Articulation• Articulation is the movement and placement of the articulators to shape the vocal tract.• The buzz produced by the vibrating vocal folds is shaped into sounds or phonemes by the articulatory system.• As the laryngeal or glottal vibrations travel superiorly through the vocal tract, they are selectively attenuated so that certain frequencies are transmitted more strongly than others. – Vocal tract = pharyngeal, nasal, & oral cavities
• Source-filter theory = explains how glottal tone is changed into speech sounds by the vocal tract. – The three cavities of the vocal tract can change shapes due to moveable articulators – The changes in shape cause resonant frequencies to change. • Resonant frequency = frequency that cavity responds to most effectively • Example: bottle with water* • /s/ vs /sh/ Which has a lower frequency? • http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# • See articulation anatomy on the website above. – With consonants, sources of sound can include turbulence of frication with or without voicing. – Articulators are movable or not movable
• THE ARTICULATORS• First we will examine the framework and muscles, then relate structures to speech production• SKULL = supportive framework – Composed of 22 bones. – All except mandible are rigidly joined together by sutures* – Main sutures = coronal. sagittal, lambdoidal, and squamosal suture • Coronal = divides skull into front and back; between frontal and parietal bones • Sagittal = divides skull in L and R; between the two parietal bones • Lambdoidal = between parietal and occipital bones; shaped like Greek letter • Squamosal = between parietal and temporal bones – Identify these sutures on the next two slides • Sutures = joints that are immoveable • Lambdoidal = occipital
1. Mandible • Mental symphysis = two parts fused here • Mental protuberance = midline; creates triangular eminence (prominence) • Mental foramen • Corpus • Angle • Ramus • Coronoid process • Condylar process (articulates with temporal bone, allowing rotation of mandible) • Mandibular foramen (inner aspect) (branch of Trigeminal, CV, goes through here to provide sensory innervation to teeth and gums) • Mylohyoid line (mylohyoid muscle inserts here) • Mandibular hypoplasia and micrognathia • May cause some instances of cleft palate • Can be corrected surgically or with distraction osteogenesis
Hemifacial MicrosomiaCharacteristics• Hemi = half, although present in bilateral condition in up to 15%-16% of cases• Unilateral or bilateral underdev of mandible• Unilateral or bilateral underdev/malformations of ear (microtia, ear tags, etc)• Unilateral or bilateral reduction in size and flattening of maxilla• Narrowing of the opening of the eyeCauses: thought caused by hemorrhage from artery that produces hematoma in area of branchial arches (head, neck area dev from branchial arches). Occurs during first 6-8 weeks of pregnancy.• Inheritance: sporadic; reports of familial cases. May be auto dominant, auto recessive, or multifactorial.
Pierre Robin sequence shown below. Etiology isunknown. It can occur as one sign of somesyndromes. Note the micrognathia of the infant.Young child has distractor in place and trach.
2. Maxillae: two bones join to make up upper jaw (anterior ¾ of hard palate) – Frontal process (superior-most part of maxillae); maxilla articulates with frontal bone – Zygomatic arch = articulates with zygomatic bone – Infraorbital foramen (passageway for branch of CV (Trigeminal) that supplies sensation to lower eyelid, upper lip, and nasal alae) – Anterior nasal spine – Alveolar process = – Maxillary sinuses (see next slide) – Palatine process = articulates with palatine bone – Incisive foramen = nerve passageway for nasal mucosa – Premaxillary suture = line that divides primary palate OR premaxilla from secondary palate. • Premaxilla can be clefted as either unilateral or bilateral – Intermaxillary suture = cleft of hard palate follows this suture
3. Nasal bones: small oblong bones, form bridge of nose• Articulate with frontal bone (above), perpendicular plate of ethmoid, and nasal bone from opposite side, and maxilla.
4. Palatine bones: shaped like letter "L― – Contribute to formation of 3 cavities: floor and lateral wall of nasal cavity, roof of mouth (posterior 1/4), floor of orbital cavity – Posterior nasal spine – Horizontal plate = posterior ¼ of hard palate – Orbital process = sm portion of floor of orbital cavity
5. Lacrimal bones – smallest facial bones – form medial walls of orbital cavities
6. Inferior nasal conchae – Inferior nasal conchae (scroll-like) (inferior turbinates): forms part of lateral nasal wall – Note: medial and superior nasal conchae are processes of the ethmoid bone (to be discussed later) – Mucosal lining overlying the nasal conchae is thickest of the nose and is richly invested with vascular supply. – Air is warmed and humidified as passes through the conchae
7. Vomer• Inferior and posterior half of bony septum• Name means plowshare
8. Zygomatic bones OR Malar* bones – forms zygomatic arch (OR cheekbones) with maxilla and temporal bones – Makes up lateral orbit – Processes names for bones with which zygomatic bones articulates – Imp. muscles of articulation and mastication attach to the zygomatic bone.
Treacher Collins syndrome: one feature is hypoplasia ofthe malar (zygomatic bones). Rib cartilages may beused to restructure the cheekbone. Single genesyndrome that is inherited in a dominant pattern.
• http://www.a3bs.com/3d/A291/index.cfm – Outstanding animations of all facial and cranial bones!• http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/sku ll/skulltt.htm – Allows you to click on various bones of the skull and see the name and exact dimensions/location of the bone.• http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/meded/gro ssanatomy/dissector/index.html – Select Head and Neck – Select Muscles – Select muscles discussed in this section – Select Exam – Select Skull Practical – See if you can name the bones and parts discussed in the notes.
• http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html – Select skeletal system • Skull views – Select muscular system • Select a facial muscle and see where it’s located and read the function.• http://www.innerbody.com/anim/nasal.html
1. Ethmoid bone• Extremely complex (2nd only to sphenoid), yet delicate (light weight); filled with air spaces• Projects down from between the orbital plates, dividing nasal cavities (along with vomer bone)• Contributes of walls of orbital and nasal cavities
• http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/nervous_system/ear.html – Scroll down and click on skull structures – Shows CT of head; ethmoid and maxillary sinuses displayed – Can you name all of the bones shown below?
• Ethmoid: parts – A. Cribriform plate = separates cranial from nasal cavities • Forms roof of nasal cavities • Houses olfactory bulbs • Pix below from csuchico website – B. Crista galli = projects upward from cribiform plate • Serves as attachment for falx cerebri – C. Middle and superior nasal conchae – D. Perpendicular plate = projects inferiorly • Superior bony part of nasal septum – E. Orbital plate
2. Frontal bone• Anterior cranial case, forehead, supraorbital region (roof of orbital cavity)• In infancy, frontal bone was divided in two, with the metopic suture separating the halves• KNOW this figure and the bones shown. From: www.upstate.edu/cdb/grossanat/hnskullant.shtml
Frontal bone: Parts – A. Superciliary arches = – B. Glabella = prominence above nasal notch – C. Frontal sinuses = located behind superciliary archesglabella
• 3. Parietal bones• Roof of cranium• Joined by sagittal suture• Separated from occipital bone by lambdoidal suture• Laterally, separated from the temporal bones by the squamosal suture• Superior and inferior temporal lines• Pix from www.upstate.edu/cdb/grossanat/hnskullant.s html
• 4. Occipital bone• Lower and posterior portion of cranium• Parts: – A. Foramen magnum = medulla oblongata passes through (from superior to inferior) and becomes spinal cord – B. Occipital protuberance = external midline projection that is visible from behind – C. Cerebellar fossa (internal structure); houses cerebellum – D. Condyles = articulate with C1 Occipital protuberance
• 5. Temporal bones• Lateral base and sides of cranium• Divided into 4 parts• Parts: – A. Squamous: • zygomatic process (forms part of zygomatic arch • attachment for bulk of masseter muscle (muscle of mastication) • External auditory meatus • Mandibular fossa = forms TMJ with condyle of mandible – B. Mastoid • Attachment for neck muscles – C. Petrous = houses organs of hearing and equilibrium (see internal pix, next slide) – D. Styloid process (freq. missing in specimens); origin for several muscles
• 6. Sphenoid bone• Most complex of cranial bones• Located posterior to ethmoid and anterior to foramen magnum• Likened to bar or butterfly
• Sphenoid: Parts – A. Body or corpus (view superiorly) • Sella turcica (hypophyseal fossa)= houses pituitary gland • Optic nerve passes through body • Sphenoid sinuses located in body (air filled spaces) • Optic chiasm (directly anterior to hypophyseal fossa) located in chiasmatic groove. – B. Lesser and greater wings; comprise part of the orbital cavity – C. Lateral and medial pterygoid plates • Hamulus projects from each medial pterygoid plate; tendon of tensor veli palatini muscle rounds the hamulus as tensor changes direction from superior to horizontal orientation.• http://www.a3bs.com/3d/A291/index.cfm
•Dentition• Function: – Mastication – Surfaces for articulation of speech sounds• Four types of teeth/number in permanent dental arch (mandible or maxilla) – Incisors (cutting) (4) – Cuspids/Canine (tearing) (2) – Bicuspids (two cusps) (4) – Molars (grinders) (6); 3rd molars sometimes called wisdom teeth – Total # of permanent teeth: – Total # of deciduous teeth: – Teeth in the maxilla are larger than those in the mandible. – Maxillary teeth overlap mandibular teeth
• Surface terms – Midline (between central incisors – Buccal (toward cheek) – Distal (away from central incisors) – Lingual (towards tongue) – Medial (towards midline)• Development – Deciduous teeth: • Lose incisors between 6 & 9 • Lose cuspids and molars 9-12 • Lose 2nd molars @ 10 • Teeth not in deciduous arch:• Teeth Anomalies (a few examples) – Supernumerary teeth – Microdontia (teeth smaller than normal)
• Occlusion = alignment of maxillary teeth with mandibular teeth. – Types of occlusion-determined by alignment of 1st molar in each arch. • Class I occlusion: (neutroclusion) cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the buccal groove of the mandibular molar. – Book definition = 1st mandibular molar is ½ tooth advanced as compared to maxillary 1st molar. – Max incisors overlap mandibular by a few millimeters – Considered to be the normal relationship between molars in the arches.
• Class II malocclusion: the 1st mandibular molar is retracted at least one tooth from the 1st maxillary molar• Class III malocclusion: 1st mandibular molar is advanced farther than one tooth from 1st mandibular molar.
• Class I malocclusion:• Other dental anomalies – Overbite—vertical dimension – Overjet—horizontal dimension; refers to front teeth only – Diastema – Crossbite – Closed bite – Supraversion – Infraversion – Speech effects
In little children, the superior labial frenum isoften attached between the two centralteeth. In most cases, this attachment migratesaway from the teeth as the child approaches theage of 8 or 9.
– Pharyngeal cavity » Nasopharynx—space above soft palate (bounded anteriorly by nasal choanae) (choana = funnel) » Association between removal of adenoids and VPI » Oropharynx (bounded anteriorly by fauces/faucial pillars; superiorly by ; inferiorly by hyoid bone » Laryngopharynx (bounded inferiorly by esophagus Pharyngeal tonsil or adenoids Eustachian tube orifice laryngopharynx
• Facial muscles• Facial landmarks: – Cupids bow – Vermilion – Lips: many facial muscles insert into lips • Important for articulation of bilabials and labiodentals philtrum
• Orbicularis oris: principle muscle acting on lips – no origin or insertion – Main function is closing mouth, puckering lips – Many muscles insert into the orbicularis oris
• 2 transverse muscles• Buccinator muscle (transverse) (deep m) (bugler’s muscle) – Principle muscle of cheek – Action: compresses cheek, draws corner of mouth laterally – Masticatory func: keeps foods from slipping out between teeth while tongue works to keep food between grinding surfaces. – #37
• Risorius muscle (transverse) (L risus = laughter) – Runs parallel and superior to buccinator – Action: retracts angle of mouth; – Action: when contracting in conjunction with zygomatic muscle results in smile – #38
• Angular muscles• Zygomatic Minor: – Origin = malar surface of zygomatic bone-- courses downward and medially – Function: elevation of upper lip• Zygomatic Major: – Origin = lateral to zygomatic minor on malar surface of zygomatic bone--inserts into corner of mouth – ACTION = draws corner of mouth up and backward = grinning, smiling Zygomatic minor
• Levator Labii Superior: – Origin = lower border of orbit mainly (some fibers from frontal process of maxilla & some from zygomatic bone). Inserts near median of upper lip. – ACTION = elevator of upper lip & may evert it slightly L labii superior Zygomatic minorrisorius Zygomatic major
• Levator Labaii Superior Alaeque Nasi M.: – origin = frontal process of maxilla & infraorbital margin; courses downward & slightly laterally; 2 insertions = lateral portion of nose & o. oris – ACTION = elevator of upper lip and dilator of nostrils L l superior alaque nasi m
• Depressor Labii Inferior: – origin = oblique line of mandible, inserts into lower lip lateral to midline. – ACTION = depresses lower lip D labii inferior
• Vertical muscles• Mentalis: – origin = mental turberosity; inserts = some fibers insert into contralateral Mentalis, some into skin of chin, some into o. oris. – ACTION = wrinkles chin, everts lower lip mentalis
• Depressor Anguli Oris = – superficial; – origin = oblique line; insertion = corner of mouth; – ACTION = depressor of angle of mouth, compresses lips by pulling upper lip downward onto lower lip D anguli oris
• Levator Anguli Oris = – deep m.; – origin = canine fossa (pit or hollow just lateral to canine eminence); insertion = corner of mouth at upper lip; – ACTION = draws corners of mouth up and medially. L anguli oris
FYIAnatomically, dimples may be caused by variationsin the structure of the facial muscle known aszygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of adouble or bifid zygomaticus major muscle mayexplain the formation of cheek dimples. Thisbifid variation of the muscle originates as a singlestructure from the zygomatic bone. As it travelsanteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundlethat inserts in the typical position above thecorner of the mouth. An inferior bundle insertsbelow the corner of the mouth.
• http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/Topics/FacialMuscles.htm• The above cited website provides a good test of your knowledge about facial muscles.• Tongue• Tongue = biol. func. = taste (complemented by smell), mastication (moves food between teeth for grinding, forms bolus, and propels bolus into pharynx), & deglutition (swallowing)• Most imp and most active articulator• Capable of rapid and subtle movements due to high innervation and complex arrangement of muscle fibers.• All muscles innervated by C XII; hypoglossal cranial nerve
• Regions of tongue: – tip—nearest central incisors – Blade—just below alveolar ridge – Front—below hard palate (dorsum) – Back—below soft palate
• Extrinsic tongue muscles• Function = general movement of tongue1. Genioglossus (pix www.answers.com) • Prime mover of tongue • Comprises bulk of tongue tissue • Strongest and largest of extrinsic muscles • Flat, triangular in shape • Origin at symphysis; fans out; inserts into tip and dorsum of tongue • Function: anterior portion retracts tongue; posterior fibers protrude tongue; together fibers depress tongue
2. Hyoglossus • Origin: hyoid; insertion: sides of tongue • Function: pulls sides of tongue down; retracts and depresses tongue; raises hyoid • I’m considering the chondroglossus m. part of the hyoglossus. Chondro m. arises from lesser cornu
3. Styloglossus • Origin: styloid process of ? ; insertion: inferior sides of tongue • Action: draws tongue back and up • Pix: http://webpages.charter.net/reinerwt/themodel.htm
• 4. palatoglossus – Commonly called anterior faucial pillar – Can be considered as a muscle of tongue or palate – Origin: anterior surface of soft palate; Insertion: sides of tongue – Function: elevates back of tongue, closes oropharyngeal isthmus and aids initiation of swallowing ; depresses soft palate – Motor innervation: C XI: Accessory
• Muscles of mastication• Function = elevate or depress mandible• These muscles are one of the most strongest in the body• http://www.dentalwisdom.com/animationstudio/flashpla yer28.html – View film on TMJElevators1. Masseter • Most superficial muscle of mastication • Origin = zygomatic arch; insertion = ramus of mandible • Action = elevates mandible
2. Temporalis muscle • Fan-shaped muscle • Origin = temporal fossa of temporal and parietal bones • Insertion = coronoid process and ramus • Function = elevates mandible and draws it back if protruded • It is considered a snapping muscle, built for speed (tearing food)
3. Medial (internal) Pterygoid muscle • Origin = pterygoid plate and fossa (sphenoid bone) • Forms mandibular sling with mandible (angle of mandible rests in the sling) • Function = elevates mandible
Protruder4. Lateral (external) Pterygoid muscle • Origin: Has two heads (sphenoid— pterygoid plate and greater wing); insertion = mandible • Function = protrudes mandible
Depressors5. Digastricus • Has anterior and posterior belly, united by central tendon • Posterior belly originates from mastoid process and inserts onto corpus of hyoid bone where it joins with the anterior belly by means of the central tendon. • Anterior belly originates from mandibular symphysis, goes to central tendon, • Function • Anterior = elevates hyoid and pulls it forward; depresses mandible when contracts in conjunction with posterior belly • Posterior = pulls hyoid backward and upward; depresses mandible when contracts with anterior belly
6. Mylohyoid • Origin = mylohyoid line • Insertion = Median raphe and hyoid • Function = depresses mandible • Forms floor of the mouth
7. Geniohyoid • Origin = mental spine on inner aspect of mental symphysis (just superior to mylohyoid m) • Insertion = hyoid bone • Action/Function = assist in elevating larynx or depressing mandible
8. Platysma • Considered a facial muscle (embryologically developed from same primordia from which facial muscles originated) • Covers most of the lateral and anterior regions of neck • Action = mandibular depressor • Go to www.innerbody.com
Muscles of the Velum• Levator veli palatini• Musculus uvulae• Tensor veli palatini• Palatoglossus• Palatopharyngeus• 1. levator veli palatini – Function: elevates and retracts soft palate or velum – Origin = petrous portion of temporal bone and wall of Eustachian tube. – Courses= downward and forward – Inserts into member from other side – Innervation= C XI (accessory) and CX (vagus)
• 2. Musculus uvulae – Paired muscle (sometimes referred to as one muscle) – Function: • Shortens soft palate, creating bunching or bulk on nasal side that aids in velopharygeal closure, • and helps to elevate the soft palate. – Origin: posterior nasal spines of ? and from palatal aponeurosis. – Courses: near midline in soft palate Insertion: near base of uvula (midline pendulous structure) – Bifid uvula occurs in 1/75 people
• 3. Tensor Veli Palatini Origin: sphenoid bone Insertion: converges on tendon; tendon rounds hamulus and attaches to palatine bones and inserts into palatine aponeurosis Function: acts on palatine aponeurosis to produce taut palate--TVP is active during inspiration, producing a taut palate; taut palate is more desirable for unimpeded airflow; A floppy palate would be more prone to make pharyngeal wall contact, esp. in the supine position; opens e. tube permitting press. equalization within middle ear cavity. Innervation: CN V, the trigeminal nerve
• 4. Palatoglossus (anterior faucial pillars) – Origin: anterior surface of soft palate--in most individuals, attachments nearer uvula than rim of hard palate (suggests may have very limited ability to elevate tongue) – Insertion: dorsum and side of tongue – Function: velar lowering, i.e. drawing velum anteriorly; tongue upward and posterior movement, and constriction of anterior faucial pillars (helps propel food bolus); speech function remains unresolved; may be important in terms of opposing gravity (i.e. sleeping in the supine position). The elasticity of the palatoglossus would tend to keep the airway patent without m. contraction. Changes in elastic fibers occur with age, they get more lax. The result may be more mouth breathing and snoring in older individuals.
• 5. Palatopharyngeus (posterior faucial pillars) – Origin: Fan-shaped in soft palate – Insertion: Tapers to termination in posterior border of thyroid cartilage of larynx and into pharynx – Function: Active during orally produced, velum elevated speech sounds (although anatomically situated to lower the velum)-- may function to make subtle adjustments of velar height when velum in elevated state; lowers the velum vertically; decrease distance between faucial pillars (action vigorous during swallowing and gagging). – Innervation: CN XI and X