. 53.  Building Footprint: area of the building structure. Pavement and landscaping are not included. Development Footprint: area of the site impacted by the project. Property Boundary: total area within the legal boundaries of the site. LEED project boundary: any given parcel of real property that is attributed to a single LEED project building.
  54. 54.  Two options to achieve credit for urban redevelopment: Development Density: ◦ Previously developed or infill site in a community with a minimum density of 60,000 square feet per acre. Community Connectivity: ◦ Previously developed or infill site within ½ mile to 10 unit/acre. AND ◦ Previously developed or infill site within ½ mile to 10 basic services unobstructed pedestrian access.
  55. 55.  Average density of project and surrounding community should be of min. 60000 sf/acre. Restore Brownfield sites. Protect habitat: select sites that do not include sensitive site elements and land types such as: see the next slide
  56. 56.  Prime farmland as defined by the U.S department of agriculture USDA. Less than 5 feet above areas defined by FEMA as being in the 100 year flood plain. “ the flood elevation that has 1% chance of being reached or exceeded each year”. Land that is habitat for threatened or endangered species. Within 100 feet of wetlands as defined by Code of Federal regulations. Within 50 feet of a body of water as regulated by the Clean Water Act CWA. Public Parklands.
  57. 57.  Community Connectivity: ◦ Previously developed site AND within ½ mile of a residential neighborhood with an average density of 10 units/acre AND within ½ mile of ten basic community services. Mass Transit: ◦ Unobstructed walking distance within ½ mile of commuter rail, light rail. ◦ Or ¼ mile of one or more bus stops for two or more bus lines usable by building occupants.
  58. 58.  Prevents loss of soil, sedimentation and pollution. Using mulching, erosion control blankets, straw bales, berms and silt fence. Efficient Hardscapes: hard surfaces with permeable (pervious) surfaces. Minimize the amount of hard surfaces such as parking lots.
  59. 59.  Minimize water usage ◦ Use water efficient irrigation systems. ◦ Use native or adaptive landscaping. Use reflective materials with high SRI to minimize heat island impacts. Sustainable management plan: ◦ Consideration of type of chemicals used for cleaning exterior surfaces, snow removal. ◦ Develop an integrated pest management program.
  60. 60.  Access to mass transit networks ◦ Commuter rail, light rail, or subway system. ◦ Public, campus or private bus lines usable by occupants. ◦ Shuttle service from project to transit lines. Reduce employee parking size ◦ Parking not to exceed existing minimum local code requirements. ◦ Shared parking with other buildings. ◦ Provide alternatives to single occupant vehicles.
  61. 61.  Encourage car pooling and van pooling. Provide reserved parking spaces located near building entrances for building occupants who car pool to work. Low emission and Fuel-Efficient Vehicles (FEV): ◦ On-site fueling stations. ◦ Provide FEV or offer incentives for employee FEV ownership. ◦ For schools, investigate trade-offs for alternative fuel vehicles.
  62. 62.  Promote alternative or incentives to single- occupancy vehicle commuting. Provide secured spaces and changing rooms for bicycle use. Reduced parking rates for car pooling or alternative fuel vehicles. Assist employees with parking fees for public parking.
  63. 63. •Use pervious hardscape.•Minimize impervious surfaces.•Grid pavers.•Vegetated roof.•Control Stormwater: redirect the flow and rate.•Harvest rainwater: collect and reuse.
  64. 64.  Retention and detention ponds. Rain Garden. Bioswales. Vegetated strips. Capture rainwater for reuse in such areas as irrigation, flushing toilets and urinals, and custodial.
  65. 65.  Rainfall and snow onto impervious surfaces doesn’t filtrate back into the earth and aquifer, but rather washes the surfaces and sends the contaminants to our waterway. Low Impact Development: addresses how stormwater enters a site, is temporary stored and how the stormwater exits the site.
  66. 66.  An urban area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding areas by 2 to 10 degrees. Evapotanspiration: the release of water from plants into the atmosphere. Emissivity: the ability of material to emit heat by radiation. Solar reflectance (Albedo): measure of material ability to reflect sunlight. Solar Reflectance Index SRI: the measure of materials to reject solar heat. Lower Emissivity and higher Albedo and SRI is the ideal relationship and is Cool pavements or cool roofs.
  67. 67.  Reduce area of hardscape. Shading: of 50% of the total hardscape area. ◦ Shade from exisiting tree canopy or, for new trees, within 5 years of installations. ◦ Shade from structures covered by solar panel produce renewable energy. ◦ Shade from architectural feature with at least 29 SRI. Cool pavements: 29 SRI. Open grid pavement systems which are at least 50% pervious. Place a minimum of parking spaces under cover, at least 29 SRI.
  68. 68.  Cool roof: use roofing materials for 75% of the roof surface with controlled SRI value “ 78 for low slope roofs less than or equal 2:12, 29 SRI for steep sloped roofs greater than 2:12”. Green roofs: 50% vegetated roofs. High SRI and Green roofs meet the following:(Area of roof meeting minimum SRI/0.75)+(area of vegetated roof/0.5)= Total roof area.
  69. 69.  Sky Glow: Reduction in observation in night skies. Strategies for reducing Light Pollution: ◦ Utilize indirect interior lighting. ◦ Shut off non-emergency lighting: reduce power to interior lights with a direct line of sight to building envelope openings such as windows with shut off during off hours. ◦ Automatic shielding: for all non- emergency lighting with a direct line of sight to building envelope. ◦ For exterior: design lighting with computer model, accurate control of illumination level ASHREA 90.1. ◦ Only light areas required for safety and comfort. ◦ Shut off or reduce lighting for landscaping or façade (non essential lighting). ◦ Use full cut off light fixtures.
  70. 70.  Full cut off lighting prevents wasteful up-lighting above a horizontal plane, reduces glare and helps prevent light trespass. Low angle spot lights help reduce glare, lighting unnecessary surfaces and wasting energy lighting the sky. Low reflectance surfaces reduce light reflectance and trespass. Classify project lighting zone complying with IESNA RP-33
  71. 71.  LZ1- Dark (Park and rural settings) LZ2- Low (residential areas and neighborhood business districts) LZ3- Medium (Commercial/ Industrial and high density residential) LZ4- High ( Major City centers and entertainment districts) School sports fields are excluded from requirements, but must have automatic shut off.
  72. 72.  Zero Emission Vehicle is defined by the California Air Resources Board ( CARB).
  73. 73. WATER EFFICIENCY
  74. 74.  Indoor Water use reduction. Outdoor water use reduction. Process water use reduction. Innovative Wastewater Technologies.
  75. 75.  Water Efficiency measure in commercial buildings can reduce water use by 30% or more. Mandates a 20% reduction over the building baseline and awards 2,3 and 4 points for further reductions of 30%, 35% and 40%. Use water efficient flush and flow fixtures. Consider alternative water sources for non potable water requirements. Reducing water use can reduce energy consumption. Reduce water consumption can reduce the burden on water treatment facilities.
  76. 76.  Outdoor water uses account for 30% of 26 billion gallons of potable water used daily.Strategies: o Use landscaping that not required permanent irrigation. (Native and Adaptive plants) o Using captured rainwater, recycled wastewater or water treated by public agency for non-potable use. o Use effective and efficient water practices.
  77. 77.  Reducing wastewater conveyance by using water conserving flush and flow fixtures. Using non-potable water for use in low quality water requirements
  78. 78.  Process water: applies to building equipment. Reduce it. Consider compositing food waste for garbage disposals. LEED promotes process water reduction only by complying with: ◦ No refrigeration equipment using once-through cooling with potable water. ◦ No garbage disposals. ◦ At least 4 process items where water use is less than that specified for certain equipment types ( e.g. dishwashers, clothes washers, ice machines, etc..)
  79. 79.  For new construction: total number of building occupants of the following types: ◦ Full time staff. ◦ Part time staff. ◦ Peak Transients (Students, volunteers, visitors…) ◦ Residents. For schools: total number of building occupants of the following types: Full time and part time staff, students above grade 3 and peak transients.
  80. 80.  Regular building occupant who spends 40 hours per week in the project building. Multiple shifts are included for credits that require annual calculations as with annual potable water consumption and wastewater generation. Full time Equivalent building occupants: total number of hours all building occupants spend in the building during the peak 8hrs occupancy period divided by 8hrs. 8 hour full time occupant has 1.0 FTE value. Buildings with multiple shifts, only the shift with higher volume is used.
  81. 81.  Gallons per flush (gpf): measurement of water used by flush fixtures (water closets and urinals) per EPAct 1992, baseline rates for water closets is 1.6 gpf and urinals is 1.0 gpf. Gallons per minute (gpm): measurement of water used by flow fixtures (Faucets, showerheads, aerators, sprinkler head). Uniform Plumbing Code UPC defines Grey Water as wastewater that has not come in contact with toilet waste. Black Water: wastewater come from Toilets and Urinals. Process water: water used for industrial process and building systems. Also includes commercial appliances such as clothes washers, ice makers and dishwashers.
  82. 82.  Standard plumbing fixtures used today are regulated by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). Water Balance Approach: use strategies that capture rain water for non-potable, irrigation and process water use. Use meters and sub-meters to determine systems water usage and to locate leaks. Conventional toilets 1.6 gpf Conventional Urinals 1.0 gpf Conventional Lavatory (bathroom) Faucets 2.2 gpm. Conventional Kitchen Faucets 2.2 gpm. Conventional showerheads 2.5 gpm. Uniform Plumbing Code 2006 section 402.0 defines water conserving fixtures and fittings.
  83. 83.  Install water efficient plumbing fixtures. WaterSense: is an EPA sponsored partnership program that promotes water efficiency for water-efficient products, programs and practices. Use non-potable water ( captured rainwater, gray water or municipality claimed wastewater for flush type fixtures. Install submeters to monitor consumption and locate leaks.
  84. 84.  Zoned Landscaping according to the irrigation requirements. Install locally adaptive landscaping or native. Xeriscaping: landscape concept consider the whole of the landscaping design that require little or no irrigation. Includes analysis of existing soil, water efficient irrigation and maintenance considerations. Mulching: retains water and prevent water evaporation. Reduce turf grasses that require large amounts of water. Efficient irrigation systems: drip and bubbler are the most efficient, weather based controllers use weather and soil conditions to determine irrigation requirements. Use nonpotable water for irrigation. Install submeters to monitor consumption and locate leaks. Maintenance program of lawn and landscaping.
  85. 85.  Use water conserving fixtures, nonpotable water or municipality treated wastewater. Treat on-site wastewater to tertiary standards.
  86. 86. ENERGY &ATMOSPHERE
  87. 87.  Buildings consume 39% of the energy and 74% of electricity produced in U.S. Nonrenewable fossil fuels found in three forms: Coal, Oil, and natural Gas. Hydroelectric Generation can disrupt natural water flows. Energy and Atmosphere has the max. number of points. EA category concerns about Energy and Refrigerants.
  88. 88.  Owner’s Project Requirements Basis of Design. Project Program. Design and Construction. EPA’s Energy Star TargetFinder: an Online tool that allow Planners to set an aggressive energy performance target for building design and compare estimated energy consumption to the established target. (LEED for School prerequisite).
  89. 89.  Two key elements of energy efficiency: ◦ Verifying the building and building systems. ◦ Monitoring of these systems after occupancy. Baseline of energy performance complies with Appendix G of ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Two types of energy: Regulated Energy and Process Energy.
  90. 90.  Regulated Energy (the Major): powers lighting, HVAC and service water heating. Process Energy (the Minor): runs office equipment, computers, elevators, escalators, kitchen cooking and refrigeration, laundry washing and drying, lighting that is exempt from the lighting power allowance and miscellaneous items (e.g.: lighting integral to medical equipment).
  91. 91.  Photovoltaic. Wind Energy. Solar Thermal: active and passive. Biofuels: from organic materials such as wood by-products and agricultural waste. Geothermal heating. Low impact hydroelectric. Wave and Tidal.
  92. 92.  Generate onsite renewable energy based on energy costs not energy consumption. Purchase offsite renewable energy based on energy quantity consumption not costs and must be at least 2 year contract for at least 35% of building electricity consumption.
  93. 93.  Open Electricity Market: Governing Utility company may be able to select a Green-e certified provider. Closed Electricity Market: governing utility compancy may be a Green-e certified provider. If local utility company cannot provide Green-e certified power, Owner may purchase renewable energy certificates. (RECs).
  94. 94.  Two major criteria for Green-e certification: ◦ The energy source meets the requirements for renewable resources detailed by Green-e Standard. ◦ The renewable energy provider has undergone an independent third party verification that the standard has been met. Green-e Equivalent is not certified but equivalent to the 2 above criteria.
  95. 95.  RECs, Green Tags, Renewable Electricity Certificates or Tradable Renewable Certificates (TRCs). Tradable, nonTangable energy commodities in the united states. Represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource ( renewable electricity).
  96. 96.  Interactive tool that allows the owner or project team to track and assess energy and water consumption across an entire portfolio of buildings.
  97. 97.  Should be initiated at the beginning of the project. Systems to be commissioned are: ◦ HVAC&R systems and related controls. ◦ Lighting and Daylighting controls. ◦ Domestic hot water systems. ◦ Renewable energy system.
  98. 98.  Fundamental Commissioning For projects less than 50,000 ft2, the CxA may be involved in the project as an associate of the contractor, construction manager, architect, or engineer and may have other project responsibilities. For projects over that size, the CxA may be still be from the same firm as a project team member, as long as he or she is not otherwise involved in the project. In both cases an independent consultant contracted to the owner is also an option, and may bring more value by offering better objectivity and a different perspective than someone associated with the design team. For the Enhanced Commissioning credit, an independent consultant is required to be the CxA.
  99. 99.  Pre-design, Design: ◦ Designate the Commissioning Authority. ◦ Document Owner’s Project Requirements. ◦ Develop Basis of Design. ◦ Develop Commissioning Plan. Construction: o Review Contractor Submittals applicable to installed systems. o Verify installation and performance. o Develop systems manual for commissioned systems. Occupancy: o Review building operation within 10 months after substantial completion.
  100. 100.  Energy Star Portfolio Manager: A score of 50 in Energy Star means the average performance. Calibrated Simulation. Energy Conservation Method as specified by International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume III. Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide related to Optimize Energy Performance.
  101. 101.  CFC: Stable and long life, Greatest Ozone Depletion Potential, banned in 1995. HCFC: Stable and short life not as great as CFC in ODP, phase out plan in 2030. HFC: Negligible Impact on Ozone layer but significant impact on Global Warming Potential GWP. Halocarbons: Used in the Cells of foamed insulation and fire fighting systems. Natural Refrigerants: CO2, Water, Ammonia NH3, Hydrocarbons HC, Propane and Air.
  102. 102.  International Treaty that designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The Ozone Layer is expected to recover in 2050. Over 50% of water chillers in existing buildings still using CFC-11. Use Fire suppression systems that use no CFC, HCFCs or Halons.
  103. 103.  Existing CFC based HVAC&R and fire suppression systems must be replaced or retrofitted to phase out the use of CFC refrigerants prior to project completion. Existing Chiller System, phase out CFC based refrigerants within 5 years of project completion. If replacement of Chillers is not economically feasible. If a third party audit determine that payback would be greater than 10 years for replacement or conversion, a reduction in annual leakage to 5% or less is required.
  104. 104. MATERIALS &RESOURCES
  105. 105.  Material Selection Waste disposal Waste reduction Embodied Energy: the amount of energy required to for extraction, processing, transporting, installation and eventual disposal during the entire life cycle of the product ( Cradle to grave). Construction and demolition waste contributes about 40% of the total solid waste stream in the US.
  106. 106.  Source Reduction: reduce demand for products. Reuse: reusing of existing buildings and or salvaged materials. Recycle. Cradle to cradle materials: that are either reused or recycled at the end of their original use.
  107. 107.  Materials and Resources credit characteristics used to determine the compliance are measured by area, weight or cost. Provide an easy accessible dedicated area for the collection and storage of materials for recycling for the entire building. Materials must include: paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastics and metals. This is prerequisite.
  108. 108.  Building reuse: Maintain existing walls, floors and roof: window assemblies and remediated hazardous materials are excluded. (55%, 75% and 95% for NC). Building reuse: Maintain Interior nonstructural elements.(50%). Materials reuse: for onsite reuse, items must no longer serve their original function and must be installed for a different purpose, offsite materials qualify if they had been previously used(5% NC).
  109. 109.  Preconsumer: generally from Industry. Postconsumer: consumer waste left at curbside for recycling programs. ISO 14021 defines preconsumer and postconsumer materials. Regional Materials: that have been extracted, harvested, or recovered and manufactured within 500 miles of the project site. Rapidly renewable materials: typically harvested within a 10 year cycle (Cork, bamboo, natural rubber, wheat, cotton, straw, linseed (linoleum). (2.5% of material).
  110. 110.  FSC certified wood for a minimum 50% of the wood based materials and products for all permanently wood building components. Requires chain of custody CoC proof.
  111. 111.  A reduced building size will produce less waste. Develop a policy that establishes a target diversion rate for the general contractor. Develop a waste management plan that includes disposal of any asbestos and PCBs. Waste can be collected in one container (Commingled), and sent to offsite facility to be separated for easier compliance and less space for containers. Waste can be separated onsite and put in marked and protected containers to be recycled, requires more space and monitoring to ensure compliance. Develop Policy to reduce waste during operations and maintenance. Provide convenient and accessible location to occupants for collection of recyclables. Monitor the effectiveness of recycling programs.
  112. 112. INDOORENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
  113. 113.  Asthma and Sick building Syndrome SBS: illness attributed to poor air quality. Common Organic pollutants are 2 to 5 times higher inside homes than outside regardless of the location of home. Americans on average spend 90% of their time indoors. Source Control: preventing contaminants from entering the building.
  114. 114.  Improved ventilation. Managing contaminants. Low VOC material selection. Occupant controllability of systems. Increased Daylight and views. Acoustics (Schools).
  115. 115.  Mechanical Ventilation (active). Natural Ventilation (passive). Mixed mode ventilation (active and passive).
  116. 116.  Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS): ◦ No smoking in the building or within 25 feet of entrances, operable windows and air intakes. ◦ Smoking permitted inside must be confined to spaces built per ASTM E779-03. ◦ No smoking in or around schools. Carbon Dioxide CO2: Installed CO2 monitors integrated with the ventilation system. Particulate Matter.
  117. 117.  Size ventilation system to provide adequate outside air to building occupants. ASHRAE 62, Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality. Install high efficiency filters with high MERV ratings to reduce smaller particulates during construction and replace prior to occupancy ( MERV 8 rating). Flush out the building before occupancy. SMACNA for indoor air quality
  118. 118.  Construction activities. Moisture. CO2. Asbestos. Radon. Material off-gassing from VOCs. Second hand smoke. Particulates. Chemicals.
  119. 119.  Regulate interior finish materials within the building envelope in an effort to promote materials and products that release fewer and less harmful chemical compounds.
  120. 120.  Temperature and ventilation control for 50% of the building occupants. Provide operable windows for individuals control. Lighting control for 90% of the building occupants.
  121. 121.  Increase day lighting. ◦ Skylights, roof monitors, light tubes, light shelves to reflect light in the building. ◦ Orientation of the building. Increase View. ◦ Provide a direct line of sight to exterior. ◦ Window vision glazing heights to be 2’-6” above the floor to 7’-6”. ◦ Glazing above 7’-6” is referred to as daylight glazing.
  122. 122.  Effective acoustic design for better student to teacher communications. Reduce background noise level to 40DBA or less from HVAC systems in classrooms and other core learning places.
  123. 123.  ASHRAE 90.1-2007: energy efficiency. ASHRAE 52.2-1999: ventilation air filters MERV. ASHRAE 55-2004: Thermal Comfort ( Air and Radiant temperatures, air speed, humidity. ASHRAE 62.1-2007 ventilation rates. Carpet and Rug Institute: Green label plus: carpets. Green label: carpet cushions. FloorScore program identify low VOC flooring. SCAQMD Rule 1113, VOC limits for paints and coatings. SCAQMD Rule 1168, VOC limits for adhesives, sealants and sealant primers. Green Seal GC-03, VOC limits for anti corrosive and anti rust paints. Green Seal GC-11, VOC limits for commercial flat and non flat paints. Green Seal Standard GC-36, VOC limits for aerosol adhesives.
  124. 124. INNOVATION IN DESIGN & REGIONAL PRIORITY
  125. 125.  Exemplary performance: exceed credit’s available requirements (not for all credits and not available for prerequisites). Innovative performance: address sustainable topic not covered in the LEED Rating System ( Comprehensive, quantifiable, and Transferable). Pilot Credit Library: attempt one of the credit in that Library. LEED AP involved as principle participant. Max. 6 points can be achieved.
  126. 126.  Educational Outreach Program. Use greenhouse gas budget to demonstrate carbon neutral design and operations. Incorporate high levels of fly ash in concrete to divert waste materials from landfills.
  127. 127.  If the credit threshold percentage requirements are 10% and 20%, ID point may awarded if we achieved 30% level. Credits with more than Compliance path, compliance with more than one path is eligible for Exemplary Performance, if the benefit is additive. Doubling level or percentage of the credit performance.
  128. 128.  Based on Project Zip Code. Max 4 points can be achieved. Eligible for outside US projects.
  129. 129.  Any credit that involves tracking cost will almost always be by the Contractor. Prerequisite earn no point. The minimum requirement a building must satisfy to obtain LEED Certification of a new building is to Satisfy all prerequisites and earn 40 LEED credit points. Plumbing codes in some jurisdictions do not allow for collected rainwater to be brought inside the building for use to flush toilets. While the Energy Policy Act also deals with energy use, LEED uses it to establish baseline water use rates for plumbing fixtures. ASHRAE published the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Office Buildings 2004. Appeals cost 500$/ Credit and 800$/Complex Credit. Registration and Credits fees are different for non-members and members. Fees are based on Square footage. Fees are not the same for All Rating Systems. Core and Shell, schools, retail and healthcare have the same Fees. Excavated materials such as: dirt and trees, hazardous materials such as asbestos and lead covered debris are excluded from waste management calculations. Mechanical, electrical, elevators and windows are excluded from materials reuse calculations.
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