IntegratingMultiliteracies into the ESL Thesis Proposal curriculum: Presentation Graphic Novels Melissa Torres as a Means of INGL 6006 Research Expression and Methods Motivation Cathy Mazak
Integrating Multiliteracies into the ESL curriculum:Graphic Novels as a Means of Expression and Motivation Reading and writing graphic novels can be motivating for struggling students and reluctant readers, and can also support the development of multimodal literacy skills needed for school success in the twenty-first century. According to Carter (2009) a graphic novel is a narrative work in which the story is conveyed to the reader using sequential art in either an experimental design or in a traditional comic format.
Multimodal Literacies Graphicnovels are fiction or nonfiction books presented in comic book format that require multimodal literacy for understanding. According to the National Council of Teachers of English or NCTE (2008) multi-modal literacies “is the integration of multiple modes of communication and expression that can enhance the meaning of the work beyond illustration.
Research Problem:In Puerto Rico every public school student is given a daily English lesson throughout elementary school and high school.However, as Kerkhof (2001) stated many high-school graduates in Puerto Rico read, write, and speak English poorly.
According to Schwarz (2010) “The graphic novel can drive current traditional curriculum goals, teach new literacies, offer new topics with which teachers and students can engage, and enable new ways of learning.”
JustificationTeaching with a wide variety of text structures and images holds possibilities for deepening students’ interest, engagement, and comprehension and enhancing their writing and reading skills.
Research Objectives • With the creation of a unit I will integrate I will attempt to graphic novels into the curriculum in order to find reasons why engage and motivate reluctant readers. students are • In doing so I will identify what motivates reluctant to read students, and will consider how graphic and write in the novels contribute to promote student motivation to read and write in English in anEnglish classroom. ESL college classroom. Students at the • I will read the graphic novels and will ask end of the unit the students to write a reader’s Response inwill be expected order to determine if students could express to create a themselves honestly through the medium of the comic format graphic novel
Context of Study: Theoretical paradigm Criticalmedia literacy: Is generally concerned with “helping students experience the pleasures of popular culture” (Smith, 2008).
New Literacy StudiesDue to the new information technologies and the complex multiliteracies required by these technologies, literacy is reinventing itself.
Prior Research Ina study performed by Hammond (2009). He examined readers’ responses to an art graphic novel. While the use of comics and graphic novels as an educational tool was a positive experience in the studies, none of the studies explicitly examined ESL student’s response to a graphic novel.
Research questionsAs Krashen (2004) states, “The case for comics is a good one” (p. 109).Probably the most compelling and most frequently mentioned reason for using comics and graphic novels is their ability to motivate students to read.
Research Questions I want to see if by integrating multiliteracies into the ESL curriculum ifstudents will feel motivated to read. I also want to see if they can express themselves freely in writing through the medium of the comic format. Thus my main research question is: How might graphic novelscontribute to promoting student motivation to read and write in English in an ESL college classroom?
Sub-Questions 1. How do graphic novels improve student’s writing when used in an English college classroom? 2. How do students convey meaning from a graphic novel? 3. How can students express themselves honestly through the creation of a graphic novel? 4. Can students express themselves better through the medium of the comic format? 5. Do students consider the issues presented in the graphic novels as serious topics?
Methodology In order to conduct my study I will construct a unit in my syllabus, dedicated to implementing graphic novels in the classroom. For the purpose of my study I will conduct an action research. Cohen (2007) deﬁnes action research as “a small-scale intervention in the functioning of the real world; in addition to a close examination of the effects of such an intervention” (p.297).
Research site(s) and timeperiodThe research will be carried out in the University of Puerto Rico at MayaguezThe time allotted for this study will be preferably 1 month of classes or rather 14 class periods.The study will be performed with Intermediate II (3104) students.
Data collection techniques ormethods I will distribute a reading questionnaire. I will then ask students to write two reader responses one pertaining to their feelings towards reading a graphic novel and the other will refer to their experience when creating a graphic novel.
Conclusion:Implications of the Study By taking students motivation into account educators can see the importance that teaching while using multimodal literacies can have in improving student motivation and enhancing their writing and reading skills.
References Bucher, K. T. & Manning, M. L. (2004). Bringing graphic novels into a school’s curriculum. The Clearing House, 78 (2), 67-72. Carter, J. B. (2007). Building literacy connections with graphic novels: page by page, panel by panel. Urbana, IL : National Council Of Teachers Of English. Cary, S. (2004). Going graphic: Comics at work in the multilingual classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Downey, E. M. (2009). Graphic Novels in Curriculum and Instruction Collections. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(2), 181-188. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th anniversary ed.). New York: Continuum. Griffith, P. E. (2010). Graphic Novels in the Secondary Classroom and School Libraries. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(3), 181-189. Hammond, H. K. (2009). Graphic novels and multimodal literacy: A reader response study. Education, Curriculum and Instruction). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses
Hughes, J., King, A., Perkins, P., & Fuke, V. (2011). Adolescents and "Autographics": Reading and Writing Coming-of-Age Graphic Novels. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(8), 601-612. Kerkhof, E. (2001). The Myth of the Dumb Puerto Rican: Circular Migration and Language Struggle in Puerto Rico. KITLV, 75(3), 257-288. Krashen, S. D. (2004). The power of reading: Insights from the research. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann McCloud, S. (2000). Reinventing comics: how imagination and technology are revolutionizing an art form. New York: Perennial. McCloud, S. (1993). Understanding comics. Milwaukee, WI: Kitchen Sink Press. Risko, V. J., Walker-Dalhouse, D., Bridges, E. S., & Wilson, A. (2011). Drawing on Text Features for Reading Comprehension and Composing. Reading Teacher, 64(5), 376-378. Schwarz, G. (2010). Graphic Novels. Curriculum & Teaching Dialogue, 12(1/2), 43-65. Retrieved from EBSCO host. Schwartz, A. & Rubinstein-Avila, E. (2006). Understanding the manga hype: Uncovering the multimodality of comic book literacies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50 (1), 40-49. Smith, M. (2008). Does service learning promote adult development? Theoretical perspectives and directions for research. New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, (118), 5-15. White, B. (2011). The World in Words & Pictures. Knowledge Quest, 39(3), 18-25. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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